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HARVARD 
COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 


ACTIVITIES  OF  KU  KLUX  KLAN  ORGANIZATIONS 

IN  THE  UNITED  STATES 

PART  4 


....u  i>t   THE 
•  ATES  GOVERNMENi 


HEARINGS 


BEFORE  THE 


COMMITTEE  ON  UN-AMERICAN  ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE  OF  REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-NINTH  CONGRESS 


SECOND  SESSION 


FEBRUARY  1-fc  AND  7-11,  1966 
(INDEX  IN  SEPARATE  VOLUME) 


Printed  for  the  use  of  the 
Committee  on  Un-American  Activities 


CONTENTS 


February  1,  1966:  Testimony  of—  Page 

Vincent  Travis  Purser 2901 

Deavours  Nix 2904 

Sam  H  olloway  Bowers,  Jr 2908 

Afternoon  session: 

Ernest  S.  Gilbert,  Jr 2942 

Joseph  Carlton  Brown 2951 

February  2,  1966:  Testimony  of— 

John  Emmett  Thornhill,  Sr 2956 

John  Dawson 2982 

February  3,  1966:  Testimony  of— 

Charles  Melvin  Stewart 2994 

Paul  Lafayette  Foster 2998 

Ernest  Buchanan  Parker 3005 

Myron  Wayne  (Jack)  Seale 3009 

Afternoon  session: 

Ernest  Henry  Avants 3016 

Paul  Dewey  Wilson 3019 

Jimmy  Prinston  Wilson 3028 

Murphy  John  Duncan,  Jr 3031 

Emery  Allen  Lee 3037 

L.  C.  Murray 3042 

Edward  Lenox  McDaniel 3044 

February  4,  1966:  Testimony  of — 

Robert  Sidney  Thomas 3058 

Herbert  Thomas 3066 

Ronald  Jefferson  Tidwell 3068 

Rayford  Jackson  Martin 3073 

Wilson  Hood 3076 

Myrtie  Eugene  Stephens 3078 

Herbert  Eugene  Reeves 3084 

February  7,  1966:  Testimony  of — 

James  W.  McCroskey 3092 

Robert  N.  Washington 3  02 

James  R.  Whitefield 3106 

Afternoon  session : 

William  P.  Whitefield,  Jr 3116 

Johnnie  Lee  Burnette 3J2Z 

Donald  Andrew  Smitherman ^|^^ 

Curtis  O'Neil  Doles,  Sr 3129 

Eugene  Curtis  Vann,  Jr ^{^^ 

Sylvester  Trawick 31^^ 

Charles  Jerry  Wilkinson ^|*^ 

Lewis  Edward  Perkins 3l4b 

February  8,  1966:  Testimony  of— 

William  Otto  Perkins l^j^? 

Fredrick  Gerald  Smith '^]^\ 

William  Melvin  Sexton 3W4 

Ralph  Ray  Roton 318/ 

Afternoon  session :  „. 

Ralph  Ray  Roton  (resumed) •^^"'* 

111 


IV  CONTENTS 

February  9,  1966:  Testimony  of —  Page 

Ralph  Ray  Roton  (resumed) 3224 

Robert  Milton  Creel 3240 

Afternoon  session: 

Ralph  Earl  Pryor,  Jr 3265 

Robert  Milton  Creel  (resumed) 3267 

Ralph  Earl  Pryor,  Jr.  (resumed) 3303 

February  10,  1966:  Testimony  of— 

Ralph  Earl  Pryor,  Jr.  (resumed) 3312 

Roy  Everett  Frankhouser,  Jr 3342 

Donald  W.  Swartz 3363 

Bobby  J.  Stephens 3369 

Afternoon  session: 

Bobby  J.  Stephens  (resumed) 3370 

February  11,  1966:  Testimony  of— 

Bobby  J.  Stephens  (resumed) 3410 

Daniel  N.  Wagner 3424 

Afternoon  session: 

VerlinU.  Gilliam 3445 

Jim  Harris 3455 

Robert  W.  Annable 3460 

Parkie  Scott 3468 

Flynn  R.  Harvey 3478 

Index  in  separate  volume. 


Public  Law  601,  79th  Congress 

Tlie  legislation  under  which  the  House  Ckjmmittee  on  Un-American 
Activities  operates  is  Public  Law  601,  79th  Congress  [1946]  ;  60  Stat. 
812,  which  provides : 

Be  it'cnaoted  by  the  Senate  and  House  of  Representatives  of  the  United  States 
of  America  in  Congress  assembled,  *  *  * 

PART   2— RULES    OF    THE    HOUSE    OF    REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule  X 

SEC.    121.    STANDNG   COMMITTEES 
*  ****** 

17.  Gommittee  on  Un-American  Activities,  to  consist  of  nine  Members. 
Rule  XI 

POWERS  AND  DUTIES  OF  COMMITTEES 

»♦♦**«* 

(q)  (1)   Committee  on  Un-American  Activities. 

(A)   Un-American  activities. 

(2)  The  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities,  as  a  whole  or  by  subcom- 
mittee, is  authorized  to  malie  from  time  to  time  investigations  of  (i)  the  extent, 
character,  and  objects  of  un-American  propaganda  activities  in^the  United  States, 
(ii)  the  diffusion  within  the  United  States  of  subversive  and  un-American  propa- 
ganda that  is  instigated  from  foreign  countries  or  of  a  domestic  origin  and  at- 
tacks the  principle  of  the  form  of  government  as  guaranteed  by  our  Constitution, 
and  (iii)  all  other  questions  in  relation  thereto  that  would  aid  Congress  in  any 
necessary  remedial  legislation. 

The  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  shall  report  to  the  House  (or  to 
the  Clerk  of  the  House  if  the  House  is  not  in  session)  the  results  of  any  such 
investigation,  together  with  such  recommendations  as  it  deems  advisable. 

For  the  purpose  of  anj  such  investigation,  the  Committee  on  Un-American 
Activities,  or  any  subcommittee  thereof,  is  authorized  to  sit  and  act  at  such 
times  and  places  within  the  United  States,  whether  or  not  the  House  is  sitting, 
has  recessed,  or  has  adjourned,  to  hold  such  hearings,  to  require  the  attendance 
of  such  witnesses  and  the  production  of  such  books,  papers,  and  documents,  and 
to  take  such  testimony,  as  it  deems  necessary.  Subpenas  may  be  issued  under 
the  signature  of  the  chairman  of  the  committee  or  any  subcommittee,  or  by  any 
member  designated  by  any  such  chairman,  and  may  be  served  by  any  person 
designated  by  any  such  chairman  or  member. 


Rule  XII 

LEGISLATIVE   OVERSIGHT    BY    STANDING   COMMITTE^ES 

Sec  136.  To  assist  the  Congress  in  appraising  the  administration  of  the  laws 
and  in  developing  such  amendments  or  related  legislation  as  it  may  deem  neces- 
sary, each  standing  committee  of  the  Senate  and  the  House  of  Representatives 
shall  exercise  continuous  watchfulness  of  the  execution  by  the  administrative 
agencies  concerned  of  any  laws,  the  subject  matter  of  which  is  within  the  juris- 
diction of  such  committee;  and,  for  that  purpose,  shall  study  all  pertinent 
reports  and  data  submitted  to  the  Congress  by  the  agencies  in  the  executive 
branch  of  the  Government. 

v 


VI 


RULES  ADOPTED  BY  THE  89TH  CONGRESS 
House  Resolution  8,  January  4,  1965 

*  if  *  *  *  *  * 

Rule  X 

STANDING   COMMITTEES 

1.  There  shall  be  elected  by  the  House,  at  the  commencement  of  each  Congress, 

*«****♦ 

(r)   Committee  on  Un-American  Activities,  to  consist  of  nine  Members. 
******* 

Rule  XI 

POWERS    AND   DUTIES   OF   COMMITTEES 


18.  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities. 

(a)  Un-American  activities. 

(b)  The  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities,  as  a  whole  or  by  subcom- 
mittee, is  authorized  to  make  from  time  to  time  investigations  of  (1)  the 
extent,  character,  and  objects  of  un-American  propaganda  activities  in  the 
United  States,  (2)  the  diffusion  within  the  United  States  of  subversive  and 
un-American  propaganda  that  is  instigated  from  foreign  countries  or  of  a  do- 
mestic origin  and  attacks  the  principle  of  the  form  of  government  as  guaranteed 
by  our  Constitution,  and  (3)  all  other  questions  in  relation  thereto  that  would 
aid  Congress  in  any  necessary  remedial  legislation. 

The  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  shall  report  to  the  House  (or  to 
the  Clerk  of  the  House  if  the  House  is  not  in  .session)  the  results  of  any  such 
investigation,  together  with  such  recommendations  as  it  deems  advisable. 

For  the  purpose  of  any  such  investigation,  the  Committee  on  Un-American 
Activities,  or  any  subcommittee  thereof,  is  authorized  to  sit  and  act  at  such 
times  and  places  within  the  United  States,  whether  or  not  the  House  is  sitting, 
has  recessed,  or  has  adjourned,  to  hold  such  hearings,  to  require  the  attendance  of 
such  witnesses  and  the  production  of  .such  books,  papers,  and  documents,  and 
to  take  such  testimony,  as  it  deems  necessary.  Subpenas  may  be  issued  under 
the  signature  of  the  chairman  of  the  committee  or  any  subcommittee,  or  by  any 
member  designated  by  any  such  chairman,  and  may  be  served  by  any  person 
designated  by  any  such  chairman  or  member. 


27.  To  assist  the  House  in  appraising  the  administration  of  the  laws  and  in 
developing  such  amendments  or  related  legislation  as  it  may  deem  necessary, 
each  standing  committee  of  the  House  shall  exercise  continuous  watchfulness 
of  the  execution  by  the  administrative  agencies  concerned  of  any  laws,  the  sub- 
ject matter  of  which  is  within  the  juri.sdiction  of  such  committee ;  and,  for  that 
purpose,  shall  .study  all  pertinent  reports  and  data  submitted  to  the  House  by 
the  agencies  in  the  executive  branch  of  the  Government. 


ACTIVITIES  OF  KU  KLUX  KLAN  ORGANIZATIONS 
IN  THE  UNITED  STATES 

Part  4 


TUESDAY,  FEBRUARY  1,  1966 

United  States  House  of  Representatives, 

Subcommittee  of  the 
Committee  on  Un-American  Activities, 

Washington,  D.C. 
public  hearings 

The  subcommittee  of  the  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities,  as 
reconstituted  for  the  February  1  hearings,  met,  pursuant  to  recess, 
at  10:30  a.m.  in  the  Caucus  Room,  Cannon  House  Office  Building, 
Washington,  D.C,  Hon.  Edwin  E.  Willis  (chairman)  presiding. 

(Subcommittee  members:  Representatives  Edwin  E.  Willis,  of  Lou- 
isiana, chairman;  Joe  R.  Pool,  of  Texas;  and  John  H.  Buchanan,  Jr., 
of  Alabama.) 

Subcommittee  members  present:  Representatives  Willis  and 
Buchanan. 

Staff  members  present:  Francis  J.  McNamara,  director;  William 
Hitz,  general  counsel ;  Alfred  M.  Nittle,  counsel ;  Donald  T.  Appell, 
chief  investigator;  and  Philip  R,  Manuel,  investigator. 

The  Chairman.  The  subcommittee  will  come  to  order. 

As  chairman  of  the  full  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities,  I 
hereby  constitute  for  the  purposes  of  today's  hearing  a  special  sub- 
committee of  three,  composed  of  the  following:  myself  as  chairman, 
Mr.  Buchanan,  and  Mr.  Pool.  That  means  that  two  will  constitute  a 
quorum. 

Mr.  Appell,  call  your  first  witness. 

Mr.  Appell.  Vincent  Travis  Purser. 

The  Chairman.  Please  raise  your  right  hand.  Do  you  solemnly 
swear  that  the  testimony  you  are  about  to  give  will  be  the  truth,  the 
whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth,  so  help  you  God  ? 

Mr.  Purser.  I  do. 

TESTIMONY  OF  VINCENT  TRAVIS  PURSER,  ACCOMPANIED  BY 
COUNSEL,  CHARLES  0.  BLACKWELL  AND  TRAVIS  BUCKLEY 

Mr.  Appell.  Would  you  state  your  full  name  for  the  record  ? 
Mr.  Purser.  Vincent  Tra\ds  Purser. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  appearing  here  today,  Mr.  Purser,  in  accord- 
ance with  a  subpena 

Mr.  Purser.  Yes,  sir. 

2901 


2902  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  — which  was  delivered  to  your  residence  at  4  p.m.,  the 
29th  day  of  December  1965  at  Route  1,  Box  250,  Duckworth  Road, 
Gulf  port.  Miss.  ? 

Mr.  Purser.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  represented  by  counsel  ? 

Mr.  Purser.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  counsel  please  indentify  themselves  for  the 
record  ? 

Mr.  Blackwell.  Charles  G.  Blackwell,  attorney  at  law,  Laurel, 
Mississippi. 

Mr.  Buckley.  Travis  Buckley,  attorney  at  law.  Bay  Springs, 
Mississippi. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Purser,  when  and  where  were  you  born  ? 

Mr.  Purser.  I  was  born  December  8,  1905,  Hazlehurst,  Mississippi. 

Mr.  Appell,  Would  you  give  the  committee  a  brief  resume  of  your 
educational  background  ? 

Mr.  Purser.  I  finished  high  school  at  Copiah-Lincoln  Agricultural 
High  School,  western  Mississippi,  in  1923,  and  I  had  a  business  course 
and  I  took  a  correspondence  course  with  LaSalle  Extension  University. 

Mr.  Appell.  What  period  of  time  have  you  served  in  the  military  ? 

Mr.  Purser.  I  served  from,  I  believe  it  was,  October  1942  through 
September  1945.  I  was  discharged  and  went  back  in,  was  out  about 
4  months  during  World  War  II. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  have  a  period  of  service  1925  to  1926  ? 

Mr.  Purser.  Yes,  I  did.    I  had  forgotten  about  that.     About  a  year. 

Mr.  Appell.  Would  you  give  the  committee  the  benefit  of  your  em- 
ployment background  from  i960  ? 

Mr.  Purser.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  and 
invoke  as  a  defense  the  privileges  guaranteed  to  me  by  the  5th,  1st, 
and  14th  amendment  to  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of 
America. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  1962  did  you  retire  as  an  employee  of  Sears,  Roe- 
buck and  Company  ? 

Mr.  Purser.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  From  the  period  1962  to  date,  did  you  receive  income 
from  an  organization  known  as  the  White  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux 
Klan  of  Mississippi  ? 

Mr.  Purser.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  familiar  with  an  attorney  in  Gulf  port,  Missis- 
sippi, by  the  name  of  Knox  Walker  ? 

Mr.  Purser.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr,  Appell.  Did  you  and  a  group  of  Klansmen  on  approximately 
November  8,  1965,  call  Knox  Walker  in  the  early  hours  of  the  morning 
around  2 :30  and  advise  him  that  his  boat  had  been  cut  loose  and 

Mr.  Purser.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated 

Mr,  Appell.  All  right;  answer  that,  I  will  break  it  down  and  stop 
there. 

Mr.  Purser.  For  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully  de- 
cline to  answer  that  question. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2903 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you,  when  Mr.  Walker  amved  at  where  his  boat 
was  docked,  meet  him,  together  with  four  or  five  other  men  dressed  in 
Klan  robes  and  advise  him  he  was  a  "nigger  lawyer"  and  he  ought 
to  leave  the  area  ? 

Mr.  Purser.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Do  you  currently  handle  funds  of  the  White  Knights  of 
the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Mississippi  ? 

Mr.  Purser.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Within  the  recent  2  months  have  two  Klaverns  of 
the  United  Klans  of  America  transferred  their  membership  to  the 
White  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  in  the  Gulf  port-Pascagoula  area  ? 

Mr.  Purser.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  1  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  in  view  of  the  witness'  claimed  privilege 
and  his  consistent  refusal  to  answer  questions,  I  present  to  the  commit- 
tee the  results  of  our  investigation  as  they  pertain  to  Mr.  Travis 
Purser.  Mr,  Purser  was  born  on  December  8,  1905,  at  Hazlehurst, 
Mississippi.  Military  sei*vice  in  the  Army  from  July  17,  1925,  to 
November  10,  1926,  from  October  17,  1942,  to  April  23,  1943,  and 
from  November  4,  1943,  to  September  5,  1945.  He  is  a  retired  em- 
ployee from  Sears,  Roebuck  Company,  from  which  employment  he 
retired  in  1962.  Mr.  Purser  joined  the  White  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux 
Klan  of  Mississippi  at  Gulfport,  Mississippi,  in  1964.  Beginning  in 
February  1965,  he  began  attending  State  meetings  of  the  White  Knights 
of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan.  On  May  2, 1965,  he  attended  a  State  meeting  in 
Pearl  River  County,  Mississippi,  at  which  meeting  it  was  noted  that 
members  of  the  White  Knights  would  henceforth  pay  65  cents  per  man 
to  the  State  treasury  plus  his  local  Klavern  dues.  In  addition,  each 
bursar  or  treasurer  was  authorized  to  retain  funds  for  emergency  ex- 
penditures. Cash  on  hand  was  reported  by  each  district,  with  Tommy 
Brock  reporting  $2,100;  Vincent  Purser  $800;  Dewitt  Sandifer  $350; 
Billy  Buckles  advising  that  Julius  Harper,  the  Grand  Dragon,  had 
$400,  and  the  Greenwood,  Mississippi,  Unit  of  the  Wliite  Knights 
$1,000. 

On  May  16,  1965,  Imperial  Wizard  Bowers  appointed  Klansman 
Dillard  as  "Coordinator"  for  the  Pearl  River  County  area  of  the  White 
Knights  at  the  request  of  Vincent  T.  Purser.  At  meetings  of  Klaverns 
in  the  Gulfport.  area,  Klansmen  received  instruction  in  judo,  received 
instruction  in  Molotov  cocktails,  and  the  use  of  syringe  bottles  filled 
with  ammonia. 

On  September  29,  1964,  Purser  and  Ernest  Gilbert,  then  the  grand 
director  of  the  Klan  Bureau  of  Investigation,  White  Knights  of  Ku 
Klux  Klan  of  Mississippi,  requested  the  State  organization  of  the 
White  Knights  through  Grand  Dragon  Julius  Harper  to  either  burn 
or  stinkbomb  the  Mennonite  School  for  Wayward  Girls  because  it  was 
being  used  by  the  COFO  organization  for  a  headquarters.  On  ap- 
proximately "November  8,  1965,  Knox  Walker,  a  Gulfport  attorney 
who  had  represented  NAACP  and  certain  Gulfport  Negroes,  received 
an  anonymous  telephone  call  and  was  advised  that  his  boat  had  been 
cut  loose.  When  he  arrived  at  the  place  where  the  boat  was  tied 
he  found  four  or  five  men  in  Klan  robes,  with  Vincent  T.  Purser  acting 


2904  ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S. 

as  the  leader.  Purser  told  Walker  he  was  a  "nigger  lawyer"  and  he 
had  better  leave  the  area. 

Tw^o  United  Klans  of  American  Klaverns  have  recently  transferred 
to  the  White  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  in  the  Gulfport-Pascagoula 
area. 

Mr.  Chairman,  this  information  indicates  that  Mr.  Purser  possesses 
additional  information  which  is  both  pertinent  and  relevant  to  this 
inquiry  and  would  materially  aid  the  CJongress  in  the  enactment  of 
remedial  legislation. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Purser,  you  have  heard  the  sworn  statement 
of  the  committee's  investigator.  You  now  have  the  opportunity  to 
reply  to  any  portion  of  that  statement,  confirm  or  challenge  the 
accuracy  of  the  information,  or  explain  any  part  of  it.  In  addition, 
you  may,  if  you  desire,  offer  any  matters  the  committee  may  deem 
relevant  to  this  inquiry.  Do  you  care  to  avail  yourself  of  this 
opportunity  ? 

Mr.  Purser.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

The  Chairman.  Then,  sir,  I  must  inform  you  that,  in  the  absence  of 
a  rebuttal  from  you  or  other  facts  that  may  come  to  the  attention  of 
the  committee,  this  committee  will  rely  upon  the  accuracy  of  its 
investigation.     Bearing  this  in  mind,  do  you  have  anything  to  stay? 

Mr.  Purser.  No,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  You  don't  ? 

Mr.  Purser.  No,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  Is  that  all,  Mr.  Appell  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  The  staff  has  no  further  questions  to  ask  of  this  witness. 

The  Chairman.  The  witness  is  excused.     Call  the  next  witness. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  would  like  to  call  Mr.  Deavours  Nix. 

The  Chairman.  Raise  your  right  hand.  Do  you  solemnly  swear 
the  testimony  you  are  about  to  give  will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth, 
and  nothing  but  the  truth,  so  help  you  God  ? 

Mr.  Nix.  I  do. 

TESTIMONY  OF  DEAVOURS  NIX,  ACCOMPANIED  BY  COUNSEL, 
CHARLES  G.  BLACKWELL  AND  TRAVIS  BUCKLEY 

Mr.  Appell.  State  your  full  name  for  the  record. 

Mr.  Nix.  Deavours  Nix. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  appearing  here  in  accordance  with  subpena 
served  upon  you  at  116  Teresa  Street,  Laurel,  Mississippi,  on  the  29th 
day  of  November  1965  by  John  D.  Sullivan,  investigator  of  this 
committee  ? 

Mr.  Nix.  That  is  correct. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  represented  by  counsel  ? 

Mr.  Nix.  I  am. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  counsel  please  identify  themselves  for  the  record  ? 

Mr.  Blackwell.  Charles  G.  Blackwell,  attorney  at  law.  Laurel, 
Mississippi. 

Mr.  Buckley.  Travis  Buckley,  Bay  Springs,  Mississippi. 

Mr.  Appell.  Wlien  and  where  were  you  born,  Mr.  Nix  ? 

Mr.  Nix.  I  was  bom  in  Jones  County,  Mississippi,  November  30, 
1925. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2905 

Mr.  Appell.  Would  you  give  the  committee  a  brief  resume  of  your 
educational  background  ? 

Mr.  Nix.  I  finished  the  eighth  grade,  Calhoun  High  School,  Jones 
County,  Mississippi,  then  entered  the  service  October  3,  1941.  Upon 
being  discharged  February  5, 1947, 1  attended  GI  school,  the  same  Cal- 
houn High  School,  and  lacked  three  units  of  finishing  high  school. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Nix,  while  a  member  of  the  service,  what  branch 
of  the  service  were  you  in  ? 

Mr.  Nix.  The  United  States  Navy. 

Mr.  Appell.  During  your  period  of  service  in  the  United  States 
Navy,  were  you  subject  to    several  courts-martial^ 

Mr.  Nix.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  and  in- 
voke as  a  defense  the  privileges  guaranteed  me  by  the  5th,  1st,  and  14th 
amendment  to  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  ask  that  the  witness  be  directed  to 
answer  that  question.  He  admitted  he  was  in  the  service  and  gave  the 
periods  of  enlistment. 

The  Chairman.  I  am  not  going  to  direct  him  to  answer  that  ques- 
tion.   I  don't  think  it  would  add  materially  to  the  record. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Nix,  will  you  give  the  committee  a  resume  of  your 
employment  background  from  1960  ? 

Mr.  Buckley.  From  1960  forward  or  back  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  Forward. 

Mr.  Nix.  Beginning  the  year  1960,  I  was  working  for  a  drilling 
contractor  by  the  name  of  Gulf  Coast  Drilling  and  Exploration, 
Laurel,  Mississippi.  The  year  1962  I  went  in  business  for  myself  in 
a  place  by  the  name  of  Nub's  Steak  House,  Laurel,  Mississippi.  I  was 
a  failure  in  that  business  so  far  as  making  a  living  is  concerned.  From 
there  I  went  to  Los  Angeles,  California,  was  employed  by  Southern 
California  Heat  Treat  as  salesman  and  general  manager  for  a  period 
of  17  months,  returned  to  Laurel,  Mississippi,  and  now  I  am  self-em- 
ployed, John's  Kestaurant. 

The  Chairman.  What  town  ? 

Mr.  Nix.  Laurel,  Mississippi. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  addition  to  the  employment  that  you  have  enumer- 
ated, have  you  had  any  other  sources  of  income  ? 

Mr.  Nix.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Wliat  are  the  other  sources  of  income  you  have  had, 
sir? 

Mr.  Nix.  If  you  call  it  income,  I  received  some  money  from  insur- 
ance companies  at  different  times. 

Tlie  Chairman.  For  injury? 

Mr.  Nix.  Accident. 

Mr.  Appell.  Recovery  of  claims  ? 

Mr.  Nix.  Right. 

Mr.  Appell.  Do  you  have  any  other  source  of  income  ? 

Mr.  Nix.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Do  you  receive  any  compensation  from  an  organiza- 
tion known  as  the  White  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Mississippi  ? 

Mr.'  Nix.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Do  you  know  Sam  H.  Bowers  ? 

Mr.  Nix.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  and  in- 
voke as  a  defense  the  privileges  guaranteed  to  me  by  the  5th,  1st,  and 
14th  amendment  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 


2906  ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  On  June  27,  1965,  were  you  elected  to  the  position  of 
grand  director,  Klan  Bureau  of  Investigation,  White  Knights  of  the 
Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Mississippi  ? 

Mr.  Nix.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully  declinje 
to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Nix,  a  review  of  an  arrest  record  involving  yourself 
reflects  that  on  September  2,  1962,  May  19,  1964,  July  13,  1965,  and 
August  14,  1965,  you  were  arrested  on  charges  of  assault.  The  last 
two  arrests  were  after  you  were  elected  to  the  position  of  grand 
director,  Klan  Bureau  of  Investigation,  Wliite  Knights  of  the  Ku 
Klux  Klan  of  Mississippi.  Were  the  acts  for  which  you  were  arrested 
acts  carried  out  in  your  position  as  grand  director  of  the  Klan  Bureau 
of  Investigation  ? 

Mr.  Nix.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully  decline 
to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  confirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  that  at  a  meeting  on  June  27,  1965,  near  Greenwood,  Missis- 
sippi you  were  elected  grand  director  of  the  Klan  Bureau  of  Investiga- 
tion, Wliite  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Mississippi  ? 

Mr.  Nix,  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  1  respectfully  decline 
to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  that  at  that  same  meeting  instructions  were  issued  to  the 
34  Klavems  represented  at  that  meeting  that  each  Klavern  should  bum 
two  crosses  on  July  1, 1965  ? 

Mr.  Nix,  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully  decline 
to  answer  that  question, 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  that  at  a  meeting  held  on  Jul^  18,  1965,  south  of  Jackson, 
Mississippi,  Imperial  Wizard  Bowers  claimed  that  the  White  Knights 
were  responsible  for  over  16  burnings  of  buildings  in  Laurel, 
Mississippi, 

Mr.  Nix.  For  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully  decline 
to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell,  As  the  grand  director  of  the  Klan  Bureau  of  Investi- 
gation, what  role  did  you  play  in  any  of  these  burnings? 

Mr,  Nix,  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully  de- 
cline to  answer  that  question, 

Mr.  Appell,  Mr.  Nix,  have  you  filed  charges  against  agents  of  the 
Federal  Bureau  of  Investigation,  claiming  they  used  profanity  in 
questioning  you  ? 

The  CHAiRMAisr.  What  was  that  question  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  If  he  has  filed  charges  against  agents  of  the  Federal 
Bureau  of  Investigation,  charging  that  they  used  profanity  in  ques- 
tioning Mr,  Nix, 

Mr,  Nix,  Sir,  for  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully  decline  to 
answer  that  question. 

Mr,  Appell.  Is  it  your  claim  that  the  agents  of  the  FBI  have  called 
you  a  yellow-bellied  Klansman  ? 

Mr.  Nix,  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully  de- 
cline to  answer  that  question, 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  in  view  of  the  witness'  claimed  privi- 
lege and  his  consistent  refusal  to  answer  questions,  I  present  to  the 
committee  the  results  of  our  investigation  as  they  pertain  to  Mr,  Nix, 


ACTIVITIES  OF  KU  KLUX  KLAN  IN  THE  U.S.       2907 

Mr.  Nix  is  the  grand  director  of  the  Klan  Bureau  of  Investigation. 
White  Knights  of  Ku  Khix  Klan,  Mississippi :  is  responsible  for  the 
gathering  of  intelligence  information  upon  which  Klan  projects  are 
carried  out  on  the  State  level,  or  which  must  have  the  approval  of  the 
Imperial  Wizard  before  they  may  be  executed.  Deavours  Nix,  the 
owner  of  John's  Restaurant  m  Laurel,  Mississippi,  conducts  business 
of  the  White  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  in  his  restaurant.  He 
was  elected  grand  director  of  the  Klan  Bureau  of  Investigation  at  a 
State  meeting  held  near  Greenwood,  Mississippi,  on  June  27,  1965,  at 
which  representatives  of  34  White  Knights  Klavems  were  present. 
During  this  meeting,  instructions  were  given  to  the  representatives  of 
these  Klavems  that  each  Klavern  should  burn  two  crosses  on  July  1, 
1965.  Five  hundred  dollars  was  voted  for  the  Klansman  in  Bogalusa, 
Louisiana,  who  was  arrested  for  killing  one  and  wounding  a  second 
Negro  deputy  sheriff.  One  July  11,  1965,  Nix  attended  a  meeting  at 
King  Edward's  Hotel  in  Jackson,  Mississippi.  At  this  meeting  Im- 
perial Wizard  Bowers  instructed  that  a  job  or  project  be  carried  out 
in  each  province  in  order  to  spread  agents  of  the  FBI  real  thin  over 
the  State. 

The  Chairman.  In  order  to  do  what  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  To  spread  the  agents  of  the  FBI  real  thin  over  the 
State. 

Bowers  reported  that  Billy  Birdsong  had  been  beaten  because  he  had 
given  Bowers  more  trouble  than  any  other  Klansman. 

On  July  18,  1965,  at  a  meeting  south  of  Jackson,  Mississippi 

The  Chairman.  Who  reported  that  Birdsong  had  been  beaten? 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Bowers,  the  Imperial  Wizard. 

On  July  18,  1965,  at  the  meetnig  south  of  Jackson,  Mississippi, 
Deavours  Nix  shook  everyone  down  for  "bugs''  or  electronic  devices. 
Bowers  referred  to  Laurel,  Mississippi,  as  the  "smokestack  city," 
claiming  that  the  White  Knights  were  responsible  for  over  16  burn- 
ings of  Laurel  buildings. 

This  information,  Mr.  Chairman,  indicates  that  Mr.  Nix  possesses 
additional  information  which  is  both  pertinent  and  material  to  this 
inquiry  and  would  materially  aid  the  Congress  in  enacting  remedial 
legislation. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Nix,  you  have  heard  the  sworn  statement  of 
Mr.  Appell,  the  committee's  chief  investigator.  You  now  have  the 
opportunity  to  reply  to  any  portion  of  that  statement,  to  challenge 
or  confirm  the  accuracy  of  the  information,  or  to  explain  any  part  of 
the  statement.  In  addition,  you  may,  if  you  desire,  offer  any  other 
matter  the  committee  may  deem  relevant  to  this  inquiry.  Do  you  care 
to  avail  yourself  of  this  opportunity  ? 

Mr.  Nix,  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully  de- 
cline to  answer  that  question. 

The  Chairman.  I  tell  you,  then,  Mr.  Nix,  that  absent  your  rebuttal 
or  other  facts  that  may  come  to  the  attention  of  the  committee,  this 
committee  will  rely  upon  the  accuracy  of  its  investigation.  In  view 
of  this,  do  you  care  to  say  anything? 

Mr.  Nix.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  The  staff  has  no  further  questions  of  this  witness,  Mr 
Chairman. 

The  Chairman.  The  witness  is  excused.     Call  your  next  witness. 


2908  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  Sam  Holloway  Bowers,  Jr.  ■ 

The  Chairman.  Please  raise  your  right  hand.     Do  you  solemnly  I 

swear  the  testimony  you  are  about  to  give  will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  I 

truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth,  so  help  you  God  ?  I 

Mr.  Bowers.  I  do,  sir.  i 

TESTIMONY  OF  SAM  HOLLOWAY  BOWERS,  JR.,  ACCOMPANIED  BY 
COUNSEL,  CHARLES  G.  BLACKWELL  AND  TRAVIS  BUCKLEY 

Mr.  Appell.  Be  seated,  Mr.  Bowers.  Will  you  state  your  full  name 
for  the  record  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sam  H.  Bowers,  Jr. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  appearing  here  today  in  accordance  with  the 
subpena  served  upon  you  at  12 :20  o'clock  a.m.,  the  26th  da;;^  of  Octo- 
ber 1965  by  John  D.  Sullivan,  an  investigator  for  this  committee? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  represented  by  counsel  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  counsel  identify  themselves  for  the  record  ? 

Mr.  Blackwell.  Charles  G.  Blackwell,  attorney  at  law.  Laurel, 
Mississippi. 

Mr.  Buckley.  Travis  Buckley,  Bay  Springs,  Mississippi. 

Mr.  Appell.  When  and  where  were  you  bom,  Mr.  Bowers  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  and 
invoke  as  a  defense  the  privileges  guaranteed  to  me  by  the  5th,  1st,  and 
6th  amendments  to  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

The  Chairman.  I  order  and  direct  you  to  answer  that  question.  I 
can't  imagine  any  reason  to  decline  answering  that  question.  It  is 
preliminary  and  it  is  usual,  and  I  order  and  direct  you  to  answer  it. 

Mr.  Bowers.  Yes,  sir,  Mr.  Chairman.  In  answer  to  that  question, 
I  will  say  that  I  was  bom  on  the  6th  day  of  August  1924  in  the  city  of 
New  Orleans,  Louisiana. 

The  Chairman.  New  Orleans? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  you  give  the  committee  a  brief  resume  of  your 
educational  background  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  and 
invoke  as  a  defense  the  privileges  guaranteed  to  me  by  the  5th,  1st  and 
6th  amendments  to  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

Mr.  Appell.  Give  the  committee  a  brief  resume  of  your  emplo3mient 
background. 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Do  you  know  Robert  H.  Larson  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  co-owner  with  Mr.  Robert  H.  Larson  of  the 
Sambo  Amusement  Company  and  the  Magnolia  Consolidated  Realty 
Company  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

The  Chairman.  We  have  had  evidence  to  that  effect.  So  put  it  to 
him  as  a  fact. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2909 

Mr.  Appell.  I  say  to  you,  Mr.  Bowers,  that  Mr.  Larson  appeared 
before  the  committee  on  January  10, 1966,  and  testified  under  oath  that 
you  and  he  were  co-owners  of  the  companies  that  I  mentioned  to  you. 
Is  his  testimony  before  the  committee  truthful  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  the  question. 

The  Chairman.  What  is  the  name  of  the  company  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  The  Sambo  Amusement  Company. 

The  Chairman.  They  operate,  among  other  things,  what  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  Pinball  machines  and  vending  machines  of  various 
types. 

The  Chairman.  Wliat  is  your  information  as  to  the  system  of  op- 
eration of  these  machines,  as  to  whether  either  above  or  under  the 
counter  they  do  or  are  capable  of  paying  off,  or  can  the  players  demand 
from  the  house  cash  money  or  coin  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  pinball  machines  operate  whereby 
a  player,  if  he  obtains  a  certain  score,  is  given  what  is  recorded  on  the 
machine  as  a  free  play.  However,  as  these  free  plays  accumulate, 
the  proprietor  in  whose  store  the  machine  is  located  will  pay  the 
player  in  cash  for  the  number  of  games  recorded  at  the  rate  of  5  cents 
per  game.  This  money  is  then  deducted  from  the  take  of  the  machine, 
and  the  proprietor  and  Mr.  Larson  and  Mr.  Bowers  split  that  which 
is  left  over. 

The  Chairman.  Do  you  know  whether  under  Federal  law  some 
kind  of  stamp  tax  payment  is  due,  either  payable  out  of  general  opera- 
tions per  machine  or  in  any  other  fashion  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  Under  Federal  law,  Mr.  Chairman — and  I  am  not  too 
familiar  with  the  exact  requirements  of  that  law— machines  which 
are  pinball  or  slot  machines  which  are  used  for  gambling  purposes, 
the  owners  of  the  machine  are  required  to  purchase  Federal  gambling 
tax  stamps.     I  think  the  rate  is  $50  per  machine. 

The  Chairman.  Do  you  pay  any  such  stamp,  Mr.  Bowers  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

The  Chairman.  Have  your  operations  ever  been  checked  by  Federal 
agents  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

The  Chairman.  My  recollection  is  that  one  of  the  requisites  of  join- 
ing the  Klan  within  your  realm  is  you  must  be  sober,  nongamblers, 
and  all  the  rest  of  it.     Is  that  right  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Bowers,  in  the  operation  of  the  Sambo  Amusement 
Company,  do  you  have  vending  machines  and  pinball  machines  in 
establishments  owned  or  operated  by  Negroes  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  connection  with  the  operation  of  the  Magnolia 
Consolidated  Realty  Company,  do  you  own  restaurants  which  are 
leased  to  Negroes  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 


2910  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  Have  any  attacks  ever  been  made  on  the  establishments 
you  own  by  members  of  the  White  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of 
Mississippi  by  either  bombings  or  burnings  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

The  Chairman.  Were  you  aware  of  the  fact  your  grand  director  of 
the  Klan  Bureau  of  Investigation  had  told  a  certain  lawyer  that  be- 
cause he  represented  colored  people  that  he  should  get  out  of  town,  or 
words  to  that  effect  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

The  Chairman.  From  the  questions  that  Mr.  Appell  has  asked, 
it  would  seem  that  you  yourself  were  not  so  selective  of  your  cus- 
tomers. I  make  that  as  an  observation.  I  suppose  the  information 
sought  to  be  solicited  by  Mr.  Appell  is  correct. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Bowers,  the  subpena  served  upon  you  contains  as 
an  attachment  which  was  made  a  part  of  the  subpena  a  listing  of 
documents  which,  under  the  terms  of  the  subpena,  you  were  com- 
manded to  bring  with  you  and  to  produce  before  the  committee. 

One  calls  for  you  to  produce : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  relating  to 
the  organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  business  and  affairs  of  the  White 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Mississippi,  and  aflBliated  organizations, 
namely,  The  White  Christian  Protective  and  Legal  Defense  Fund  and  the 
Mississippi  Constitutional  Council,  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control,  or 
maintained  by  you  or  available  to  you  as  the  present  or  former  Imperial  Wizard 
of  the  White  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Mississippi. 

I  request  you  to  produce  in  your  representative  capacity  stated 
therein  the  documents  called  for  in  part  1  of  your  subpena. 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  I  could  not  produce  such  records  as  were  ordered 
by  the  subpena  issued  to  me,  due  to  the  fact  that  such  records  are  not 
in  my  possession,  custody,  or  control  and  I  did  not  and  do  not  have 
access  to  such  records. 

The  Chairman.  Have  you  ever  had  access  to  any  Klan  records  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

The  Chairman.  Did  you  do  away  with  any  of  the  Klan  records, 
such  as  destroying  them,  hiding  them,  passing  them  on  to  third 
parties,  or  any  other  circumstances  of  doing  away  with  the  records, 
getting  them  out  of  your  possession  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

The  Chairman.  Your  own  constitution  and  bylaws  require  some 
records  to  be  kept.  Do  you  mean  to  say  you  never  saw  any  records, 
had  possession  of  any  records  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

The  Chairman.  Where  are  those  records  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Bowers,  prior  to  January  1,  1965,  did  you  have  in 
your  possession,  custody,  or  control  documents  of  the  White  Knights 
of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Mississippi  ? 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2911 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  ans^Yer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  On  P"ebruai"y  1,  1965,  did  you  have  in  your  possession, 
custody,  or  control,  in  your  representative  capacity  as  Imperial 
Wizard,  documents  of  the  White  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of 
Mississippi  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  ask  you  the  same  question  with  respect  to  March  1. 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

The  Chairman.  And  what  are  those  reasons  previously  stated  that 
you  have  repeated  10  or  more  times  here  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  that  reason  previously  stated,  and  I  quote,  is: 
"Sir,  I  respectiully  decline  to  answer  that  question  and  invoke  as  a 
defense  the  privileges  guaranteed  to  me  by  the  5th,  1st,  and  6th 
amendment  to  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America." 

The  Chairman.  This  subpena  has  been  served  upon  you  in  your 
capacity  of  top  leadership  and  not  necessarily  or  in  fact  as  an  indi- 
vidual, Sam  H.  Bowers,  I  want  to  tell  you  that  we  don't  reco^gnize 
your  invocation  of  refusal  to  produce  those  documents.  It  is  in- 
credible, inconceivable,  outlandish  that  you  can  say  you  do  not  now 
have,  and  never  have,  don't  know  of  any  records  mvolving  klanism 
within  your  realm.  I  suppose  the  documents  will  be  offered,  the 
records  which  you  obviously  handled  yourself,  or  directives  that  you 
personally  issued.  Is  that  correct,  Mr.  Appell,  the  documents  you 
refer  to  ? 

Mr,  Appell.  The  investigation  will  produce,  Mr.  Chairman,  docu- 
ments that  were  either  prepared  by,  or  distributed  under,  the  direction 
of  Mr.  Bowers  as  the  Imperial  Wizard. 

I  ask  you  now,  Mr.  Bowers,  whether  you  had  any  of  the  docuraents 
in  your  possession  in  vour  representative  capacity  as  Imperial  Wizard 
on  April  1,1965? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  now  ask  you  with  respect  to  May  1, 1965. 

Mr,  Bowers,  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  have  any  such  records  at  any  time  since  you 
became  Imperial  Wizard  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell,  Mr.  Bowers,  I  now  ask  you  whether  you  had  any  of 
the  documents  in  your  representative  capacity  as  Imperial  Wizard  on 
June  1,  1965  ? 

Mr,  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  ask  you  the  same  question  now  with  respect  to 
July  1. 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr,  Appell.  I  now  ask  you  the  same  question  with  respect  to 
August  1. 

59-222  O— 67— pt.  4 2 


2912  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  ask  you  the  same  question  with  respect  to  September 
1, 1965. 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  ask  you  the  same  question  with  respect  to  October  1, 
1965. 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  ask  you  the  same  question  with  respect  to  November 
1, 1965. 

Mr.  Bowers.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  You  had  no  documents  in  your  possession  on  November 
1,1965? 

Mr.  Bowers.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  you  tell  the  committee  as  to  what  disposition 
was  made  of  documents  in  your  possession  between  October  1, 1965,  and 
November  1,  1965  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  You  were  served  with  a  subpena  on  October  26,  1965. 
Did  you  have  any  documents  in  your  possession  on  that  date  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Between  October  1, 1965,  and  October  26, 1965,  did  you 
learn  that  the  subpena  for  this  committee  was  outstanding  for  your 
appearance  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Bowers,  part  2  of  the  subpena  calls  upon  you  to 
produce : 

AH  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  memoranda  appurtenances 
and  equipment  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control,  maintained  by  or  available 
to  you,  in  your  capacity  as  Imperial  Wizard  of  the  White  Knights  of  the  Ku 
Klux  Klan  of  Mississippi,  which  the  "Constitution  and  Laws"  of  said  organiza- 
tion authorize  and  require  to  be  maintained  by  you  and  any  other  officer  of  said 
organization,  the  same  being  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control. 

I  request  you  to  produce  in  your  representative  capacity  stated 
therein  the  documents  called  for  in  part  2  of  your  subpena. 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  I  could  not  produce  such  records  as  were  ordered 
by  the  subpena  issued  to  me,  due  to  the  fact  that  such  records  are  not 
in  my  possession,  custody,  or  control  and  I  did  not  and  do  not  have 
access  to  such  records. 

Mr.  Appell.  Were  the  documents  in  your  possession  on  October  1, 
1965? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  and 
invoke  as  a  defense  the  privileges  guaranteed  to  me  by  the  5th,  1st, 
and  6th  amendment  to  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of 
America. 

Mr.  Appell.  Were  the  documents  in  your  possession  on  October  26, 
the  day  that  you  were  served  with  your  subpena  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  No,  sir. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2913 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  possess  knowledge  between  October  1,  1965, 
und  October  26,  1965,  that  a  siibpena  was  outstanding  for  you,  call- 
ing for  your  appearance  before  this  committee  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  tliat  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  During  this  period  of  October  1  to  October  26,  did  you 
destroy  or  transfer  to  the  custody  of  a  second  party  documents  called 
for  in  the  subpena  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
declme  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Bowers,  I  hand  you  a  series  of  documents  identi- 
fied in  the  course  of  our  investigation  to  be  the  products  of  the  White 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Mississippi  which  were  either  pre- 
pared by  yourself  or  distributed  to  members  of  the  White  Knights 
with  your  approval.  After  you  review  those  documents,  Mr.  Bowers, 
I  ask  you  whether  or  not  these  documents  were  so  prepared. 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Bowers,  document  No.  1  (Harold  Delk  Exhibit 
No.  1)  is  captioned  "Secrecy.'"'  This  document  emphasizes  that  se- 
crecy is  the  greatest  asset  which  the  Wliite  Knights  possesses  to  pro- 
tect its  militant  nature.  Thereafter  instrudtions  in  secrecy  are  set  forth 
until  its  conclusion  is  set  forth — that  the  highest  essence  of  secrecy  is 
deliberate  deception.  As  the  Imperial  Wizard  of  the  White  Knights 
of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Mississippi,  does  the  organization  practice 
deliberate  deception  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Bowere,  document  No.  2  (Burrel  White  Exhibit 
No.  2)  is  captioned  "Executive  Lecture  of  March  1,  1964."  This  doc- 
lunent,  after  setting  forth  that  the  purpose  and  dedication  of  the  White 
Knights  is  the  preservation  of  a  Christian  civilization,  instinicts  the 
membership  to  have  for  ready  reference  and  frequent,  careful,  and 
prayerful  reference  a  copy  of  the  Holy  Scriptures.  Several  paragraphs 
infer  that  the  White  Knights  look  to  Christ  for  its  leadership.  In  the 
introduction,  the  docmnent  refers  to  the  Wliite  Knights  as  the  Chris- 
tian militants,  disposed  to  use  physical  force  against  its  enemies.  Tlie 
militant  phase  of  the  White  Knights  is  then  divided  into  security,  in- 
t.elligence,  and  propaganda.  Under  "security,"  members  are  instructed 
in  eliminating  detection  of  their  attendance  at  meetings,  concealing 
their  membership,  posing  as  anti-Klan  or  even  anticonsen\ative,  the 
use  of  gloves  to  avoid  fingerprint  identification,  the  creation  of  an 
infantry  squad  of  eight  well-armed  Klansmen  within  each  unit,  and 
with  respect  to  the  armament  of  the  squad  the  document  refere  to  the 
fact  that  this  squad  should  be  equipped  with  blue  ribbon  weapons. 

"Intelligence,"  according  to  the  document,  "consists  of  gathering 
and  transmission  of  all  information  concerning  the  enemy,  or  weak- 
nesses or  leaks"  in  the  White  Knights.  The  membership  is  then  in- 
structed in  procedure  to  be  followed  by  units  and  individuals  pre- 
liminary to  undertaking  that  which  the  document  describes  as  "mil- 
itant activity." 

In  this  connection,  there  is  stated  that  the  vote  of  the  local  unit  con- 
cerning the  wishes  of  the  local  members  regarding  any  militant  activity 


2914  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

must  be  transmitted  through  the  office  of  the  province  investigator  to 
the  higher  headquarters. 

Conditioning  against  discouragement  if  action  appears  to  be  de- 
layed, the  section  on  intelligence  concludes : 

Hasty  action  will  lead  to  either  the  bastille  or  the  cemetary  [sic].  Remember, 
ALWAYS,  we  are  in  this  war  to  WIN  it,  not  just  to  FIGHT  it. 

Propaganda  is  given  great  emphasis  and  the  reason  is  best  explained 
in  the  first  three  sentences  under  this  subdivision : 

PROPAGANDA  is  the  weapon  of  modem  war  which  our  organization  uses  to 
convince  the  public  that  we  are  all  good,  and  that  those  who  oppose  us,  or  criti- 
cise us,  or  attempt  to  interfere  with  our  activities  in  any  way  are  all  BAD,  and 
are  dangerous  enemies  of  the  Community.  We  must  always  keep  the  public  on 
our  side.  As  long  as  they  are  on  our  side,  we  can  just  about  do  anything  to  our 
enemies  with  impvmity. 

Implements  of  propaganda  are  described  as  being  as  valuable  as 
bullets.  Militant  activity  may  not  be  accomplished  by  propaganda  in 
which  case  the  document  reads : 

If  our  enemies  can  be  humiliated  and  driven  out  of  the  Community  by  Propa- 
ganda, well  enough.  If  they  continue  to  resist,  they  must  be  physically  destroyed 
before  they  can  damage  our  Christian  Civilization  further,  and  destroy  us.  *  *  * 

Do  you  have  any  comments  to  make  upon  the  contents  of  that  docu- 
ment, sir? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Document  No.  3  (Burrel  White  Exhibit  No.  1)  is  Im- 
perial Executive  Order  dated  May  3,  1964.  Did  you  issue  or  cause  to 
be  issued  that  document,  Mr.  Bowers  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  AppEiiL.  This  document,  Mr.  Bowers,  as  you  review  it  forecasts 
situations  likely  to  arise  during  the  summer  of  1964.  It  predicts  mas- 
sive demonstrations  designed  for  the  purpose  of  bringing  about,  as 
stated  in  the  report : 

A  decree  from  the  Communist  authorities  in  charge  of  the  National  Govern- 
ment *  *  *. 

What  evidence  do  you  possess  of  the  Communist  authorities  that 
are  in  charge  of  the  National  Government  ? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  This  document  devotes  considerable  space  to  militant 
activity  by  Klansmen  who  are  "legally — deputized  law  enforcement 
officers."  Combat  plans  are  outlined  and  the  Klansmen  are  warned  to 
expect  conflicts  with  law  enforcement  officials.  Emphasis  of  the  Klans- 
man's  duty  is  set  forth  in  a  sentence  which  reads : 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2915 

RESPECT  FOR  CHRISTIAN  IDEALS  CANNOT  YIELD  TO  RESPECT  FOR 
PERSONS  NOR  STATUTES  AND  PROCEDURE  WHICH  HAVE  BEEN 
TWISTED   BY   MAN   AWAY   FROM    ITS   ORIGINAL   DIVINE   ORIGIN. 

Do  you  have  any  comment  to  make  upon  that  document,  Mr.  Bowers? 

Mr.  BowTiRs.  bir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Document  No.  4  (James  Jones  Exhibit  No.  34)  is  cap- 
tioned "Harrasment"  [sic] .  This  docmnent  was  distributed  to  Klans- 
men  attending  a  State  meeting  in  Jmie  1964.  The  content  of  this 
dociunent  has  been  previously  discussed  in  this  record.  It  deals  exclu- 
sively with  the  methods  and  means  for  carrying  out  acts  of  harassment. 
Do  you  have  any  comment  to  make  upon  that  document,  Mr.  Bowers  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Bowers,  I  hand  you  a  series  of  documents  now,  all 
containing  identification  as  being  documents  of  the  White  Knights  of 
the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Mississippi  or  White  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux 
Klan. 

Document  1  is  an  unofficial  mimeographed  copy  of  the  constitution 
of  the  White  Knights  together  with  the  recommended  reading  list 
distributed  with  the  constitution  (Julius  Harper  Exhibit  No.  1). 

Document  No.  2,  the  constitution,  with  amendments,  approved  April 
19, 1964  (Gordon  Lackey  Exhibit  No.  2) . 

Document  No.  3,  an  application  for  membership  (Gordon  Lackey 
Exhibit  No.  1). 

Document  No.  4,  a  leaflet,  "Twenty  Reasons  WHY  you  should,  if 
qualified,  join,  aid  and  support  the  White  Knights  of  the  KU  KLUX 
KLAN  of  Mississippi  (Thomas  Gunter  Exhibit  No.  1,  p.  2747). 

Document  No.  5,  the  Executive  Lecture,  March  1, 1964,  issue  (Burre: 
Wliite  Exhibit  No.  2). 

Document  No.  6,  "The  KLAN  Ledger,"  July  4,  1964  (Thomas  Gun- 
ter Exhibit  No.  3,  pp.  2756-2759). 

Document  No.  7,  "The  Klan  Ledger,"  July  1965  issue. 

Document  No.  8,  "The  Klan  Ledger,"  October  21,  1965,  Special 
Jones  County  Edition. 

Were  these  documents  prepared  and  distributed  under  your  direc- 
tion as  Imperial  Wizard  of  the  White  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan 
of  Mississippi  ? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

(Documents  Nos.  7  and  8  marked  "Sam  Bowers  Exhibits  Nos.  1  and 
2,"  respectively,  follow:) 


2916  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Sam  Bowers  Exhibit  No.  1 

An  Official  Publication  of  the  IJhitc  Kiiiglits  of  the  KU  KLIU  KLnN  of  Miss. 
Special  HUAC  Invostisaticn  Issue       July,  1965 

In  order  to  fulfill  one  of  our  foremost  obligations  to  the  American  pub- 
lic, which  is  education,  and  to  prepere  a  base  for  i  wholesome  and  pro- 
ductive session  by  the  HIIAO,  ar  v/ell  as  to  combat  the  vicious  lies  and 
distortions  of  an  evil  and  depraved  National  Precs,  this  Special  lidition 
has  been  prepared  in  the  interest  of  Truth  and  Justice «  It  is  basca 
upon  a  recent  inteivicw  which  was  granted  by  the  Honorable  Grand  Dragon 
of  tho  VflvKKKJI  to' the 'widely  recognized  add"  esteemed  patriotic  correspon- 
dent, Kr.  Grahan  Page.  'Ihe  questions  are  by  wr.  Page,  the  answers  are 
by  the  Grand  Dragon  of  the  IVKICKKM. 

Q.  Sir,  for  several  nonths  nov/,  there  has  been  notice  of  an  impending  in- 
vestirjation  of  the  KU  KLUX  KLPJi  by  the  !IUaC.  iJhat  is  the  purpose  of  the 
investig-.tion,  and  what  is  the  position  of  tho  White  Kniglits  of  Miss,  in 
regard  to  itV 

A.  ./ell,  since  the  KU  KLUa  KL/J>J,  as  we  know  it  today,  is  almost  a  century 
old,  and  since  its  program  and  purpose  has  been  widely  published  at  fro- 
quont  intervals  all  during  that  titie,  especially  by  we  '.Jhite  Knights  here 
in  i'iississippi,  it  is  most  difficult  to  see  any  need  for  an  investigation 
by  this  comnittee,  which  was  only  establisried  to  investigate  subversive 
propjaganda.  V.'e  Klansmen  feel  that  the  HUAC  is  being  used  by  the  atheis- 
tic enemies  of  /iraorica  as  a  publicity  forxom,  in  connection  with  their  cap- 
tive National  Press,  to  smear  and  humiliate  our  Honorable  Knichts  in  an 
attempt  to  discredit  our  work,  which  is  dedicated  to  the  preserv^ition  of 
Christian  Civilization. 

Q.  It  has  become  rather  fashionable  of  late  for  professional  politicians 
to  take  slaps  at  the  Klan,  has  it  not?  Starting  vdth  the  President,  and 
I  beliovj,  continuing  more  recentl,y,  the  Lt.  Governor  and  Attorney  General 
of  Mississippi,  and  the  Attorney  General  of  Alabama? 

A.  Yes,  of  course,  Graham.  But  you  must  remember  that  these  sr.illow  and 
selfish  politicians  actually  have  no  real  purpose  in  life  other  chan  the 
advancement  of  their  own  personal  careers.  T.icy  Soiow  or  care  little  or 
nothing  about  the  Ideals  of  ;.merica,  the  Klan,  or,  for  that  matte:',  the 
communist  party.  They  sense  thr.t  the  Power  of  the  Beast  is  against  Lhe 
Klan,  so  they  themselves  attack  the  Klan  in  order  to  curry  favor  with  tho 
Beast.  They  actually  have  no  real  feelings  in  the  matter  of  the  Klan, 
and  we  do  not  even  consider  their  attacks  as  r^al  opposition.  Tne  Klan 
existed  long  before  these  animals  v/cre  born,  and  it  will  be  here  long 
after  they  have  passed,  when  their  selfish  administrations  are  but  an  un- 
pleasant recollection  in  the  memory  of  Christian  Aniericans. 

v.  Sir,  it  ic  often  said  by  the  critics  of  the  Klan,  that  your  groat 
v;eakness  stems  fron  the  fact  that  yours  is  purely  a  resistence  organizat- 
ion, and  that,  therefore,  it  has  no  positive  program,  which  it  must  have 
if  it  is  to  be  successful.  How  do  you  meet  this  accusation? 

A.  W-il,  of  course,  the  accusation  is  false,  because  its  roots  are  in  an 
occess-on  for  atheistic  materialiav.,  irfiich  is  the  hallmark  of  the  eneities 
01  '0>ri&t,  who  exercise  so  much  public  control  today.  Tho  Klan  does 
■■^-  '.Jl   these  atheists  and  their  fiendishly  contrived  prograjns.  The  Klan 
co^,:  it.;sioT  Sr;tnn  ?md  his  agents  on  all  possible  fronts;  and  in  so  doing, 
v.-i  achieve  the  highest  POSITIVE  program  of  which  men  arc  capable:  JjlSUS, 
v-:-.iIST.  "Resistance  to  tyranny  is  obedience  to  God"  is  on^  .f  .America's 
oldest  and  most  honored  bywords.  V.'c  challenge  any  profe3sicn:ii  politic- 
ir-n,  any  so-caLLod  "liberal",  any  oo-cfilled  "humanitarian",  -  •'  any  other 
atheistic,  natorialistic  agent  of  Satan  to  bring  b»;forc  the  i>icricrn 
Iniblic  tlW   of  their  hon-spavmid.proriraifls  wliich.  h-.ivc  a  higher  I'CSiTIVi; 
ra.Tk  thfoi  ODKI,i;ia,'CB  TO  GOD. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2917 

Sam  Bowers  Exhibit  No.  1 — Continued 

C   i-n^thcr  chr.rr;c  iJhich  Kl'.n  critics  arc  fell':  ;.f  hurlinr  agninst  y^u  is 
that  y^u  aro  "bijr^tcd"  -;nd  nari-.;w  in  yuur  scljcti^n  -f  t ■.ciders,  tecnuso 
y.-u  exclude  "Jews",  Tapists,  Orientals  and  ether  non-'.^nel^'-S-'oc-^n  ethnic 
fr.ups  froi.;  r',c::;;x;rship.  This  'sold  ti.'  bu  "vr.der.^cratic",  and  is  '.ne  cf 
tho  nain  reasons  why  rrofessi.nrd  r-.liticiv.s  are  willing  to  attack  you, 
bec-.usc  of  your  snail  nur.-lors.  ■'  uldn't  it  b.-  better  t-^  l_wor  y-ur  rigid 
restricti;;ns  s^i.ewhac  in  orJcr  to  r-ain  a  wider  public  acceptance? 
/..  Je  are  always  r^iHused  when  we  l.oar  this  arjunjnt  ,  because  it  sh-ws  such 
an  absurd  i-jr.^ranc  of  tiie  CX  sp^l  of  the  U.rd,  and  the  -urp^se  .f  the  K.Ian. 
First  v"f  ell,  let  me  pcint  out  th'.t  our  Ljrd  and  Savior,  Jesus  Christ,  is 
not  a  "dcr.iocratic"  Leader.  Rjr.eubcr,  it  ;^as  a  "da.i^cratic"  n^'o   v;hich  ee- 
n.andeu  His  crucifixion.   (See  ?ls.,  the  19th  Chapter  of  Luke),  i.'ext,  the 
real  strongth  of  the  Klan  d^es  n.t  stti.:  primarily  frcu  its  nui.ibers,  but 
fron  its  rOoITICM  as  '-n  l-apleri>.nt^d  an.i  v.f  the  Will  of  tho  I^rd.  It  nakos 
little  difference,  in  the  final  Sv,nse,  whether  we  are  10  or  10  Lullion,  so 
long  as  wo  are  in  th'j  Hinds  .;f  the  Lord. 

Q.  But  when  y.u  draw  such  -■>  strict  line,  are  y:u  not  beinj;  unfair  to  the 
individual  "Jew",  lapist-i.r  other  outsider?  nre  there  net  scn.e  t;ood  /ir.,eri- 
8ins  in  these  croups  "Isr? 

j\.  Undoul-tedly,  there  are  saae  gcod  people  to  bo  f.und  in  th.  se  groups. 
I  wich  to  emphasis  thr.t  i/e  Klansncn  have  n^  quarrel  with  any  individual 
wh  conducts  hinself  as  a  responsible  /o^ierican  citizen  should,  and  who 
takes  n-  part  in  revolutienary  activity  rf  cny  kind.  It  is  with  the  alien, 
un.if.-.orican  t^r^ups  such  as  the  Synagogue  of  Satan,  or  the  rior.ian  hierarchy 
that  v;e  of  the  Klan  quarrel,  rather  than  with  the  individual,  ignorant  and 

deeeived  "Jew"  or  Tapist.  Cur  artiS  are  always  open  to  these  nis.^uided  in- 
dividuals, and  we  stand  ready  to  accept  thci..  whenever  they  are  able  to 
break  away  frar.i  the  atheisi.i  of  the  Synagogue  and  the  idolatry  of  the  ;  apacy. 
It  is  not  we  wh.  are  bigoted.  It  is  they  who  are  foolishly  and  ignorantly 
rejecting  the  Holy  /(ord  of  God,  and  the  Personal  Salvation  ..f  Jesus  Christ. 

Q.  /Oiother  accusntijn  against  the  Klan  by  its  ener.iios  is  in  rog-ird  to 
unlawful  violence.  iJhat  is  the  Klan  position  in  regard  to  this  point? 
.>.  First,  let  ue  say  th.~t  r.cst  ^f  what  the  Klan  is  blamed  for  is  not  the 
work  of  the  Klan.  .ve  are  a  c^nvionient  whipping  boy  rather  than  actual, 
iinalicicus  offenders.  Occasionally',  sono  >.f  our  r.iore  spirited  good  Christ- 
ian Brothers  nay  bi-cci.;e  so  onra^-ed  over  the  w^rk  of  the  revolutii.nary 
atheists  in  our  midst,  that  thoy  are  goaded  into  takinj^  rotaliatory  action 
against  then;  but  no  honest  or  sorious  pors^n  bl^jries  any^no  but  the  atheists, 
ther.isolves  fcr  this.   It  is  against  hum.an  nature  end  the  basic  l^.ws  of 
self-defense  to  expect  an  .-ncricn  citizen  to  renrin  unprov  kod  v;hile  the 
civilized  society  v;hich  shelters  his  fc^nily  and  loved  ones  is  destr.yod. 
Getrge  Jashingtcn  cnce  said:   "The  pe.ple  knov;  that  i.-.an  cuinot  govern  with- 
out God  and  the  Bible";  and  it  is  the  failure  t^  ..bservc  this  naxir.'.  v/hich 
has  led  the  courts  and  the  legislatures  to  attempt  the  regulation  of  man 
by  man  without  the  Guidance  of  the  Lord,  thereby  r.akint  our  govemi.iental 
adv.inistration  a  farce  and  a  fraud,  with  -/no  unGodly,  unconstitutional 
decree  or  statute  piled  one  on  top  of  an^thor,  in  a  ridiculous  atte:..pt  to 
play  the  role  ^f  G<.d.  The  position  of  the  Klan  in  tlds  matter  is  that 
we  do  not  propose  to  pen.'.it  the  Christian,  Constitutional  Liberty  of  ijaer- 
ica  to  be  destroyed,  either  Covertly  ^r  overtly,  either  unlawfullj-,  or  undei 
Cvilor  of  law,  by  the  athoistic  conspiracy  of  the  Synagogue  of  Satan. 

Q.  ;/hat  is  the  position  of  tho  VJKKK1CI-;  as  regards  public  m?.rches  and  pub- 
lic demonstraticns?  Di  yoU  feel  tl-.at  the  .-hito  Knights  of  Mississippi, 
since  they  arc  tho  doninant  Klan  in  Mississippi,  should  countor-r.arch  ag- 
ainst the  conr.iunists  demonstrators  in  a  show  of  strength? 
i..  Our  Klan  is  opposed  to  public  r.iurchos,  demonstrations,  and  all  other 
related  activities  which  upset  tho  g.neral  tranquility  of  our  nonrial, 
daily  lives,  l.'c  strive  at  all  ti.-.os  to  handle  all  of  .ur  pr.blens  in  a 
quiet  and  sober  manner  with  a  due  and  careful  regard  f „r  the  feelings  of 
the  goncral  public  in  fiississippi,  whose  best  interests  we  alv/ayo  serve. 
The  God-given  Ideals  of  «n-.orica,  v/hich  wc  seek  to  maintain,  cannot  be  pre- 
served and  protected  by  mass  actions  in  our  streets. 

Q.  ..-hat  is  the  relationship  of  the  l-Tiite  Knights  of  the  KU  KLUX  KL«N  uf 
the  S.vereign  Rcalij  of  Mississippi  with  other  Klan  groups  such  as  the 
National,  United,  Old  Original,  etc.? 

".  V;c,  of  course,  aro  Spiritually  United  with  all  of  cur  Klan  Brethren 
everywhere,  thr.ugh  Jesus  Christ,  our  mutual  Lord  and  Savior.  It  is  only 
in  the  structure  and  cdi.iinistration  .  f  Klan  government  that  wo  differ  with 
these  others.  Curs  is  a  C<  nstitutional  ftcpublic,  which  contains  all  -jf 
the  Classic  <jr.erican  Features  .  f  separate  dopr.rtnents  (Legislative,  iSxec, 
Ju.'.icial),  bicameral  Lei^islature,  purse  power  in  lower  House,  Bill  of 
rti.^hts,  etc.  Mwst  of  these  other  Klans  are  too  centralized  in  thoir 
ad-rdnistration  to  suit  the  pristine  taste  ..if  our  strict  and  lo;  al 
.norican  citizens  of  iiississippi,  and  we  arc,  therefore,  c.  nsti'tuted  as 
a  S^vcreir^i  Realm  of  the  liivisible  ^npire  in  and  for  Mississippi.. 


2918      ACTIVITIES  OF  KU  KLUX  KLAN  IN  THE  U.S. 
Sam  Bowers  Exhibit  No.  2 


An  Official  Publication  of  the  White  Knights  of  the  KU  KLUX  KLAN  of  Mis 

SPECIAL  JONES  COUNTY  EDITION     October  21,  1965 

This  Special  Edition  of  the  Klan-Ledger  has  been  prepared  and  distrihut 
ed  in  order  to  clear  up  many  diubts  and  misunderstandings  which  have 
arisen  as  a  result  of  the  fanatical  and  incoherent  TV  spectacle  last 
Monday  evening  by  Henry  Bvicklev.    Ve  have  no  desire  to  create  any 
disturbance  or  add  any  fuel  to  the  fire,  so  this  issue  is  not  to  be 
considered  as  a  rebuttal  to  the  ill-mannered  tirade  of  Bucklew,  but 
rather  as  a  Christian  effort  in  the  hope  that  it  will  have  a  calMng 
and  sobering  influence  upon  the  good  citizens  of  Jones  County  who  have 
becrme  upset  over  the  notoriety  and  shame  which  has  been  brought  upon 
our  community  by  the  ill-considered  act  of  Bucklew.    Many  of  our 
best  citizens  are  irritated  and  in  an  ugly  mood  regarding  Bucklew- s 
conduct,  and  we  are  most  anxious  that  these  citizens  refrain  from  _ 
taking  any  punitive  or  retaliatory  action  against  him..    All  that  is 
necessary  is  that  everyone  remain  calm,  inform  themselves  of  the  real 
facts  in  this  case,  and  the  damage  done  to  the  community  by  Bucklew 
will  be  largely  dissapated.         "He  who  troubleth  his  own  house 
shall  inherit  the  wind."      Let  those  of  us  who  are  the  truly- 
responsible  citizens  of  this  community  see  to  it  that  we  do  not  do 
anything  to  increase  the  trouble  and  wind  which  has  been  stirred  up  by 
Bucklew.      Even  thoug  his  conduct  was  admittedly  inexcusable, 
vicious  and  ill-mannered,  that  does  not  justify  otheres  to  retaliate 
acainst  him  and  especially  in  anger. 

As  far  as  the  position  of  the  White  Knights  of  the  KU  KLUX  KLANof 
Missisippi  is  concerned,  we  have  always  been  against  open,  public 
violence.   We  are  primarily  a  Christian  Educational  body,  and  always 
seek  to  solve  our  problems  and  conduct  our  affairs  with  a  minimum  of 
inconvienience  and  disturbance  to  the  general  community.   Certainly, 
there  can  be  no  conflict  between  ourselves  and  Bucklew  on  that  score. 
Obviously,  whatever  conflict  there  does  exist  between  us  must  lie  in 
another  category,  as  indeed  it  does.   The  general  public  certainly  has 
a  right  to  know  what  this  is  and  to  be  informed  of  the  facts. 
The  conflict  which  now  exists  between  the  White  Kniglits  of  the  KU  KLUX 
KLAN  and  Henry  Bucklew  is  the  same,  dark  specter  which  has  dogged  his 
entire  checkered  public  career,  THE  LOVE  OE  MONEY, 

When  Bucklew  was  first  sworn  into  the  White  Knights,  shortly  before 
the  recent  election,  it  was  with  the  expectation  that  he  would  not 
only  receive  the  political  support  of  the  Knights  at  the  polls,  but 
that  he  would  also  have  access  to  the  funds  in  the  Klan  treasury  of  the 
Jones  County  Klavern,   However,  these  were  pnly  his  ovn   personal 
expectations,  without  foundation,  for  he  had  received  no  official 
promises  in  this  regard.    When  he  later  discovered(af ter  the  election) 
that  the  Constitutional  System  under  which  our  government  functions 
in  the  Domain  of  the  Invisible  Empire  effectively  PREVENTS  any  dipping 
into  the  till  by  individual  officers  or  memberB  without  the  consent  of 
the  majority,  his  enthusiasm  for  the  Klan  began  to  wane.   He  reasoned 
that  if  "Henry  Bucklew  can't  get  any  money  out  of  the  Klan,  then  the 
Klan  Jest  ain't  any  good,  nohow,"   He  met  several  times  with  various 
officers  of  the  Klan  after  becoming  mayor  and  offered  them  protection 
from  prosecution  and  favoritism  in  exchange  for  cash.   These  deals 
were  always  politely  refused  by  the  officers  of  the  Klan,  because  the 
White  Knjghts  are  innocent  of  any  wrongdoing,  and  their  Knights  are 
productive  citizens  of  the  connnunity  who  can  earn  their  own  way  and  do 
not  have  to  buy  favoritism  from  politicians.     More  recently,  Bucklew 
has  approached  various  Knihts  and  atteinpted  to  get  them  to  go  out  and 
juiip  on  and  beat  up  some  of  his  personal  and  political  enemies,  which, 
of  course,  our  honorable  Knights  refused  to  do.   As  a  result  of  these 
refusals,  Bucklew  then  began  to  look  about  for  ether  sources  of  ready 
cash.    He  soon  discovered  the  agents  of  the  malignant  conspiracy 
whose  agents  hate  Christ,  the  Klan  and  Christian  Civilisation.   These 
agents  who  want  to  see  the  Klan  destroyed  have  connections  which  lead 
right  straight  up  to  LB J  and  Katzenback  and  the  source  of  all  cash. 
When  Bucklew  made  this  new  connection,  he  dropped  out  of  the  White 
Knights,  violated  his  oath,  and  his  old  friends  became  his  new  enemies. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2919 

Sam  Bowers  Exhibit  No.  2 — Continued 

Uov,  ve  wish  to  make   it  clear  at  this  point  that  Henry  Bucklew  is  not 
OUT  enemy.   The  devilish  communists  from  the  Synagogue  of  Satan  are 
our  enejuy,  and  he  has  only  'become  their  ignorant  tool.  Even  after  his 
virulent  attack  upon  us,ve  do  not  hate  Henry  Bucklew.   He  is  more  to 
be  pitied  than  he  is  to  be  condemned.   He  is  a  weak  man,  and  his 
principle  failing  is  his  lust  for  cash,  a  lust  which  the  Klan  was  unable 
to  satisfy,  and  which  the  enemies  of  Christian  Civilisation  were  able  to 
satisfy. 

Actually,  we  resent  Bucklew 's  ignorant  misrepre-sentatioiti'  of  Holy 

fcripture  and  the  Fiery  Cross,  the  Symbol  of  our  Ancient  and  Noble  Order 
ar  more  than  we  resent  his  personal  attacks  upon  ourselves,  but  m 
even  these  matters,  he  will  nave  to  answer  at  the  Judgement  Seat, 

With  malice  toward  none,  and  charity  for  all,  we  remain  the  White  Knight^ 
of  the  KU  KLUX  KLAN  of  the  Sovereign  Realm  of  Mississippi, 

Jones  County  Klnvern 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Bowers,  please  look  at  document  No.  8,  the  "Special 
Jones  County  Edition"  of  "The  Klan  Ledger."  Are  the  statements 
made  again^  Laurel,  Mississippi,  Mayor  Henry  Bucklew  true  or  are 
they  false  by  design,  in  order  to  convince  the  citizens  of  Laurel  that 
the  "V^Hiite  Knights  are  good  and  the  mayor  bad  ? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Were  the  statements  designed  to  keep  the  community 
on  your  side  so  that,  as  set  forth  in  Executive  Lecture  of  March  1, 1964, 
"we  can  just  about  do  anything  to  our  enemies  with  impunity"? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Bowers,  in  the  Executive  Lecture  of  March  1, 
1964,  in  the  section  on  propaganda,  instructions  are  given  on  the  use 
of  propaganda  in  documents  not  identified  with  the  name  of  the  orga- 
nization, but  independent  in  name.  The  documents  which  have  been 
handed  to  you  are — according  to  the  committee's  investigations — doc- 
uments prepared  by  the  Wliite  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of 
Mississippi,  even  though  the  name  "White  Knights"  does  not  appear 
upon  these  documents. 

I  will  read  the  documents  to  you  so  that  you  can  have  a  chance  to 
examine  them  and  then  you  may  answer  me  whether  or  not  the  results 
of  the  investigation  are  factual. 

Docimient  1  is  captioned  "Liberty  Is  a  Boisterous  Sea.  Timid  Men 
Prefer  the  Calm  of  Despotism."  By  "The  Mississippi  White  Caps." 

(Document  marked  "Sam  Bowers  Exhibit  No.  3."  ^) 

Document  No.  2,  captioned  "WASP,  Inc.,  A  Christian,  Non-Profit 
Organization  Dedicated  to  the  Christian  American  Heritage." 

(Document  marked  "Sam  Bowers  Exhibit  No.  4."  -) 

Document  No.  3,  a  "Black  List"  unsigned  but  directed  to  the  atten- 
tion of  "White  Citizens  of  Meridian  and  Lauderdale  County." 

(Document  marked  "Sam  Bowers  Exhibit  No.  5"  follows:) 


^  See  committee  report,  The  Present-Day  Ku  Klux  Klan  Movement,  pp.  295,  296. 
2  Ibid.,  pp.  293,  294. 


2920  ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S. 

Sam  Bowers  Exhibit  No.  5 

BLAC::     LIST 
ATTEJITICN  '^iITE  CITIZSi'S    0?  ^JERIDIA!'  AID  LAUDERD.'iE  CO'TTZ 


-iiecses  "■"'-r 
j?or  tar.rt: 


rre   "l,rr.:  toi-E   ".no. 
piece?   o"   r.i].ver- 


Listed  belo-'  are  ?  fe;.^  people  r.nd  tui 
^jarasites,  ^'ho  ';oTil(f"scll  their  r,ovli 
INTERGRATION. 

AL  KEY 

HOPPER  Tr.CMAS 

0.   A.  BOOKER 

ROY  GUM 

CECIL  CURRIE 

WALLACE  MILLER 

]^ILL  RS.iDY 

BILLY  HEVILLE 

LAWRENCE  RA3B 

BILLY  BIRDS CNG 

E,  C.  LIDE 

CAROL  SliITII-*  H?.ii-  Fr.shionist 

>mS.    I.    A.   ROSE^AUM 

R.  B.   RAIIIER 

W.  R.   RAl-IAGSR 

TOII  KINUIECE 

TOM  EOL-RDEAUX 

GRAIJVILLE  JOMES 

SY  ROSEI'IBAUM 

DR.    L.    0.    TODD 

The  Chairman.  Wliat  is  the  title,  "Black  list"  ? 
Mr.  Appell.  "Black  List,"  yes,  sir. 
The  Chairman.  Let  me  take  a  look  at  that. 
(Document  handed  to  chairman.) 

Mr.  Appell.  Document  No.  4,  "Questions  all  White  Citizens  of 
Lauderdale  County  and  City  of  Meridian  should  ask  your  neighbors." 
(Document  marked  "Sam  Bowers  Exhibit  No.  6  follows:) 

Sam  Bowers  Exhibit  No.  6 

Questions  all  White  Citizens  of  Lauderdale  County  and  City  of  Meridian 
Should  Ask  Your  Neighbors 


BUCi:  GRESr^E 
T.   C,    rJLL 
LOUIE  LEE 
LUCI-.LE  DCI'ALD 

L.  B.  ?kj:y. 

Cr^AIIP   GIPSCN 

SAii  i:iEi-nrz 

MEYER  DAVIDSON  • 

CTHO  SMIT^-I— School  For 

30RDEIT  MILK  CO! ^ ANY 

HOLIDAY  IIIIT 

ST.  JOSEPH  HOSPITAL 

ADS— dollj;?^  store 


1.  Why  did  your     " 
in   Weidmanns   Cafe. 


go  out  of  his  way  to  shake  hands  with  4  niggers 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2921 

2.  Is  *  *  *  paying  off  his  debt  by  installing  nigger  *  *  *  and  nigger  *  *  * 
as  directors  of  the  Anti-Poverty  program.  Why  should  members  of  the  civil 
rights   group   be   directors. 

3.  Did  nigger  *  *  *  promiee  [sic]  *  *  *  the  nigger  vote  for  other  concessions. 

4.  Do  you  want  a  nigger  as  your  Mayor  or  City  Councilman  the  next  election. 
PLEASE    REGISTER    TO   VOTE 

5.  Did  *  *  *  join  the  great  society  while  in  Washington  for  a  few  federal 
dollars. — Ask    Humphrey 

6.  Why  does  *  *  *  praise  all  of  the  people  working  with  the  great  society. 

7.  Why  does  *  *  *  try  to  advise  the  City  Policemen  how  to  live  their  private 
lives.     Is  he  taking  orders  from  nigger  *  *  *  and  nigger  *  *  *. 

8.  Why  should  some  of  our  elected  officials  want  to  give  all  the  federal  money 
to  the  niggers  who  wouldn't  work  if  they  had  a  job.  You  can't  help  people 
white  or  black  who  won't  help  themselves. 

9.  Why  was  the  Chamber  of  Commerce  members  a  go  between  with  Nig- 
ger *  *  *  for  some  of  the  cafe  operators  of  *  *  *. 

10.  Who  is  the  white  nigger  lady  who  is  dating  the  nigger  sailor.  She  works 
at  *  *  *. 

11.  Who  is  the  white  waitress  at  *  *  *  who  can't  keep  her  hands  off  the 
white  nigger  boy  who  works  in  the  *  *  *. 

12.  Who  is  the  white  lady  and  her  daughter  who  operate  a  *  *  *  on  *  *  * 
who  is  so  fond  of  the  nigger  in  the  kitchen. 

13.  Why  did  some  of  the  Board  of  Supervisors  and  all  of  the  City  School 
Board  object  to  the  white  citizens  of  Bonita  leasing  the  school  building  for  a 
private   school. 

14.  Are  they  planning  to  teach  the  young  niggers  how  to  be  communist 
withe  [sic]  the  Anti-Poverty  money  in  the  school  building  at  Bonita. 

15.  Who  is  the  *  *  *  owner  and  operator  on  *  *  *  who  got  on  his  knees  at 
the  red  headed  communist  at  COFO  Headquarter. 

16.  Why  did  one  of  the  *  *  *  have  his  child  transfered  [sic]  from  one  first 
grade  teacher  to  the  other.  Was  it  because  he  did  not  want  his  child  in  the  room 
with   a   nigger. 

17.  Why  are  the  city  bus  lines  still  operating.  Is  it  because  of  the  civil  rights 
group  in   Meridian. 

18.  What  are  the  questions  *  *  *  is  asking  the  people  appling  [sic]  for  jobs 
in  the  new  store. 

White  Tax  Paying  Citizens  of 
Lauderdale  County  and  City 
OF  Meridian. 

Mr.  Appell.  Document  No.  5,  "The  Christian  Sentinel." 

(Document  marked  "Sam  Bowers  Exhibit  No.  7"  and  retained  in 
committee  files.) 

Document  No.  6,  the  "Christian  Constitutional  Commitee,  Jones 
County  Chapter." 

(Document  marked  "Sam  Bowers  Exhibit  No.  8"  and  retained  in 
committee  files. ) 

Mr.  Bowers,  I  now  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny  the  fact  that  these  docu- 
ments were  prepared  under  the  direction  of  the  White  Knights  of  the 
Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Mississippi. 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 


2922  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Bowers,  on  the  "Black  List"  document,  you  will 
notice  the  name  Billy  Birdson^.  Billy  Birdsong  has  advised  the  stajff 
that  he  was  an  investigator  of  the  White  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux 
Klan,  a  personal  investigator  to  yourself  as  the  Imperial  Wizard.  Is 
the  statement  made  to  the  staff  by  Billy  Birdsong  true  or  false? 
(Witness  confers  with  counsel. ) 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  After  Birdsong  broke  with  the  White  Knights  of  the 
Ku  Klux  Klan,  did  you  have  him  beaten  by  a  gi'oup  of  Klansmen? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Bowers,  I  ask  you  to  look  at  the  "Black  List" 
and  indicate  to  the  committee  the  identity  of  the  other  Klansmen  who 
appear  on  that  list  because  they  broke  with  your  organization. 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  order  Wallace  Miller,  whose  name  appears  on 
that  list,  to  be  banished  from  the  White  Knights  because  you  suspected 
that  he  was  an  informant  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Bowers,  there  is  now  being  handed  to  you  a  docu- 
ment captioned  the  "Standard  Examination  Form."  I  ask  you  if  this 
document  was  prepared  by  the  White  Knights,  distributed  to  White 
Knight  members,  for  use  in  attempting  to  embarrass  agents  of  the 
FBI  who  might  seek  interviews  with  members  of  the  White  Knights 
of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Mississippi  ? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

(Document  marked  "Sam  Bowers  Exhibit  No.  9"  follows:) 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2923 

Sam  Bowers  Exhibit  No.  9 

STANDARD  EXAMINATION  FORM 

To  be  used  by  all  Christian  American  Patriots  as  an  aid  in  properly  identifying 
all  unknown  Persons  who  may  be  seeking  information.   At  least  one  other  Christian 
American  Patriot  should  be  present  when  giving  this  EXAMINATION.   Persons  who  refuse 
to  take  this  EXAMINATION  or  who  fail  to  answer  the  questions  in  a  forthright  and 
satisfactory  manner  should  be  regarded  as  ENEMIES  of  the  Constitutional  Republic  of 
the  United  States  of  America  and  should  be  considered  as  Emissaries  of  the  anti- 
Christ,  Satan. 


Do  you  believe  in  Almighty  God,  the  ONE  Supreme  Creator,  Ruler  and  Judge  of  the 
Universe? 


2.  Do  you  believe  in  the  Redeeming  Spirit  of  the  Christ,  Jesus,  Son  of  the  Living 
God  and  the  SOLE  Intecessor  for  the  Sins  of  Mankind,  by  Whom  NONE  cometh  unto 
the  Kingdom  of  the  Father,  except  by  HIM? 

3.  Do  you  believe  that  the  Holy  Scriptures  are  the  Greatest  tangible  asset  which  is 
possessed  by  man  on  this  earth,  and  that  the  WORD  contained  therein  must  be  the 
Prime  Guide  by  which  man  must  conduct  himself  here  on  earth? 

4.  Do  you  acknowledge  the  King  James  Version  of  the  Holy  Writ  as  the  Prime  Writ  for 
Americans  and  recognize  the  attempts  to  "revise"  and  "standardize"  and  "merge" 
this  version  with  other  texts  as  nothing  but  a  deliberate  attempt  to  degrade  and 
profane  the  "Word"  into  just  another  collection  of  religious  writings? 

5.  Do  you  believe  that  any  mortal  man  here  on  earth  has  the  power  to  pardon  or  to 
redeem  the  sins  of  another,  or  that  any  mortal  man  can  accumulate  the  power  or 
ability  whereby  he  could  become  an  Advocate  in  the  Court  of  Almighty  God  to 
intercede  for  the  remission  of  the  sins  of  another? 

6.  Do  you  believe  that  the  Mercy  and  Advocacy  of  Christ  is  available  to  all  those 
who  humbly  and  honestly  seek  Him? 

7.  Do  you  believe  that  any  Human  Being  has  the  power  to  cut  another  Human  Being  off 
from,  and  deny  the  Salvation  of  Christ  to  another? 

8.  Do  you  believe  that  the  most  any  True  Christian  can  do  for  a  fellow  Human  Being 
is  to  help  his  fellow  to  see  the  Path  to  the  Living  Christ  and  try  to  gently 
lead  him  Up  that  Path,  but  that  no  one  may  or  can  be  FORCED  to  accept  Christ, 
and  each  individual  must  accept  or  reject  Christ  according  to  his  individual 
will? 

9.  Do  you  believe  that  a  powerful,  supernatural  Force  of  Evil,  called  Anti-Christ 
or  Satan  does  exist  in  the  world? 

10.  Do  you  recognize  the  Fact  that  all  men  are  continually  being  torn  between  the 
Force  of  Christ  and  the  Anti-Christ  Forces  of  Satan? 

11.  Do  you  recognize  the  Fact  that  man  is  absolutely  helpless  before  Satan  until  he 
truly  and  humbly  Accepts  the  Living  Christ  as  his  own  Personal  Savior;  and  that 
all  of  man's  intelligence,  and  his  material  gifts:  his  education,  his  prestige, 
his  property,  his  money,  his  good  intentions  and  his  works  are  worthless  against 
Satan,  UNLESS  there  is  an  Absolute,  Primary  Foundation  of  an  undying  Belief  in, 
Acceptance  of  and  Reliance  upon  The  Living  Christ  at  the  root-center  of  each 
man's  Being? 

12.  Do  you  accept  the  Living  Christ,  Jesus  as  your  Personal  Savior  and  your  ONLY 
Hope  against  Satan? 

13.  Do  you  recognize  that  all  good  intentions  and  works  which  are  not  founded  in 
Christ  are  either  meaningless  or  Evil? 

14.  Do  you  believe  that  Satan  impels  some  men  to  rule  and  control  the  earthly  life 
and  destiny  of  other  men,  and  gives  them  power  to  do  so? 

15.  Do  you  believe  that  Almighty  God  so  ordained  man  that  he  should  live  free  of  the 
control  of  the  will  of  other  men,  and  that  no  man  has  the  right  to  initiate 
Trespass  acjainst  another,  or  initiate  by  any  means  whatsoever  anything  to  bring 
another  man  under  the  control  of  his  will? 

16.  Do  you  recognize  that  a  True  Christian  American  Patriot  will  turn  the  other 
cheek  to  those  who  wrong  him,  but  will  destroy  those  who  attrmpt  to  destroy  him, 
and  will  seek  to  destroy  those  who  seek  to  destroy  him,  because  anything  less 
would  be  suicide? 

17.  Do  you  believe  that  Christianity  requires  that  a  True  Christian  should  not 
resist  having  his  earthly  life  taken  by  a  killer? 


2924  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S. 

Sam  Bowers  Exhibit  No.  9 — Continued 

i8.  Do  you  recognize  the  fact  that  the  United  States  of  America  is  the  only  Govern- 
mental System  ever  built  in  the  world  with  the  announced  intention  and  recog- 
nized purpose  of  protecting  the  Life,  Liberty,  and  the  RIGHT  to  pursue  Happiness 
of  each  and  every  one  of  the  Law-Abiding,  responsible  citizens  under  its  juris- 
diction, after  FIRST  recognizing  the  FACT  that  these  Rights  were  God-given  in 
the  FIRST  place  and  were  therefore  not  within  the  province  of  any  man,  group  of 
men,  or  government  either  to  GRANT  or  to  DENY? 

19.  Do  you  understand  that  this  one  point  covered  in  Question  #18  is  the  Basic  and 
Fundamental  point  which  makes  the  United  States  of  America  unique  in  the  world 
and  therefore  absolutely  different  from,  and  therefore  properly  in  opposition 
to  every  other  governmental  system  in  the  world? 

20.  Do  you  recognize  that  the  fundamental,  founding  purpose  and  Spirit  of  all  True 
Law  in  the  USA  is  to  implement  the  Will  of  God  which  obviously  decrees:  That 
man  shall  live  free  from  the  control  of  the  will  of  his  neighbor,  and  not 
trespass  against  his  neighbor? 

21.  Do  you  believe  that  the  preceeding  principle  is  the  True  Spirit  of  American 
Law,  which  is  of  Divine  Origin? 

22.  Do  you  recognize  the  fact  that  statutes  and  decisions  must  conform  to  this 
Spirit  in  order  to  be  ranked  as  True  American  Law? 

23.  Do  you  recognize  the  fact  that  men  under  the  influence  of  Satan  are  able  to 
twist  laws,  enact  laws  and  enforce  laws  under  the  material  power  of  Governmental 
Authority  which  are  contrary  to  the  Spirit  of  American  Law,  and  which,  therefore, 
do  not  rank  as  True  American  Law? 

24.  If  the  Letter  of  the  Law  conflicts  with  the  Spirit  of  the  Law,  WHICH  will  you 
adhere  to,  obey  and  enforce? 

25.  Do  you  acknowledge  that  those  persons  who  cause  or  permit  the  Letter  of  the  Law 
to  conflict  with  the  Spirit  of  the  Law  in  America  are  the  Prime  Enemies  of  the 
Republic  of  the  United  States  of  America  and  of  every  innocent  citizen  and  per- 
son under  its  jurisdiction? 

26.  Do  you  believe  that  yoix  personal,  physical  survival  is  tied  to  the  maintenance 
of  a  governmental  administration  in  America  which  will  continuously  implement 
the  Constitutional  Spirit  of  American  Law? 

27.  Do  you  regard  an  Enemy  of  the  Republic  of  the  United  States  of  America  and  the 
Spiritual  Ideals  which  are  protected  by  its  Constitution  as  YOUR  personal 
enemy? 

28.  Do  you  differentiate  between  the  Government  of  the  United  States  of  America  and 
the  PERSONS  who  hold  offices  and  positions  under  its  Constitution? 

29.  If  the  minions  of  material  governmental  authority  threaten,  attempt  to,  or  use 
physical  force  and  violence  to  enforce  compliance  with  some  letter  of  law  which 
is  in  clear  conflict  with  the  Constitution  and  the  Spirit  of  American  Law,  do 
you  believe  that  the  Private  Citizens  of  America  have  a  right  to  oppose  them 
with  physical  force,  using  the  Constitution  and  the  Supremacy  of  the  Will  of 
Almighty  God  as  their  Authority? 

30.  Do  you  believe  in  Democracy? 

31.  Do  you  believe  in  Plebescite  Cannabilism? 

32.  How  can  demagogues  be  controlled  in  a  Democracy? 

33.  Are  man-made  laws  more  useful  when  they  are  aimed  at  doing  "good",  or  when  they 
are  aimed  at  shackeling  Satan? 

34.  What  is  your  definition  of  "communism"? 

35.  What  is  the  motivating  force  behind  "communism"? 

36.  Do  you  believe  that  the  Spirit  of  American  Law  will  be  helped  or  be  injured  by    '< 
becoming  entangled  in  Foreign  Affairs? 

37.  Do  you  believe  that  the  International  Bankers  have  anything  worthwhile  to  offer 
America? 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2925 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Bowers,  with  respect  to  burnings,  bombings,  and 
other  acts  of  violence  o]|^ intimidation,  did  the  White  Knights  under 
their  program  of  Christian  militancy  classify  these  acts  into  four  cate- 
gories, namely.  No.  1,  Project  1,  threatening  telephone  calls  or  visits; 
2,  burning  of  crosses,  usually  on  private  property;  No.  3,  beating  or 
flogging,  burning  of  property,  night  shooting  into  property ;  and  No. 
4,  extermination  ^ 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  As  Imperial  Wizard  of  the  White  Knights  of  the  Ku 
Klux  Klan  of  Mississippi,  did  you  ever  authorize  the  extermination 
or  elimination  of  a  human  being  ? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

The  Chairman.  You  seem  shocked  by  that  question.  Why  don't  you 
say  "no"  under  oath  ? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Bowsers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Under  your  personal  direction  or  with  knowledge 
gained  by  you  as  the  Imperial  Wizard,  did  any  human  being  die  as  a 
result  of  acts  of  violence  or  intimidation  by  members  of  the  White 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Mississippi  ? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Was  a  project  of  extermination  issued  on  an  individ- 
ual who  was  described  wnthin  the  Klan  by  the  nickname  "The  Goatee"  ? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  decline  to 
answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  know  the  identity  of  the  person  referred  to 
as"TheOoatee"? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  resj^ectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Was  "The  Goatee"  Schwemer,  one  of  the  three  civil 
rights  workers  who  lost  their  lives  in  Philadelphia  in  June  1964? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Bowers,  at  a  State  meeting  of  the  White  Knights 
of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  did  you  ever  announce  that  the  Wliite  Knights 
had  97  projects  going  throughout  the  State  of  Mississippi  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  At  a  meeting  of  the  "V^Hiite  Knights  on  November  15, 
1964,  held  between  Harrisville  and  Brandon,  Mississippi,  was  a  mora- 
torium declared  for  90  days  on  all  third-  and  fourth-degree  projects? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 


2926  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  July  1965,  after  the  moratorium  was  lifted,  did  you 
state  at  a  meeting  of  the  Wliite  Knights  leaders  that  you  wanted  one 
act  of  violence  in  each  province  each  week  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  On  September  27, 1964,  at  a  meeting  held  on  the  second 
floor  of  the  Harris  box  factory  ^  in  Meridian,  Mississippi,  did  you  dur- 
ing a  discussion  on  violence  state,  if  it  was  necessary  to  eliminate  some- 
one, it  should  be  done  without  malice  and  in  complete  silence  and  in 
the  manner  of  a  Christian  act  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Bowers,  in  your  position  as  Imperial  Wizard  of 
the  White  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  have  you  made  statements 
and  prepared  leaflets  which  support  the  position — your  position — that 
the  Klan  should  fight  the  Zionists  or  Jews  whom  you  believed  to  be 
the  greater  threat  to  this  country  ? 
(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Do  you  know  George  Lincoln  Rockwell  of  the  Amer- 
ican Nazi  Party  ? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  ever  make  a  statement  that  you  were  consider- 
ing joining  the  American  Nazi  Party  because  they  had  several  goals 
that  are  the  same  as  the  Klan  ? 
(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Bowers,  as  the  Imperial  Wizard,  do  you  also  hold 
your  membership  in  the  Klavern  in  Laurel,  Mississippi,  known  under 
the  cover  name  of  the  Bogue  Homa  Hunting  and  Rifle  Club? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Bowers,  information  gathered  during  the  com- 
mittee's investigation  establishes  that  at  almost  every  meeting  of  the 
Bogue  Homa  Hunting  and  Rifle  Club  projects  were  discussed  by  the 
mernbership.  These  discussions  rarely  disclosed  to  membership  the 
projects.  An  example  of  this  happened  at  a  meeting  of  June  9,  1964. 
The  discussion  on  this  night  centered  around  the  arrival  in  Laurel  of 
Negroes  and  whites.  B.  F.  Hinton,  then  the  exalted  cyclops  of  the  Kla- 
vern and  now  one  of  the  White  Knights  province  giants  told  the  39 
Klansmen  assembled  that  it  was  planned  to  take  no  action  against 
these  people  during  the  daytime,  but  that  group  leaders  within  the 
Klavern  would  take  action  against  them  during  the  night  hours.  It 
was  further  discussed  that  only  the  Klan  leaders  would  know  the  iden- 
tity of  the  Klansmen  participating  in  the  project. 

Do  you  possess  knowledge  with  respect  to  the  factuality  of  that. 
Mr.  Bowers  ? 


1  Harris  Box  Company,  Inc. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S. 


2927 


Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Bowers,  I  now  hand  you  three  sheets  of  paper. 
The  first  column  contains  the  date,  the  second  column  sets  forth  on 
that  date  whether  there  was  a  bombing  and  assault,  a  phone  threat  or 
cross-burning.  The  third  column  lists  the  identity  of  the  individual 
or  organization  against  whom  it  was  carried  out,  and  the  fourth  col- 
umn shows  the  location  of  the  place,  all  within  Jones  County, 
Mississippi. 

Please  review  those  dates  and  tell  the  committee  whether  you  possess 
any  knowledge  with  respect  to  any  of  the  acts  of  violence  or  intimi- 
dation set  forth  on  that  dociMnent. 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Appell.  Have  you  reviewed  the  document,  Mr.  Bowers  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

(Document  marked  "Sam  Bowers  Exhibit  No.  10"  follows :) 


Sam  Bowers  Exhibit  No.  10 
Schedule  of  Jones  County  Violence 


5/10/64 
8/11/64 

8/16/64 

8/18/64 

Bombing 

Assault 

Assault 

Assault 

Laurel  Leader  Call 

Eugene  Keys,  Negro 

victim, 
on  C  R  workers  by  Frank 

Upton. 

V.  L.  Lee,  Klansman 

on  CR  workers — 15 

Klansmen  went  to 

COFO  picnic, 
on  C  R  worker  by 

Henry  De  Boxtel. 
Ottis  Matthews 

Norman  Lee. 
on  white  C  R  worker  by 

KKK. 
on  white  CR  by  Wm 

Kennedy  &  Harold 

Stringer,  KKK. 
Laurel  Leader  Call  for 

COFO  ad. 
Ernest  McClarion___^.-. 

COFO  Headquarters 

COFO  Headquarters 

Brewel  Currie  (negro) 

Wysess  Johnson  (negro).. 
Community  Grocery 

(negro) . 
Dunigan  Grocery  (negro). 
Rahaim  Baseball  Park... 
Community  Recreation 

Center. 

Laurel,  Miss. 
Kress  Store,  Laurel 

Laurel,  Miss. 

Laurel,  Miss. 

8/22/64 

11/  3/64 
11/17/64 

Assault 

Assault 

Assault 

Currie  Farm, 
Jones  County. 

Laurel,  Miss. 

Laurel,  Miss. 

11/30/64 

Assault 

Kress  Lunch  ct. 

1/15/65 

1/20/65 

1/29/65 

2/  9/65 
2/17/65 
3/  4/65 
4/23/65 
5/16/65 

5/16/65 
5/16/65 
5/16/65 

5/17/65 

Assault 

Phone  threat 

Attempt  house 
burning. 

House  shooting 

House  burning 

House  burning 

House  burning 

House  burning 

House  burning 

House  burning 

House  burning 

House  burning 

House  burning 

Shooting 

Shooting 

Laurel. 
Downtown  park- 
ing lot — Laurel. 

Laurel,  Miss. 

Soso,  Miss. 

Laurel,  Miss. 
Laurel,  Miss. 
EUisville,  Miss. 
Ellisville,  Miss. 
Mt.  Olive,  Miss. 

Laurel,  Miss. 

Laurel. 

Laurel. 

Laurel,  Miss. 

5/17/65 
6/16/65 
6/16/65 

Gaddis  Service  Station.. . 

Dr.  B.  E.  Murph,  State 
NAACP  Vicepresident. 

Skylark  Club  (negro) 

Charles  Garrett  (negro)  _. 

Meridian  Ave. 

Laurel. 
Laurel,  Miss. 

Laurel,  Miss. 

6/19/65 

House  burning 

Rt.  5,  Jones 
County. 

59-222  O— 67— pt.  4- 


2928 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    EST    THE    U.S. 


Sam  Bowes  Exhibit  No.   10 — Continued 
Schedule  of  Jones  County  Violence — Continued 


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9/26/65 

9/30/65 

10/11/65 
10/26/65 


House  burning.. 
House  burnings. 


Store  burning. - 
Barn  explosion- 
House  burning. 


House  burning. 
House  burning. 


8  Cross  burnings. 
Attempt  house 

burnings. 
House  burning... 


House  burning. . . 

Shooting  &  house 
burning. 

Explosion 

Cross  burning 

House  burning... 

House  burning 

Shooting 


Church  burning. 

Attempt  house 

burn. 
House  burning.. 
Shotgun   Shell -- 


COFO  house,  Laurel..  . 
(13  houses)  Newcomer 

Quarters) . 
Shady  Grove — Big  R. 

Drive  In  Restaurant. 
W.  O.  Ball— Sharon 

Comm. 
W.  D.  Hinton 


J.  W.  Cooley.. 
Vernon  Patton. 


Mrs.  Clayton^negro  CR 

supporter. 
Lowell  Tew  (white 

attorney) . 
W.  O.  Ball,  Sharon 

Comm. 
Rev.  Sam  Page,  Sharon 

Comm. 

COFO  truck 

Joe  Atkins'  house  (white) . 

Unknown  house 

Lula  Sanders  (negro) 

Dr.  B.  E.  Murph,  State 

NAACP  Vice-Pres. 
Royal  Valley  Negro 

Baptist. 
Dinah  Hyde  Woodland 

(negro) . 

Brewel  Currie  Farm 

Fired  into  door  of  colored 

school. 


Laurel. 
Laurel. 

Jones  County. 

Jones  County. 

Mt.  Olive  Com- 
munity. 

Mt.  Oliver  Com- 
munity. 

Mt.  Olive  Com- 
munity. 

Jones  County. 

Laurel,  Miss. 

Laurel. 

Jones  County. 

Jones  County. 

Laurel. 
Laurel. 

Sandersville,  Miss. 
Sandersville,  Miss. 
Laurel. 

Jones  County. 

Ovett. 

EUisville,  Miss. 
Laurel. 


Mr.  AppeiuL.  Mr.  Bowers,  the  Klavern  in  Laurel  approved  a  project 
on  April  29,  1964,  against  the  Leader-Call,  a  newspaper  in  Laurel, 
which  was  bombed  on  the  night  of  May  10.  I  think  the  documents  that 
are  in  front  of  you  reflect  that.  It  is  reported  that  just  a  small  quan- 
tity, of  dynamite  was  used  in  that  because  they  did  not  want  to  damage 
the  wall  of  the  bowling  alley.  Do  you  have  vending  equipment  and 
pinball  machines  in  the  bowling  alley  and  is  that  the  reason  why  a 
small  charge  of  dynamite  was  used  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Bowers,  the  document  reflects  that  there  was  an 
assault  on  Ottis  Matthews,  the  business  agent  of  the  local  of  the  Inter- 
national Woodworkers  of  America,  AFL-CIO  in  Laurel,  Mississippi. 
Do  you  possess  any  knowledge  of  this  assault  on  Ottis  Matthews  ? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Listed  on  the  document  is  a  burning  on  February  17, 
1965,  of  COFO  headquarters  in  Laurel.  The  committee's  investiga- 
tion reflects  that  officers  of  the  EUisville- Jones  County  Klavern,  stated 
that  the  COFO  headquarters  burning  was  a  State  project.    What 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2929 

knowledge  can  you  give  the  committee  about  this  being  a  State 
project? 

Mr,  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Bowers,  the  committee's  investigation  established 
the  following  individuals  to  have  held  State  office  in  the  White  Knights 
of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan :  Sam  H.  Bowers,  Laurel,  as  the  Imperial  Wiz- 
ard; Julius  Harper,  Crystal  Springs,  as  Grand  Dragon ;  Billy  Buckles, 
as  the  grand  giant  of  Roxie,  Mississippi;  Paul  Foster  of  Natchez, 
Mississippi,  the  grand  chaplain,  he  bemg  replaced  by  Petus  G.  Bilbo, 
Prentiss,  Mississippi ;  Ernest  S.  Gilbert,  of  Brookhaven,  the  first  grand 
director  of  the  Klan  Bureau  of  Investigation.  He  was  replaced  by 
Deavours  Nix  of  Laurel.  W.  R.  Mangum,  who  has  acted  as  MC  of  the 
State  executive  meetings;  John  McGregor,  Jackson,  Mississippi,  a 
Klan  tudor  or  propaganda  chief,  who  was  replaced  in  October  1964 
by  Dr.  Benny  Hennington  of  Lincoln  County. 

Is  the  result  of  the  committee's  investigation  factual  ? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  BowTiRS.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Under  the  constitution,  Mr.  Bowers,  the  jurisdiction  of 
the  White  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  is  divided  into  provmces, 
with  each  province  having  as  province  officer,  the  province  giant  and 
the  province  Klan  Bureau  of  Investigation  man.  The  committee's 
investigation  established  the  following  individuals  to  have  held  the 

gositions  of  province  KBI :  H.  L.  Holmes,  Jr.,  Jackson,  Mississippi ; 
idney  Davis  of  Jackson,  Mississippi ;  A.  A.  Rhoads,  of  Bolton,  Mis- 
sissippi; Wesley  Kersey,  Greenwood,  Mississippi;  Waites  McNeil, 
Louin,  Mississippi ;  Harold  Lloyd,  nicknamed  "Cotton,"  Delk  of  Hat- 
tiesburg;  George  Kellem,  Hattiesburg,  Mississippi;  Emile  Piazza, 
Bav  Saint  Louis,  Mississippi ;  E.  L.  McDaniel,  Natchez,  Mississippi. 

Are  the  results  of  the  committee's  investigation  in  this  respect  fac- 
tual? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  E.  L.  McDaniel,  who  served  as  a  province  officer  of 
the  White  Knights,  is  currently  the  Grand  Dragon  of  the  United  Klans 
of  America  in  Mississippi.    Do  you  know  that  to  be  factual  ? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Province  giants  were  identified  by  the  committee  dur- 
ing its  investigation  to  be  Gerald  Whitehead,  Crystal  Springs,  Missis- 
sippi; W.  L.  Barrett,  Jackson;  Clyde  Scale,  John  Winstead,  of 
Greenwood,  Mississippi ;  Travis  Ainsworth,  Hattiesburg  Manufactur- 
ing Company;  Benjamin  F.  Hinton,  of  Laurel;  C.  J.  Seal,  Pearl 
River;  and  J.  K.  Greer,  Fenwick,  Mississippi. 

Are  the  results  of  the  committee's  investigation  as  to  province  giants 
factual  ? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 


2930  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  C.  J.  Seal,  who  is  currently  or  who  was  a  province 
giant,  do  you  know  him  to  be  currently  an  official  of  the  United  Klans 
of  America  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  The  committee's  investigation  established  the  follow- 
ing individuals  to  be  kleagles  or  organizers :  A.  C,  Herrington  of  Ruth, 
Mississippi ;  Woody  Mathews,  Utica,  Mississippi ;  the  Reverend  Leak 
Boyte,  Attala,  Mississippi;  Frank  Breeland,  Columbia,  Mississippi; 
Ralph  Edwards,  Yazoo  City;  J.  N.  Fortenberry,  of  Jackson,  Missis- 
sippi ;  Gordon  Lackey  of  Greenwood,  Mississippi ;  William  Sullivan, 
Pearl,  Mississippi;  Douglas  A.  Byrd,  Liberty,  Mississippi;  Dave  Car- 
away, of  Liberty,  Mississippi;  Billy  Bird,  Mendenhall,  Mississippi; 
W.  L.  Barrett,  Jackson,  Mississippi;  Louis  A.  DiSalvo,  Bay  Saint 
Louis  and  Waveland,  Mississippi;  G.  W.  Bubanks,  Hattiesburg,  Mis- 
sissippi ;  P.  L.  Gray  of  Jackson,  Mississippi ;  N.  Gregory,  Greenville, 
Mississippi ;  C.  L.  Jordan  of  Pattison,  Mississippi ;  E.  R.  Killen,  Phila- 
delphia; A.  T.  Land,  Bay  Springs;  James  R.  Lathram,  Kilmichael, 
Mississippi;  D.  Moon,  Pelahatchie,  Mississippi;  Q.  B.  Rutland,  Wes- 
son, Mississippi;  Pete  Russell,  Magee,  Mississippi;  Mark  Sandifer, 
Jayess,  Mississippi;  Clyde  Seale,  Meadville,  Mississippi;  N".  Satter- 
field,  Shaw,  Mississippi';  D,  Shook,  Winona,  Mississippi ;  L.  C.  Sharp, 
Hattiesburg,  Mississippi;  Edward  Stagner,  Tylertown,  Mississippi; 
and  R.  C.  Wall,  Hattiesburg,  Mississippi. 

Are  the  results  of  the  committee's  investigation  factual,  Mr.  Bowers? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  BoAVERS.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Bursars  identified  during  the  meeting :  Tommy  Brock, 
Utica,  Mississippi;  Everett  D.  Wiggs  of  Woodland,  Mississippi; 
Gordon  Sykes,  of  Greenville;  Joe  Rusteci,  Itta  Bena,  Mississippi; 
Jack  Williams,  Pelahatchie  County,  Mississippi;  Donald  Henshaw, 
who  was  replaced  by  Dewitt  Mark  Sandifer  of  Jayess ;  Vincent  Pur- 
ser, Gulf  port,  Mississippi. 

Are  the  results  of  the  committee's  investigation  factual,  Mr.  Bowers? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  On  March  23, 1965, 1  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you 
to  affirm  or  deny  the  fact,  that  DeWitt  Mark  Sandifer  turned  over  to 
you  approximately  $2500. 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  What  disposition  was  made  of  that  money,  Mr. 
Bowers  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Bowers,  I  put  it  to  vou  as  a  fact  that  on  May  2, 
1965,  a  State  meeting  was  held  in  Pearl  River  County,  Mississippi,  at 
which  time  a  constitutional  amendment  was  adopted  whereby  each 
member  would  henceforth  pay  65  cents  per  month  to  the  State  treasury 
plus  his  local  dues;  that  all  province  and  district  and  grand  officers 
must  attend  all  State  meetings  of  the  organization  or  to  be  fined  $10; 
that  failure  to  attend  must  be  supported  by  an  excuse  which  is  accept- 


ACTIVITIES   OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S.  2931 

able  to  the  entire  assembled  State  meeting;  that  all  province,  district, 
and  grand  officers  shall  be  paid  a  maximum  of  $60  per  month  at  the 
rate  of  10  cents  per  mile  for  travel  in  connection  with  Klan  business; 
that  any  man  arrested  on  any  charge  that  admits  he  is  a  member  of  the 
White  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Mississippi  or  admits  doing 
the  act  for  which  he  is  charged  will  receive  no  help  whatsoever  from 
the  White  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Mississippi ;  that  the  dele- 
gates voted  to  pay  obligations  as  follows :  $1795  to  pay  an  old  printing 
bill  in  Jackson,  Mississippi ;  $300  to  pay  Imperial  Wizard  Sam  Bowers 
for  money  he  had  advanced  to  the  White  Christian  Protective  and 
Legal  Defense  Fund;  $200  to  W.  R.  Mangum  for  outstanding  ex- 
penses ;  $42  to  the  province  giant  from  Province  No.  2 ;  $50  each  to  the 
two  men  who  were  involved  in  the  assault  on  a  COFO  worker  in 
Vicksburg,  Mississippi ;  $300  to  a  man  in  Natchez,  Mississippi,  who  was 
arrested  during  the  fall  of  1964  by  the  Mississippi  Highway  Patrol. 

Mr.  Bowers,  is  that  which  was  read  to  you  growing  out  of  the  meet 
ing  of  May  2, 1965,  factual  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Bowers,  the  committee's  investigation  established 
the  following  officers,  Klavern  officers,  of  the  White  Knights  of  the 
Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Mississippi : 

Ralph  Edwards,  EC,  Yazoo  City  Klavern ;  Price  Gray,  EC  of  one 
of  the  Klavenis  in  Jackson,  Mississippi;  A.  C.  Herrington,  EC  of  the 
Ruth,  Mississippi,  Klavern;  N.  Gregory,  EC  of  the  Greenville,  Mis- 
sissippi, Klavern ;  Billie  Joe  Lee,  EC  of  the  Lawrence  Comity  Klavern 
No.  2 ;  F.  M.  Martin,  EC  of  the  Utica,  Mississippi,  Klavern ;  W.  R. 
Mangum,  EC  of  Magee,  Mississippi,  Unit  No.  1 ;  Felter  Polk,  EC  of 
the  Prentiss,  Mississippi,  Klavern ;  Roger  Smith,  EC  of  Union,  Mis- 
sissippi, Klavern;  C.  J.  Seal,  EC  of  the  Crossroads  Commimity 
Klavern.  Seal  was  replaced  as  EC  by  Houston  Dillard  in  April  1965. 
Robert  Thomhill,  the  EC  of  the  Improved  Mississippi  Unit  at  Sandy 
Hook,  Mississippi;  Clyde  Wentworth,  EC  of  the  Franklin  County 
Unit  No.  1  in  Meadville,  Mississippi;  W.  R.  Westmoreland,  EC  of 
the  Klavern  known  by  the  cover  name  of  Copiah  Rod  and  Gmi  Club. 
Howard  McLemore  replaced  Westmoreland  as  the  EC  of  this  Klayeni. 
George  Jasper  Williams,  EC  of  the  Klavern  in  Learned,  Mississippi ; 
Frank  Hemdon,  EC  of  Lauderdale  Coimty  Unit  at  Meridian,  Missis- 
sippi ;  Denson  "Pee  We«"  Lott,  the  EC  of  Covington  County  Unit  No. 
2  at  Collins,  Mississippi.  He  was  replaced  by  Ledrun  Spell.  G.  F. 
"Shorty"  Roberts,  who  was  EC  and  resigned  when  you  i-eorganized 
the  Hattiesburg  Unit.  He  was  replaced  by  Jimmy  Watts;  Ray, 
nicknamed  "Speed"  Lightsey,  EC  of  Jones  Comity  Unit  No.  1 ;  Milton 
Howard  James,  EC  of  Jones  County  Unit  No.  2,  Ellisville;  Henry 
Keith  Dykes,  EC  of  the  Wolf  Pack  Unit  No.  3,  Jones  County,  Big 
Tree  Community ;  Richard  C.  "Speck"  Steward,  EC  of  Unit  No.  4, 
Jones  County;  Robert  E.  Rivers,  EC,  Unit  No.  5,  Jones  County; 
Charles  B.  Holder,  EC,  Bay  Springs,  Mississippi ;  Herbert  Haughton, 
EC  of  Covington  Comity,  No.  1,  Mount  Olive,  Mississippi;  Charles 
Francis  Bishop,  EC  of  the  Old  Raleigh  Unit;  Robert  Lee  JoneSj  EC 
of  Taylorville  Unit ;  Robert.  H.  Tuniage,  EC  of  Mize,  Mississippi, 
Unit;  B.  F.  Hinton  was  EC  of  Laurel  Unit  known  as  the  Bogue  Homa 
Hunting  and  Rifle  Club;  I^eonard  McGee,  EC  of  the  East  Group  in 


2932  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S. 

Laurel  at  one  other  time;  S.  T.  Shook,  EC  of  the  Montgomery  County 
Unit  in  Winona;  Bert  McDaniel,  EC  of  the  Smith  County  Unit; 
HoAvard  Purvis,  EC  of  the  Popeville  Klavem ;  Baxter  Robinson,  EC 
of  the  Bums,  Mississippi,  Unit;  Edgar  Ray  Killen,  EC  of  the  Phila- 
delphia Klan  Unit. 

Mr.  Bowers,  do  you  have  any  comment  on  the  factuality  of  the 
committee's  investigation  as  to  members  of  the  White  Knights  holding 
positions  of  exalted  cyclops  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Edgar  Ray  Killen,  who  was  the  EC  of  the  Phila- 
delphia, Mississippi,  Unit,  do  you  possess  knowledge  whether  he  is 
the  same  Edgar  Ray  Killen  that  was  arrested  for  the  murder  of  the 
three  civil  rights  workers  in  Philadelphia  ? 

Mr.  BoAVERS.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  in  view  of  the  witness'  claim  of  privi- 
lege and  his  consistent  refusal  to  answer  questions,  I  present  to  the 
committee  the  results  of  our  investigation  as  they  pertain  to  Mr. 
Bowers. 

The  Chairman.  Before  coming  to  that,  Mr.  Appell,  I  would  like  to 
ask  two  or  three  questions,  just  briefly. 

Mr.  Bowers,  I  read  from  your  Imperial  Executive  Order  of  May 
3,  1964.  It  is  addressed  to  all  officers  and  members  and  under  sub- 
ject, and  after  the  colon,  it  reads:  "Forthcoming  Enemy  attack  and 
countermeasures  to  be  used  in  meeting  same."  In  that  executive  or- 
der you  say  that  it  must  be  read  to  and  by,  and  miderstood  by,  every 
member  of  your  statewide  organization.  Then  you  say,  "This  sum- 
mer"—this  is  1964— 

This  summer,  within  a  very  few  days,  the  enemy  will  launch  his  final  push  for 
victory  here  in  Mississippi. 

You  say : 

A  decree  from  the  Communist  authorities  in  charge  of  the  National  Gov- 
ernment, which  will  declare  the  State  of  Mississippi  to  be  in  a  Stae  [sic]  of 
open  revolt,  with  a  complete  breakdown  of  Law  and  Order,  and  declaring 
Martial  Law,  followed  by  a  massive  occupation  of  the  State  by  Federal  Troops, 
with  all  known  Patriotic  Whites  placed  luider  Military  Arrest.  *  *  * 

Could  you  name,  let  us  say,  100  of  the  Communist  authorities  in 
charge  of  the  National  Government  at  that  time  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

The  Chairman.  Could  you  name  50? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

The  Chairman.  Could  you  name  20? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

The  Chairman.  Could  you  name  10? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

The  Chairman.  Could  you  name  five? 

Mr.  Bowters.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S.  2933 

The  Chairman.  Could  you  name  one? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

The  Chairman.  In  that  Imperial  Executive  Order  you  say:  "A 
great  deal  of  attention  should  he  given  toward  detecting  those"  ene- 
mies— "enemy  agents  who  bomb,  burn  and  kill" — as  you  put  it — "their 
own  homes,  churches  and  people  in  order  to  provide  a  sympathetic 
base  for  their  National  Propaganda  Machine.  These  bombings  and 
killings  are  always  blamed  on  our  side,  but  it  is  the  Insane  Commu- 
nist agitators  themselves  who  are  doing  it.  *  *  *" 

Could  you  name  a  few  of  those  Communist  agitators  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

The  Chairman.  Could  you  name  two? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfidly 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

The  Chairman.  Could  you  name  one? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

The  Chairman.  Now,  it  has  come  to  the  attention  of  this  committee, 
time  and  time  and  time  and  time  agam,  that  the  common  practice  of 
your  outfit  is  to  say  that  "all  of  these  bombings  and  disturbances  and 
killings  are  really  done  by  foreigners,  people  from  away  from  here,  in 
order  to  blame  these  acts  on  us." 

Could  you  name  one  single,  solitary  bombing  or  killing  or  act  of 
violence  anywhere  in  the  State  of  Mississippi  which  was  really  per- 
formed by  people  from  away  from  there  and  blamed  on  you  and 
pinned  on  you?  Could  you  give  me  one  single,  solitary  case  of  that 
type?  I  will  be  frank  with  you.  I  have  been  intrigued  by  this  ques- 
tion, and  I  honestly  do  not  know  of  any  one,  do  you?  And  if  you  do, 
why  don't  you  tell  me  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

The  Chairman.  You  wind  up  in  your  imperial  decree  by  saying, 
"We  must  use  all  of  the  time  which  is  left" — and  you  say  that  would  be 
a  matter  of  day& — no,  I  am  sorry,  I  will  quote  it  exactly.  It  is  better 
than  I  thought : 

We  must  use  all  of  the  time  which  is  left  to  us  in  these  next  few  days  preparing 
to  meet  this  attack.  Weapons  and  ammunition  must  be  accumulated  and  stored  ; 
squads  must  drill ;  Propaganda  equipment  must  be  set  up  ready  to  roll ;  counter- 
attack maps,  plans  and  information  must  be  studied  and  learned ;  radios  and 
communications  must  be  established  ; 

Then  you  wind  up  by  saying — 

and  a  Solemn,  determined  Spirit  of  Christian  Reverence  must  be  stimulated  in  all 
members. 

Did  you  accumulate  weapons  and  ammunition  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

The  Chairman.  Did  you  store  weapons  and  ammunition? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

The  Chairman.  Did  you  drill  squads? 


2934  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    TJ.S. 

Mr.  BowEfis.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

The  Chairman.  Did  you  put  your  propaganda  equipment  to 
rolling  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

The  Chairman.  This  was  your  propaganda  equipment,  wasn't  it? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

The  Chairman.  All  right,  Mr.  Appell.  First  I  want  to  read  from 
another  document  I  have  here  which  you  put  out,  Mr.  Bowers,  what 
you  call  the  Black  List.  It  is  headed  in  bold  type : 

ATTENTION  WHITE  CITIZENS  OF  MERIDIAN  AND  LAUDERDALE 
COUNTY 

Listed,  below  are  a  few  people  and  businesses  who  are  traitors  and  parasites, 
who  would  sell  their  souls  for  thirty  pieces  of  silver  *  *  *. 

Then  you  proceed  to  list — and  I  am  not  going  to  name  them — a  page 
of  such  individuals  and  businesses.  How  could  you  imdertake  to  judge 
those  people  and  pronomice  them  to  be  traitors  and  parasites  ? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

The  Chairman.  I  said  I  would  not  name  them.  I  Avill  name  one. 
One  of  them  on  there  is  Billy  Birdsong.  You  know  Billy  Birdsong, 
do  you  not? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  j)reviously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

The  Chairman.  Wliy,  he  was  your  personal  investigator  for  a 
while ;  was  he  not  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

The  Chairman.  Then  you  broke  with  him,  did  you  not? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

The  Chairman.  As  I  recall,  Mr.  Appell  related  that  we  had  investi- 
gative information  to  the  effect  that  you  yourself  had  stated  that  you 
had  caused  Billy  Birdsong  to  be  beaten  up.  Didn't  you  do  that? 
Didn't  you  brag  about  that  and  say  that  at  a  meeting  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Bowers,  we  get  information  under  oath  and  we 
screen  it  out;  we  do  the  best  we  can.  We  never,  without  checking,  take 
anything  in  particular  at  face  value.  As  far  as  we  are  concerned, 
truth  must  prevail.  If  two  people  a]>pear  l>efore  us  and  give  us 
divergent  stories,  apparently  made  for  the  purj^ose  of  evasion  or  plain 
lying,  we  do  not  hesitate  to  act  on  it  and  let  whoever  is  subject  to  the 
pains  and  penalties  of  perjury  take  the  consequence.  But  let  me 
ask  you  this :  Isn't  it  a  fact  that,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  you  did  send  a 
goon  sjquad  to  call  on  Billy  Birdsong? 

( Witness  con  f  er s  with  counsel . ) 

The  Chairman.  Goon  squad,  terror  squad,  underground  wrecking 
crew,  whatever  you  call  it  in  Mississippi  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S.  2935 

The  Chairman.  By  the  way,  I  won't  name  it,  but  I  see  you  have  a 
hospital  on  that  list.  Wliy,  of  all  things,  a  hospital  among  traitors 
and  parasites,  people  who  would  sell  their  souls  for  30  pieces  of  silver  ? 
^Vliy  a  hospital  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  in  view  of  the  witness'  claimed  priv- 
ilege and  his  consistent  refusal  to  answer  questions,  I  present  to  the 
committee  the  results  of  our  investigation  as  it  pertains  to  Mr.  Bowers. 

Mr.  Bowers  was  bom  on  August  6, 1924,  at  New  Orleans,  Louisiana. 
He  resides  at  816  South  Fourth  Avenue,  Laurel,  Mississippi.  He  has 
a  partnership,  in  partnership  with  Robert  Larson  in  operating  the 
Sambo  Amusement  Company  and  the  Magnolia  Consolidated  Realty 
Company,  Inc.,  both  of  which  are  located  at  820  South  Fourth  Street. 
Laurel,  Mississippi.  He  attended  the  University  of  California  School 
of  Engineering  for  2  years.  He  entered  the  Navy  in  December  1941 
and  was  honorably  discharged  as  Machinist  Mate  First  Class  in  De- 
cember 1945.  Bowers  in  Febniaiy  of  1964  was  elected  Imperial 
Wizard  of  the  "White  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Mississippi. 

On  February  15,  1964,  200  Klansmen  met  at  Brookhaven,  Missis- 
sippi, with  those  present  foraierly  being  members  of  the  Original 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  Realm  of  Mississippi,  a  Klan  group 
headed  by  Royal  V.  Young  and  J.  D.  Swenson.  These  men  had  as- 
sembled because  of  a  disagreement  over  the  misappropriating  of  fimds 
principally  by  J.  D.  Swenson. 

On  February  17,  1964,  meeting  of  Natchez  Klavem  announced  that 
the  Klectokon,  or  initiation  fee,  for  the  White  Knights  be  $10 ;  robe 
$10 ;  dues  $4.25  or  $4.50  plus  $1  for  a  building  fund. 

On  February  25,  1964,  a  regular  meeting  of  the  Laurel  Klavern  was 
held.  During  this  meeting  it  was  discussed  that  a  meeting  had  been 
called  for  February  21,  1964,  at  the  Klavern  hall,  at  which  time  the 
proposed  cross-burnings  on  Saturday,  February  22,  1964,  were  called 
off  because  they  thought  that  the  police  had  information  regarding 
the  burnings.  It  was  also  voted  that  two  crosses  would  be  burned 
February  28, 1964,  to  prove  that  they,  the  Klan,  was  not  bluffing. 

At  this  meeting,  Sam  Bowers,  Grand  Dragon  or  Imperial  Wizard 
of  the  White  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  in  Mississippi,  reported 
that  he  attended  a  State  meeting  at  Brookhaven,  Mississippi,  on  Sun- 
day, February  23,  1964.  This  meeting  was  for  the  purpose  of  creating 
changes  in  the  constitution  and  bylaws.  These  changes  were  necessary 
since  the  White  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Mississippi  had 
pulled  away  from  the  Klan  in  Louisiana. 

On  February  26,  1964,  Imperial  Wizard  Bowers  reported  that  the 
State  would  be  divided  into  five  districts,  each  corresponding  with  a 
congressional  district,  and  that  the  Wliite  Knights  hoped  to  have  30 
chartered  Klaverns  by  March  15. 

June  7,  1964,  the  White  Knights  held  a  secret  State  meeting  near 
Raleigh,  Mississippi,  with  nearly  300  Klansmen  in  attendance.  At 
this  meeting  all  State  officers  were  present.  It  was  announced  that 
money  collected  by  Donald  Henshaw  would  be  turned  over  to  Tommy 
Brock,  chief  bursar  of  Utica,  Mississippi.  At  the  time  it  was  an- 
nounced the  White  Knights  had  62  Klaverns  in  82  Mississippi  coun- 
ties.    Speeches  by  State  officers  urged  members  to  obtain  firearms. 


2936  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Imperial  Wizard  Bowers  urged  the  younger  members  to  travel  to 
assist  law  enforcement  and  emphasized  that  they  should  stay  out  of 
trouble  till  they  catch  "them,"  referring  to  COFO  workers,  outside 
of  the  law  and  then  under  Mississippi  law  "you  have  the  right  to  kill 
them."  Bowers  claimed  this  was  the  case  at  Ole  Miss  where  six 
United  States  marshals  were  killed  because  they  were  illegally  at 
Ole  Miss.  However,  Bobby  Kennedy  had  kept  this  fact  secret  and 
would  not  permit  it  to  be  made  known.  Bowers  claimed  there  were 
97  projects  working  which  would  be  completed  in  the  iimnediate 
future. 

At  the  meeting  on  June  7,  a  printed  instruction  to  Klansmen  with 
respect  to  action  to  be  taken  during  the  summer  of  1964  was  passed  out. 

During  June  of  1964,  efforts  were  being  made  by  the  White  Knights 
of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Mississippi  to  obtain  two  members  from 
each  Klavern  throughout  the  State  of  Mississippi  who  would  be  in  a 
position  to  leave  their  particular  areas  for  2  or  3  days  at  a  time. 

June  9,  1964.  Meeting  near  Jackson,  Mississippi.  Billy  Buckles, 
the  grand  giant,  told  those  assembled  that  the  Wliite  Knights  of  the 
Ku  Klux  Klan  was  sponsoring  an  ex-convict  to  do  a  job  in  the  Jackson 
area.  This  would  cost  $1,200— $400  in  advance  and  $800  w;hen  the  job 
was  completed.  Buckles  claimed  that  the  job  was  so  big  it  would 
make  the  death  of  Medgar  Evers  "look  sick."  One  hundred  dollars 
toward  cost  was  collected  from  members  present. 

June  24,  1964,  a  meeting  of  Hinds  Comity  Klavems  was  held  on 
Greave's  Plantation  on  the  banks  of  the  Pearl  River  at  the  west  end  of 
Elton  Road  near  Jackson,  Mississippi.  Current  Klan  officers  were  in- 
troduced, including  Imperial  Wizard  Bowers,  Grand  Dragon  Harper, 
Grand  Giant  Buckles,  Grand  Director  of  KBI  Gilbert,  Klan  Kleagle 
Herrington,  with  Herrington  annomicing  that  the  WTiite  Knights  had 
70  Klavems  in  81  counties  in  Mississippi. 

Julius  Harper,  Grand  Dragon,  told  those  assembled  that  in  all 
future  jobs  the  county  giant  would  select  a  unit  to  pull  the  job.  The 
county  coordinator  would  then  select  a  meeting  place,  such  as  a  motel 
or  restaurant,  and  the  exalted  cyclops  of  the  unit  selected  would  then 
select  the  members  to  actually  pull  the  job. 

Billy  Buckles,  the  grand  giant  of  the  Wliite  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux 
Klan,  stated  that  there  were  to  be  no  more  bombmgs  of  any  type  by 
the  Klan  in  Mississippi  inasmuch  as  bombings  drew  attention  to  the 
Klan  too  rapidly.  Buckles  said  that  there  are  other  ways  to  handle 
things  and  no  matter  what  they  tell  you,  arson  is  hard  to  prove. 
Buckles  suggested  that  all  members  should  not  pay  excessive  prices  for 
this  material  as  he  could  obtain  rifles  for  $15  each,  which  price  included 
three  clips  of  ammunition.  Buckles  commented  that  the  outside  agi- 
tators must  be  stopped,  even  if  it  takes  a  few  "busted"  heads  and  if 
necessary  the  Klan  would  go  further  than  this  to  stop  these  agitators. 
Buckles  said  that  when  the  Klan  members  locate  meeting  places  of 
Negroes,  such  as  Negro  churches,  they  should  throw  carpet  tacks  on 
the  parking  lot  and  disable  the  assembled  cars  by  cutting  their  wires. 
Buckles  suggested  that  any  gasoline  operators  who  were  members 
should  keep  a  good  supply  of  sugar  to  pour  into  the  gasoline  tanks  of 
veliicles  of  persons  working  for  integration.     Buckles  said  he  assumed 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S.  2937 

that  all  of  the  members  present  had  read  about  the  disappearance  of 
the  three  civil  rights  workers  in  Neshoba  County  and  said — "Now, 
they  know  what  we  will  do.  We  have  shown  them  what  we  will  do 
and  we  will  do  it  again  if  necessary." 

September  1-4, 1964.  State  executive  meeting  at  the  office  of  Norman 
Jackson,  Crystal  Springs,  Mississippi.  Present  along  with  Bowers 
and  other  top  officers  was  Thomas  Edward  Fling  of  Mount  Olive, 
Mississippi,  identified  during  investigation  as  an  auditor  for  the  White 
I&iights. 

September  20,  1964.  At  a  State  executive  meeting  of  the  White 
Knights  which  was  held  they  discussed  violence  and  the  Philadelphia 
murders.  A.  C.  Herrington,  klan  kleagle,  opposed  church  bomb- 
ings unless  COFO  workers  were  present.  Ernest  Gilbert,  Klan 
Bureau  of  Investigation,  favored  throwing  heathens  out,  but  he  op- 
posed burnings  or  bombings.  Harper,  Grand  Dragon,  was  against 
burnings.  Buckles,  grand  giant,  and  Bowers,  Imperial  Wizard,  ex- 
pressed Herrington's  view  that  they  opposed  church  bombings  unless 
COFO  workers  were  present. 

Bowers,  Imperial  Wizard,  discussed  the  Philadelphia  affair  and 
stated  tliat  if  anyone  was  indicted  each  member  of  the  "Wliite  Knights 
would  be  assessed  $10  each,  and  each  State  officer  $100.  Bowers  also 
stated  that  if  indictments  Avere  handed  down  a  mass  campaign  would 
be  started  against  the  Federal  Government  and  the  Communist 
Party.  The  theme  would  be  that  the  Federal  Government  was  aid- 
ing the  Communists,  who  are  pushing  the  integration  movement  and 
Negro  vote  campaign.  This  was  forcing  ignorant  people  into  acts 
of  violence. 

September  27,  1964.  A  State  executive  meeting  of  the  White 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  was  held  on  the  second  floor  of  the 
Harris  box  factory  in  Meridian,  Mississippi.  Again  the  subject 
discussed  was  violence,  with  Herrington  opposing  church  bombmgs 
unless  COFO  workers  were  present,  and  with  Bowers  and  Buckles 
concurring  in  these  views. 

On  October  11,  1964,  a  meeting  of  State  officers  was  held  at  Crystal 
Springs,  Mississippi.  A  resolution  was  adopted  that  the  White 
Knights  would  issue  no  more  literature  and  an  order  was  passed 
down  to  commit  no  more  felonies.  Gilbert,  the  grand  director  of  the 
Klan  Bureau  of  Investigation,  desired  that  order  read  "no  more  vio- 
lence" but  this  was  rejected.  There  was  discussion  about  the  COFO 
house  bombing  at  Vicksburg,  Mississippi.  Bowers  and  John  Mc- 
Gregor of  Jackson  stated  that  "no  one  would  find  out  anything  about 
Vicksburg,  Mississippi,  COFO  house  bombing."  On  another  occa- 
sion Bowers  said  that  "they  will  not  find  out  who  did  that  one  as  I 
sent  someone  in  from  outside." 

On  October  29,  1964,  Bowers  attended  a  District  8  meeting  near 
Petal,  Mississippi.  He  stressed  that  no  more  churches  should  be 
burned  or  bombed  and  no  bombs  should  be  thrown  in  anyone's  yard. 

On  November  12,  1964,  the  White  Knights  held  a  meeting  at  the 
Le  Mar  Hotel,  Meridian,  Mississsippi.  Bowers  reported  that  Delmar 
Dennis  was  to  be  liis  personal  representative  and  B.  L.  Akin  in  charge 
of  all  investigations  in  the  Meridian  area.  All  investigative  matters 
should  be  brought  to  Akin's  attention,  with  all  administrative  matters 
to  be  handled  by  Delmar  Dennis. 


2938  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

On  November  15,  1964,  a  State  meeting  was  held  between  Harris- 
ville  and  Brandon,  Mississippi.  Principal  discussion  centered 
aromid  violence  by  the  White  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Mis- 
sissippi. It  was  decided  to  declare  a  moratorium  on  all  Projects  3 
and  4,  for  90  days.  However,  Imperial  Wizard  Bowers  advised  that 
if  an  approved  project  had  been  planned  and  would  be  completed  by 
December  1,  it  could  be  carried  out. 

In  January  1965,  several  meetings  were  called  by  Imperial  Wizard 
Bowers  for  the  purpose  of  raising  funds  on  behalf  of  the  defendants 
arrested  for  the  murder  of  the  three  civil  rights  workers  on  June  21, 
1964,  in  Philadelphia,  Mississippi.  Created  for  this  purpose  was  the 
White  Christian  Protective  and  Legal  Defense  Fund.  This  fund  was 
subsequently  used  for  other  purposes,  including  providing  defense 
funds  for  members  of  the  White  Knights  subpenaed  by  the  committee. 

On  January  31,  1965,  a  Klan  cabinet  meeting  was  held  in  an  aban- 
doned farmhouse  near  a  lake  off  Raymond  Road,  outside  Jackson, 
Mississippi.  Present  were  B.  L.  Akin,  Birdsong,  and  Bowers,  together 
with  other  State  and  Jackson  Klavern  ofl&cials.  Discussion  centered 
around  lifting  the  moratorium  against  Projects  3  and  4  and  the 
establishment  of  the  defense  fund  known  as  the  White  Christian 
Protective  and  Legal  Defense  Fund.  Bowers  appointed  Elmore  D. 
Greaves  as  the  fund  head. 

Bowers  told  those  assembled  that  he  had  confidential  infonnation 
from  high  influential  sources  that  African  troops  were  being  landed 
in  Cuba  for  extensive  military  training.  This  is  why  he  and  the 
White  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  had  long-range  plans  for  the 
buildup  and  burial  of  arms.  He  elaborated  that  after  these  troops 
were  trained  they  will  lead  an  invasion  of  the  United  States  at  Biloxi 
and  Gulf  port,  Mississippi.  When  the  invasion  commences.  Defense 
Secretary  McNamara  will  nationalize  the  State  Guard  and  turn  the 
Southern  States  over  to  the  Negro.  Whites  will  be  relocated  and 
moved  to  the  North.  The  Klan  will  be  the  only  element  to  fight  the 
invasion.  Bowers  said  the  choice  would  be  "to  be  smart  and  move  or 
to  be  right  and  fight." 

On  March  23,  1965,  at  a  State  meeting  at  Jackson,  Mississippi, 
Dewitt  Sandifer  turned  over  to  Bowers  approximately  $2,500,  with 
Bowers  giving  J.  K.  Greer  $700  to  $800  for  legal  expenses. 

On  June  27,  1965,  at  a  State  meeting  near  Greenwood,  Mississippi, 
100  members  were  present,  including  Bowers  and  other  officers.  At 
this  meeting  they  voted  to  send  $500  to  the  man  at  Bogalusa  who  was 
charged  with  killing  the  Negro  deputy  sheriff.  They  also  gave  out 
instructions  that  each  Klavern  was  to  burn  two  crosses  on  July  1,  1965. 

Buckles  suggested  that  the  job  of  KBI  be  filled  temporarily  at  this 
meeting.  Bowers  disagreed  and  said  it  was  a  permanent  assignment 
and  should  be  filled  through  an  election  by  the  officers.  Deavours  Nix 
was  elected ;  34  units  of  the  Klan  were  present  at  this  meeting 

The  Chairman.  Did  you  say  at  a  certain  meeting  a  certain  amount 
was  discussed  as  having  been  sent,  or  would  be  sent,  to  the  Bogalusa 
area  ?    Read  that  again. 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  sir.  The  meeting  was  on  June  27,  1965,  near 
Greenwood,  Mississippi,  and  it  was  voted  to  send  $500  to  the  man  in 
Bc^alusa  who  was  charged  with  the  killing  of  the  Negro  deputy  sheriff. 

The  Chairman.  As  I  said  before,  this  committee  has  no  objection, 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S.  2939 

I  have  no  objection,  nobody  can  have  any  objection,  to  providing  de- 
fense counsel  or  funds  to  pay  defense  counsel  for  anyone,  I  don't  care 
who  he  is.  I  am  wondering,  though,  if  that  $500  reached  its  destina- 
tion.   And  if  we  don't  know  that,  we  had  better  take  a  look  at  it. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  in  our  Louisiana  phase  of  the  hearing 
we  identified,  as  the  result  of  the  committee  investigation,  the  boy 
arrested  in  that  as  being  a  member  of  the  Klan  in  Louisiana. 

The  CHAIR3IAN.  That  was  not  my  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  We  do  not  know  whether  this  money  has  been  received. 

The  Chairman.  Did  you  send  it  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

The  Chairman.  We  have  evidence,  Mr,  Bowers,  to  the  effect  that 
the  'Wliite  Christian  Protective  and  Legal  Defense  Fund,  as  a  matter 
of  fact,  was — ^it  was  described  to  us  as  placing  buckets  and  jugs, 
as  I  remember  the  testimony,  throughout  Mississippi  restaurants, 
hotels,  motels,  places  of  business,  and  elsewhere,  and  that  it  was  pre- 
tended that  this  was  a  project  of  non-Klan  members,  but  that  in  fact 
it  was  a  Klan  operation  and  that  large  sums  of  money  were  raised 
during  that  campaign.     Do  you  have  anything  to  say  about  that? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

The  Chairman.  Information  came  to  us  that,  despite  the  allegations, 
protestations,  about  sobriety  and  Christianity  and  everything  else,  as 
I  recall,  large  sources  of  revenues  were  picked  up  by  this  defense 
fund,  from  buckets  or  jugs  placed  in  drinking  places,  and  that  the 
more  the  people  imbibed,  the  more  they  put  in  the  buckets  and  jugs. 
You  don't  have  any  knowledge  about  that  'i 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

The  Chairman.  All  right;  proceed. 

Mr.  Appell.  At  the  meeting  of  June  27,  a  printing  bill  was  sub- 
mitted for  $396  for  printing  costs  of  posters  "I  Want  You"  for  the 
White  Knights  of  Mississippi. 

The  Chairman.  Is  that  the  poster  that  was  exhibited  to  us  some 
time  ago? 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  sir.  ^ 

The  Chairman.  In  my  opinion,  that  is  a  low  blow,  Mr.  Bowers. 
And  I  say  that  as  chairman.  I  am  sorry  to  say  that.  I  don't  use 
that  kind  of  language  when  presiding,  but  the  use  of  a  poster  "I  Want 
You"  imitating  the  famous  poster  of  Uncle  Sam  calling  soldier  boys — 
"I  Want  You" — in  my  opinion  is  a  low  blow. 

Go  on. 

Mr.  Appell.  On  July  11,  1965,  a  meeting  of  province  officers  was 
held  in  Room  337,  King  Edward's  Hotel,  Jackson,  Mississippi. 
Bowers  instructed  them  to  have  a  "job"  in  each  province  throughout 
Mississippi  and  that  this  plan  was  designed  to  spread  thin  the  agents 
of  the  FBI  located  in  Mississippi.  Bowers  reported  that  Billy  Bird- 
song,  who  had  given  him  more  trouble  than  any  other  Klansman,  had 
been  whipped. 

On  July  18,  1965,  a  meeting  of  kleagles  was  held  south  of  Jackson, 
Mississippi.  Nix,  the  grand  director  of  the  Klan  Bureau  of  Investi- 
gation, shook  everyone  down  for  "bugs"  or  recording  devices.    Bowers 


2940  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S. 

claimed  that  the  White  Knights  in  the  Laurel  area  were  responsible 
for  over  16  burnings  and  bombings  in  Ihe  Laurel  area.  He  referred 
to  Laurel  as  the  "Smokestack  City." 

On  August  8, 1965,  a  meeting  was  held  at  Byram,  Mississippi,  south 
of  Jackson.  Bowers  offered  a  resolution  forbidding  White  Knights  of 
Ku  Klux  Klan  to  associate  with  members  of  the  United  Klans  of 
America. 

On  Aug^ist  22,  at  a  meeting  near  Florence,  Mississippi,  $500  was 
sent  to  assist  three  men  arrested  for  arson  in  Greenwood,  Mississippi. 

On  November  10,  1965,  Bowers  discussed  reorganizing  the  White 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  under  a  plan  described  as  Rule  5.  Under 
the  rule,  the  exalted  cy clops  picks  four  unit  heads  and  they  in  turn  each 
selected  four  trusted  Klansmen  to  meet  with  each  group  separately. 
By  this  reorganization  Bowers  hoped  to  frustrate  the  FBI  infiltration. 

This  information,  Mr.  Chairman,  indicates  that  Mr.  Bowers  is  in 
possession  of  additional  information  which  is  both  pertinent  and  rele- 
vant to  this  inquiry  and  would  materially  aid  Congress  in  the  enact- 
ment of  remedial  legislation. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Bowers,  you  have  heard  the  sworn  statement 
of  the  committee's  investigator.  You  now  have  the  opportunity  to 
reply  to  any  portion  of  that  statement,  to  confirm  or  challenge  the 
accuracy  of  the  information,  or  to  explain  any  part  of  it.  In  addition, 
you  may,  if  you  desire,  offer  any  other  matter  the  committee  may  deem 
relevant  to  this  inquiry.  Do  you  care  to  take  advantage  of  that 
opportunity  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

The  Chairman.  I  must  inform  you,  Mr.  Bowers,  that  I  indeed  agree 
with  Mr.  Appell's  statement  to  the  effect  that  you  possess  a  great  deal 
of  information  which  you  could  supply  this  committee  as  an  aid  in 
providing  remedial  legislation.  But  in  any  event,  you  may  now,  if 
you  desire,  offer  any  other  matter  the  committee  may  deem  relevant 
to  this  inquiry.    Do  you  care  to  take  advantage  of  that  opportunity  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Witness,  I  must  inform  you  that,  absent  your 
rebuttal  or  other  facts  that  may  come  to  the  attention  of  the  subcom- 
mittee, the  committee  will  rely  upon  the  accuracy  of  its  investigation. 
Having  that  in  mind,  do  you  now  want  to  say  anything  ?  And  by  that 
I  mean,  and  specifically  include,  relating  to  the  objects,  the  purposes, 
the  objectives,  the  good  that  you  know  about  klanism.  I  invite  you  to 
do  that.  You  may  say  anything  you  want.  You  may  praise  it  to  the 
sky.  I  have  asked  so  many  witnesses  that  the  record  is  going  to  look 
very  odd  when  not  a  single  leader — including  Imperial  Wizards,  if  you 
don't  come  forward — has  volunteered  to  say  one  single,  solitary  word 
about  what  is  good  about  klanism.  Why  don't  you  say  what  is  good,  in 
your  opinion?  You  joined  this;  you  must  have  believed  in  it.  Let's  put 
it  in  the  record  right  now.  Do  you  care  to  take  advantage  of  that 
opportunity  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

The  Chairman.  All  right.   Anything  else  ? 

Mr.  Appell,  The  staff  has  no  further  questions  of  this  witness,  Mr. 
Chairman. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KIT    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2941 

The  Chairman.  Mr,  Buchanan. 

Mr.  Buchanan.  Mr.  Bowers,  you  are  quoted  as  having  said  some- 
thing to  the  effect  that  if  it  is  necessary  to  eliminate  someone,  it  should 
be  done  in  silence,  without  malice,  in  the  manner  of  a  Christian  act. 
Am  I  to  understand  if  murder  is  committed  in  silence  and  without 
malice  it  can  become  a  Christian  act  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Buchanan.  No  further  questions. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  would  like  to  make  a  closing  statement  for  the  record, 
Mr.  Chairman. 

The  Chairivian.  All  right. 

Mr.  Appell.  The  subpena  of  Mr.  Bowers  called  upon  him  to  pro- 
duce retained  copies  of  corporate  tax  returns  relating  to  the  White 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Mississippi.  I  do  not  ask  Mr. 
Bowers  to  produce  those  documents  because  we  have  been  advised  by 
the  Treasury  Department  that  no  return  was  filed. 

The  Chairman.  Have  you  filed  individual  income  tax  returns? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

The  Chairman.  According  to  our  information,  and  I  believe  it  is 
right,  corporate  returns  were  not  filed  either.  Did  you  receive  any 
money  of  any  kind,  from  one  nickel  on  up,  as  a  result  of  your  associa- 
tion with  the  Klan  group  that  you  headed  ? 

Mr.  Bowers.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

The  Chairman.  The  witness  is  excused  and  the  subcommittee  stands 
in  recess  until  2 :30. 

(Subcommittee  members  present  at  time  of  recess:  Representatives 
Willis  and  Buchanan.) 

(Whereupon,  at  1 :30  p.m.,  Tuesday,  February  1,  1966,  the  subcom- 
mittee recessed,  to  reconvene  at  2 :30  p.m.  the  same  day.) 

AFTERNOON  SESSION— TUESDAY,  FEBRUARY  1,  1966 

(The  subcommittee  reconvened  at  3  p.m.,  Hon.  Edwin  E.  Willis, 
chairman,  presiding.) 

(Subcommittee  members  present:  Representatives  Willis  and 
Buchanan.) 

The  Chairman.  The  subcommittee  will  come  to  order. 

Call  your  first  witness  for  the  afternoon,  Mr.  Appell. 

Mr.  Appell.  Ernest  S.  Gilbert,  Jr. 

The  Chairman.  Please  raise  your  right  hand.  Do  you  solenmly 
swear,  sir,  that  the  testimony  you  are  about  to  give  will  be  the  truth,  the 
whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth,  so  help  you  God  ? 

Mr.  Gilbert.  I  do. 


2942  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

TESTIMONY  OF  ERNEST  S.  GILBERT,  JR.,  ACCOMPANIED  BY 
COUNSEL,  LESTER  V.  CHALMERS,  JR. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Gilbert,  state  your  full  name  for  the  record. 

Mr.  Gilbert.  Ernest  S.  Gilbert,  Jr. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  appearing  here  in  accordance  with  a  subpena 
served  upon  you  on  the  30th  day  of  October  1965,  at  114  Main  Street, 
Natchez,  Mississippi,  by  John  D.  Sullivan,  an  investigator  of  this 
committee  ? 

Mr.  Gilbert.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  represented  by  counsel  ? 

Mr.  Gilbert.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  counsel  please  identify  himself  for  the  record  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Lester  V.  Chalmers,  Room  501,  First  Federal 
Building,  Raleigh,  North  Carolina. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Gilbert,  114  Main  Street,  Natchez,  Mississippi, 
is  that  the  headquarters  of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Realm  of 
Mississippi  ? 

Mr.  Gilbert.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for 
the  reasons  that  I  honestly  feel  that  my  answer  might  tend  to  incrim- 
inate me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments 
5, 1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Gilbert,  Investigator  Sullivan,  who  sits  to  my 
right,  advises  me  that  the  place  that  you  were  served  was  the  head- 
quarters of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Realm  of  Mississippi,  in 
Natchez,  Mississippi.    Is  the  information  which  he  supplies  factual? 

Mr.  Gilbert.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  When  and  where  were  you  born,  Mr.  Gilbert  ? 

Mr.  Gilbert.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  groimds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  ask  that  the  witness  be  directed  to 
give  for  the  record  his  place  and  date  of  birth. 

The  Chairman.  Yes,  I  will  order  and  direct  you  to  answer  that 
question.  It  is  preliminary  exploration.  It  is  perfectly  usual.  It  cannot 
possibly  incriminate  you.    It  is  a  fact  that  ought  to  be  in  the  record. 

Mr.  Gilbert.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Gilbert,  in  1963,  were  you  a  member  of  the  Original 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Louisiana,  the  Realm  of  Mississippi? 

Mr.  Gilbert.  Sir,  I  respectfully  declme  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  When  a  group  of  members  of  the  Original  Knights  of 
the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Louisiana  broke  from  that  organization  and 
several  of  its  leaders  were  banished  by  Royal  V.  Young,  the  Imperial 
Dragon,  w^as  a  temporary  organization  to  become  known  as  the  White 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Mississippi  organized? 

Mr.  Gilbert.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  on  the  grounds  previously  stated. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S.  2943 

Mr.  Appell.  Prior  to  the  election  of  Sam  H.  Bowers  as  the  Imperial 
Wizard  of  the  new  organization  known  as  the  White  Knights  of  the 
Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Mississippi,  were  you  temporarily  placed  in  charge 
of  that  organization  ? 

Mr.  Gilbert.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Gilbert,  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to 
affirm  or  deny  the  fact,  that  with  the  election  of  Mr.  Bowers  as  the  Im- 
perial Wizard  you  were  elected  to  the  position  of  grand  director  of 
the  Klan  Bureau  of  Investigation. 

Mr.  Gilbert.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Gilbert,  as  grand  director  of  the  Klan  Bureau 
Investigation,  you  possess  knowledge  of  violence  carried  out  by  mem- 
bers of  the  Wliite  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan.  It  is  the  results  of 
the  committee's  investigation  that  many  of  these  persons  who  held 
membership  in  the  White  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  now  hold 
membership  in  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Realm  of  Mississippi. 

Is  this  information  factual  ? 

Mr.  Gilbert.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Gilbert,  as  grand  director  of  the  Klan  Bureau 
of  Investigation,  did  you  make  an  investigation  to  determine  whether 
or  not  members  of  the  Wliite  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  were 
involved  in  the  murder  of  Henry  Dee  and  Charles  Moore,  whose  bodies 
were  found  in  the  "Old  River"  ? 

Mr.  Gilbert.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  on  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  James  Ford  Seale,  one  of  the  two  arrested,  is  he  now 
a  member  of  the  United  Klans  of  America  ? 

Mr.  Gilbert.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  a  recent  release  put  out  by  the  United  Klans  of 
America,  the  Imperial  Wizard,  Mr.  Robert  Shelton,  acknowledged 
what,  in  my  recollection,  was  the  first  time  that  there  are  possibly  mis- 
fits within  the  United  Klans  of  America.  Are  these  people  who  were 
engaged  in  acts  of  violence  while  members  of  the  White  Knights  and 
who  are  now  members  of  the  United  Klans  of  America  some  of  the 
misfits  to  whom  Imperial  Wizard  Shelton  was  referring? 

Mr.  Gilbert.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Gilbert,  when  Mr.  Shelton  spoke  at  a  rally  of  the 
United  Klans  of  America  near  Hattiesburg,  Mississippi,  and  he 
charged  that  Mayor  Henry  Bucklew's  charges  linking  the  White 
Knights  with  violence  in  Laurel,  Mississippi,  and  described  that  as 
political  expediency,  had  he  discussed  with  you,  as  the  former  grand 
director  of  the  Klan  Bureau  of  Investigation,  as  to  whether  or  not 
members  of  the  "Wliite  Knights  had  been  involved  in  a  series  of  bomb- 
ings and  burnings  in  Laurel,  Mississippi? 


59-222  O— 67— pt.  4- 


2944  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Gilbert.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Gilbert,  was  Paul  Foster  the  first  grand  chaplain 
of  the  White  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Mississippi  ? 

Mr.  Gilbert.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  that  he  is  presently  the  Grand  Klaliff  or  vice  president  of  the 
Realm  of  Mississippi  of  the  United  Klans  of  America. 

Mr.  Gilbert.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Gilbert,  I  hand  you  several  newspaper  clippings 
relating  to  the  removal  of  a  body  from  its  grave  because  of  com- 
plaints made  by  the  Klan  that  Black  Muslims  were  concealing  arm 
caches  in  this  and  other  graves. 

The  newspaper  account  that  I  handed  you  reveals  that  the  original 
complaint  was  made  to  the  deputy  sheriff  of  Washington  County  by 
J.  R.  Wood  of  Greenville.  Do  you  know  him  to  be  a  member  of  the 
United  Klans  of  America  ? 

Mr.  Gilbert.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  The  account  in  the  Jackson,  Mississippi,  Clarion- 
Ledger  reads  that : 

The  Mississippi  Kleagle  of  the  United  Klans  from  Brookhaven,  Ernest  Gilbert, 
accompanied  by  fellow  Klansman,  F.  L.  Malone  of  Brookhaven,  arrived  on  the 
scene  in  Malone's  specially  equipped  radio  car  *  *  *. 

Please  tell  the  committee  the  use  made  of  citizens  band  radios  and 
walkie-talkie  radios  by  the  United  Klans  in  Mississippi. 

Mr.  Gilbert.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Documents  marked  "Ernest  Gilbert  Exhibit  No.  1."  The  Clarion- 
Ledger  article  follows :) 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2945 

Ernest  Gilbert  Exhibit  No.  1 
[Jackson,  Miss.,  Clarion- Ledger ,  Novembjcr  16,  1965) 

Report  Of  Arms  Cache  False; 
Officials  Begin  Probe^Of  Klaii 

By  KENNETH  TOLLIVER     !     He    revealed    thaT Sunday!  tolSarch  up  and  down  the  roaJ. 
(See  picture  on  Page  6.)  morning  J.  R.  Wood,  a  suspect-[I  put  a  stop  to  that." 

GREENVILLE  —  An  appar-  ed  Klansman,  summoned  Oep-i  Fi.'^her  told  reporters  that  as 
ent  bid  for  publicity  by  the  uty  Fisher  to  his  home  to  give  darkness  fell  the  KKK  became 
United  Klans  of  .\merica  in  him  details  about  some  hidden  more  anxious  to  have  the  grave 
Mississippi  may  have  backfired  'arms.  opened    and    called    him    con- 

Tuesday   as   authorities   blasted       "He  told  me  last  week  he  be-  stanlly  on  the  phone  asking  for 
the  organization  and  began  an   lieved  the  Black  Muslims  were  results, 
investigation  of  KKK  activity,     sneaking  guns  into  the  area,  but        I    finally    called    the   county 

The  rumble  nf  the  wrath  of,  at  that  time  he  said  he  didn't  executive  Cyclops  of  the  United 
Washington  County  law  enforce-  know  where  they  were  kept,"  Klans.  Dr.  Everett,  Mitchell,  a 
ment  agencies  rolled  across  the   Fisher  said.  Greenville     physical     therapist, 

state  touching  the  Attorney  Fisher  said  that  while  at  and  a.sked  him  if  he  was  in 
General's  office,  the  Governor's  Wood's  house  he  saw  'stacks  of  (^y^^,  ^^,j,y,  j^,^  members  and 
Mansion  and  the  Highway  Pa-   Klan   literature"   and   while  he  ^^^^  ^^  ^.^jj  ygj.    j  y^\^  "(,;„,  j 

"■o!^                ,  .  ,.        .  Y\  '^i''-"^  u*''*"    ^'"!!^-,  "f"*^"  was  doing  all  I  could  and  they 
The  wave  of  indignation  was  denly  these    hree  rough  looking  ^^^,  ^e    patient,"    Fisher  con- 
sparked  by  charges  brought  by  characters  stepped  out  from  be-  {jp^jpfj 

members  of  the  United  Klans  of  hind  a  curtain."  ^^^  Missis.sippi  Kleagle  of  the 
America  Sunday  that  weapons  He  said  they  told  him  hey  ^,^,(g^  ^j^^  f/^^  Rr^khaven. 
for  the  Black  Muslims  were  knew  where  the  Black  Mus  ims  g^^^^,  f,,^,  ,  ^^^^^^^^,^  by 
buried  ,n  Negro  churches  and  were  h:d,ng  guns  a  n  d  they  Kian^p^an.  F.  L  Malone 
cemeteries  across  the  stale.  wanted  to  make  a  deal.  "They  ,  Rrnothsvpn  arrived  on  the 
In  Greenville  Klansmen  led  wanted  a  reasonable  portion  of  "'  m,,„L  ,n^iJn! 
Washington  County  deputies  to  the  guns  and  ammunition,"  he  L^,f„!I2,  "  ^^  n2r  F..hL  „  h 
a  recent  Negro  grave  and  told  explained.  "They  said  they  ^"'PI^  '^^<^'"  ^'"^'  ^'^^^'  '"'"*'• 
them  it  contained  —  "automa- 1  wanted  to  use  them  to  protect  _,  ^'-'pli'T  NO  CREDI'T 
tic  weapons,  ammunition  and  white  people."  They  told  reporters  they 
maybe  a  machinegun."  Fi.sher  left  saving  he  could  "'^i  <^  *«  '"^^l  law  enforce- 
NO  GUNS  '  not  make  .such  a  deal,  but  lat-  '^^'  P^^P'^  '"  Bel  full  credit. 
When  the  grave  was  opened  er  when  he  returned  to  talk  fur-  Jhe  lileaj^le  tciid  newsmen 
Monday  morning,  it  was  found  ther  with  the  group  thev  told  t^al  he  ftstimated  'more  than 
to  contain  a  simple  coffin  and  him  they  had  "been  in  "touch  ^^  J""'  h^"  ^'^  smuggled 
no  weapons  of  any  kind.  with  headquarters  and  it's  okay  >nt«>  tie  state  and  were  hidden 
In  a  special  press  conference  to  cooperate  with  vou."  m  Negro  graves  and  Churches, 
called  by  authorities,  reporters  They  then  led  Deputy  Fisher  Deputy  Fisher  .said  that  Klea- 
were  told  that  "the  wraps  were  to  a  Negro  cemetery  near  g'p  Gilbert  offered  the  .services 
being  taken  from  the  Klan  op-  Greenville  and  pointed  out  the  '^^  ^^^  ^nen.  Fisher  said  that  Gil- 
eration."  grave  of  James  Turner,  64,  who  ^ert  told  him,"  One  of  our  mem- 
Referring  to  the  opening  of  had  been  buried  Nov.  4.  ^^^s  is  in  tears  out  there  think- 
the  grave  Monday  morning,  WANTED  REPORTERS  '"?  ^bout  those  guns." 
Wa.shington  County  Chief  Depu-  "They  said  thev  had  been  Greenville  Chief  of  Police 
ty  Earl  Fisher  said,"  This  was  watching  the  cemetery  and  were  ^-  ^  Burnley  referred  In  the 
done  to  disprove  once  and  for  pretty  sure  that  guns  were  in  Klansmen  as  a  "bunch  n{  nuts 
all  that  Negroes  are  not  stash-  the  grave.  They  wanted  ABC,  *'th  crazy  ideas  fighting  for  the 
ing  guns.  The  Black  Muslims  NBC,  CBS  and  the  Jackson  survival  of  their  stupid  organi- 
and    the    Deacons    for    Defen.se  newspapers   on   hand   when   the  zati""" 

are  not  in  here  creating  an  up-  grave  was  opened."  Fisher  told  ^  suspected  Klansmen  accom- 
rising."  reporters.  panied  the  authorities  to  the 
Working  in  the  dark  foggy  Fearing  a  not  if  the  rumors  gi'^v^  ""^  reported  back  to  Gil- 
graveyard,  heavily  armed  po-  reached  the  public.  Fisher  said  ^^  ^f'^r  the  grave  was  open- 
lice  pried  the  hd  from  a  wood-  he  requested  a  riot  squad  fron>  ed^ 

en  vault  holding  the  casket  and  the  (Treenville  police — He" then  Meanwhile     Klansmen      with 

found    nothing   to   further   such  telephoned  the  Attorney  Gener-  '*"  "  way  radio  equipped  cars, 

'"^r'T .                      u  ,  «""  J3ck.son  and  told  him  about  ^""^^  ,  *'*^     Tennessee     tags, 

"We    had    reason    to    believe  ,^6  situation.  "He  said  to  con-  '^''''^^    '^'^    ^^'R^^^^y   "*^^   '»^« 

hat   a    felonv,    that   of      grave  (jnue  the  investigation,"  Fisher  f^^^^^^'"!'.        .      .       ,        .^ 

tampering,    might     have     been  ^^^^                     ^  Special  investigators  from  the 

committed  and  we  obtained  per-  ..^^^  ^^^^  j^,.^,^  ^^       3^^.  Highway    Pa  t  r  o  1    arrived    in 

mission   from    the   next   of   k;n  j,      ^^^      ^^^  ^^  j^^^     anyone  Greenville  Tue,<;day  to  begin 

to  open  the  grave."  Fisher  said.if^^^  ,3^,      ^^^  ^^^  ]>,^,j  their  own  inve.stigation  into  the 

•We  did  not  have  a  court  order  ^       they  could  patrol  up  and  incident.  They  were  apparently 

to  open  the  coffin  Itself,  but  our  ,,■>',*',         1^  infere.sted   in   the    Klan    claim 

investigation    indicated    it    had  J^"'^;  J  f  ^^    the  r      ad  «  that  "we  have  been  watching  the 

""^  RFLA^?,NnDENTS  equip^TcaTs,    Fisher   expTat  ^-'^'^,  ,f .  Negroes    i^    three 

ln''tL';Trsrc'o™c?Dep.'^"l-l   ^^^    ^-dly    turned  '^^^a      a^e^  '^'"^  "^  ^""^ 

uty  Fisher  related  the  chain  of  around  before  one  of  them  had  8        .      ^     governor's 

incidents    with    Klan    members :  ^".^^-^''^  \"d  \  "^  m''""?,''  '  ofLindicaT^)  that  Gov.  John- 

which  led  to  the  event.       •  I '»-"«'''  "ve--  ^'s  shoulder  all  set  °^'*''.j  "tested  " 


2946  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  The  news  account  then  quotes  you  as  saying,  "more 
than  5,000  guns  had  been  smuggled  into  the  state  and  were  hidden  in 
Negro  graves  and  Churches."  If  that  statement  is  factual,  Mr.  Gil- 
bert, please  give  the  committee  the  benefit  of  the  knowledge  the  United 
Klans  of  America  possesses  in  this  regard. 

Mr.  Gilbert.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  on  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  the  United  Klans  of  America  have  any  basis  upon 
which  to  make  this  charge  to  the  Washington  County  Sheriff's  De- 
partment, which  resulted  m  the  removal  of  a  body  from  the  grave  and 
a  search  of  his  coffin  for  concealed  arms  ? 

Mr,  Gilbert.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  in  view  of  the  witness'  claim  of  pi-ivi- 
lege  and  his  consistent  refusal  to  answer  questions,  I  present  to  the 
committee  the  results  of  our  investigation  as  they  pertain  to  Mr. 
Gilbert. 

Ernest  S.  Gilbert  was  born  on  June  13,  1925,  in  Smith  County, 
Mississippi.  His  educational  background  is  unknown  to  the  staff. 
During  the  early  part  of  1965,  he  was  employed  as  a  driller  with  the 
Smith  Petroleum  Company,  Brookhaven,  Mississippi.  Mr.  Gilbert 
was  a  leader  of  the  Realm  of  Mississippi  of  the  Original  Knights  of 
the  Ku  Klux  Klan  which  had  its  headquarters  in  Louisiana.  In  late 
1965,  because  of  mismanagement  of  Original  Knight  funds 

The  Chairman.  You  say  the  headquarters  in  Louisiana.  Is  that  in 
the  area  of  the  Bossier-Shreveport  area  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  As  a  result  of  mismanagement  of  Original  Knight 
funds  by  J.  D.  Swenson,  dissension  grew  and  resulted  in  certain  Mis- 
sissippi Klansmen  being  banished.  After  the  banishment  of  Douglas 
A.  Byrd  and  E.  L.  McDaniel  and  others,  they  and  their  followers  broke 
from  the  Original  Knights  and  formed  the  White  Knights  of  the  Ku 
Klux  Klan  of  Mississippi.  Ernest  Gilbert  was  elected  or  appointed 
temporary  head  of  the  Wliite  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Mis- 
issippi  in  late  1963.  Mr,  Gilbert,  E.  L.— nicknamed  Tiny — Lewis,  and 
Douglas  Byrd  were  part  of  a  committee  which  drafted  the  White 
Knights  constitution.  With  the  election  of  the  White  Knights  offi- 
cers in  February  1964,  Gilbert  was  chosen  grand  director  of  the  Klan 
Bureau  of  Investigation,  a  position  he  held  until  June  1965,  when  he 
joined  the  United  Klans  of  America,  becoming  its  grand  kleagle  or 
State  organizer,  a  position  which  he  presently  holds.  Gilbert  was  the 
exalted  cyclops  of  the  original  Klavern  in  Lincoln  County,  Mississippi. 
As  grand  director  of  the  Klan  Bureau  of  Investigation,  Gilbert  was 
responsible  for  gathering  intelligence  necessary  for  the  Wliite  Knights 
of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Mississippi  to  carry  out  acts  of  intimidation 
or  violence  by  the  State  or  by  local  Klaverns  with  State  approval. 
Gilbert  attended  numerous  meetings  at  which  violence  was  planned  or 
discussed. 

In  May  1964,  he  attended  a  meeting  in  the  Salvage  House  of  Algene 
Price  located  at  Key  Field,  Meridian,  Mississippi,  at  which  Preacher 
Edgar  Ray  Killen  presided.  Killen  was  later  arrested  in  connec- 
tion with  the  slaying  of  the  tliree  civil  rights  workers  in  Phila- 
delphia, Mississippi. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S.  2947 

On  June  7,  1964,  he  attended  a  meeting  n'ear  Raleigh,  Mississippi, 
where  Klansmen  were  urged  to  obtain  firearms  and  members  were 
advised  that  the  White  Knights  had  97  projects  working  through  the 
State.  At  this  meeting  a  printed  instruction  captioned  "Harras- 
ment"  [sic]  was  given  to  the  some  300  Klansmen  present. 

On  Jime  24,  1964,  Gilbert  attended  a  meeting  of  Hinds  County 
Klavem  near  Jackson  where  the  grand  giant  discussed  future  proj- 
ects, in  which  he  stated  that  the  province  giant  would  select  a  unit 
to  pull  a  job;  the  county  coordinator  would  select  a  meeting  place 
for  the  unit  to  discuss  the  details;  thereafter  the  EC  of  the  unit 
selected  to  pull  the  job  would  select  the  members  to  carry  out  its 
completion. 

On  September  20,  1964,  Gilbert  was  part  of  a  discussion  on  vio- 
lence, in  which  he  opposed  burning  or  bombing  churches  but  approved 
other  forms  of  violence  against  what  he  described  as  "heathens"  who 
used  churches  to  hold  meetings. 

On  September  29,  1964,  Gilbert  and  V.  T.  Purser  requested  Grand 
Dragon  Julius  Harper  for  the  State  to  burn  or  stinkbomb  the  Menon- 
ite  School  for  Wayward  Girls,  which  was  being  used  as  COFO 
headquarters. 

In  January  1965,  Gilbert  attended  the  first  of  several  meetings  relat- 
ing to  the  formation  of  the  White  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  and 
the  Wliite  Christian  Protective  and  Legal  Defense  Fund. 

July  16,  1965,  spoke  at  a  public  rally  held  at  the  Crossroads  Com- 
munity, Poplarville,  Mississippi.  He  was  introduced  as  grand  kleagle 
for  the  UKA.  He  was  accompanied  on  the  platform  by  former  mem- 
bers of  the  White  Knights,  C.  J.  Seal,  now  a  titan  of  the  United 
Klans  of  America;  E.  L.  McDaniel,  Grand  Dragon  for  the  United 
Klans  of  America;  Louis  DiSalvo,  also  on  the  platform;  and  Saxon 
Farmer  and  Ovied  Dunaway. 

The  Chairman.  Is  that  Farmer  of  Louisiana? 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  sir.  And  Ovied  Dunaway,  exalted  cyclops  of 
the  Original  Knights  in  Bogalusa,  together  with  Jack  Helm,  a 
Louisiana  Realm  official  from  New  Orleans,  Louisiana. 

On  October  28,  1965,  Gilbert  was  on  the  platform  at  a  public  rally 
with  Imperial  Wizard  Shelton  near  Hattiesburg,  Mississippi. 

This  information,  Mr.  Chairman,  indicates  that  Mr.  Gilbert  pos- 
sesses additional  information  whicli  is  both  pertinent  and  relevant 
to  this  inquiry  and  would  materially  aid  the  Congress  in  enacting 
remedial  legislation. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Gilbert,  you  have  heard  the  statement  of  Mr. 
Appell,  who  you  know  is  under  oath  just  like  you  are.  You  now  have 
the  opportunity  to  reply  to  any  portion  of  that  statement,  confinn  or 
challenge  the  accuracy  of  the  information,  or  to  explain  any  part  of  the 
statement.  In  addition,  you  may,  if  you  desire,  offer  any  other  matter 
the  committee  may  deem  relevant  to  this  inquiry.  Do  you  care  to  take 
advantage  of  this  opportunity  ? 

Mr.  Gilbert.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  In  that  case,  Mr.  Gilbert,  absent  your  rebuttal  or 
other  facts  which  may  come  to  the  attention  of  the  committee,  this 
committee  will  rely  upon  the  accuracy  of  its  investigation.  Bearing 
this  in  mind,  do  you  have  anything  to  say  ? 


2948  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Gilbert.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

The  CHAiRjvrAN.  Do  you  have  anything  more  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  sir,  Mr.  Chairman. 

Mr.  Gilbert,  I  hand  you  two  photographs  taken  during  the  rally 
held  at  Crossroads  Community  in  Poplai-ville,  Mississippi.  I  ask  you 
to  advise  the  committee  as  to  the  reason  or  purpose  that  persons  shown 
in  this  photograph  are  dressed  in  black  robes  with  black  hoods,  and 
even  those  in  white  robes  carrying  sidearms. 

The  Chairman.  Doing  what  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  Carrying  sidearms,  Mr.  Chairman. 

The  Chairman.  Do  you  care  to  say  what  you  were  explaining  to 
your  counsel?  And  I  don't  want  to  pry  into  consultations  at  all  now. 
But  if  you  have  anything  to  say,  sir,  now  is  the  time  to  say  it.  If  you 
don't  know  anything  about  it,  why  don't  you  say  so? 

Mr.  Gilbert.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Let  me  hand  you  back  the  one  photograph  and  invite 
your  attention  to  the  man  who  has  a  camera  in  his  hand  whose  back  is 
in  the  photograph.     I  ask  you  whether  or  not  that  is  yourself. 

Mr.  Gilbert.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  hand  you  another  photograph  and  ask  you  to  observe 
the  Klansman  in  a  red  robe.  I  then  ask  you  if  that  is  Charles  Stewart 
whom  you  have  been  seated  with  this  morning  and  who  is  on  the  front 
row  on  the  seats  to  the  left  as  you  look  to  the  rear  of  the  room. 

Mr.  Gilbert.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  staff  has  no  further  questions. 

The  Chairman.  I  see  in  this  photograph,  the  one  just  handed  to  you, 
where  it  was  indicated  that  you  were  the  person  in  the  photograph 
with  your  back  turned,  that  some  of  the  individuals,  some  of  the  peo- 
ple in  this  photograph,  have  red  marks  or  Indian  signs  or  something 
on  their  faces.    Do  you  know  what  that  stands  for  ? 

Mr.  Gilbert.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  Honest  to  goodness  now,  Mr.  Gilbert,  isn't  that 
silly  ?    Take  a  look  at  that. 

(Photograph  handed  to  witness.) 

Mr.  Gilbert.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  on  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  Yet,  on  the  other  photograph  that  I  hand  you  I 
see  some  people  with  sidearms,  meaning  pistols,  with  gun  belts  and 
cartridges  all  around  their  belts.  That  doesn't  seem  to  be  silly,  that 
seems  to  be  deadly  serious  to  me.    Wliat  does  it  seem  to  you  ? 

Mr.  Gilbert.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Photographs  marked  "Ernest  Gilbert  Exhibit  No.  2"  follow:) 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S. 
Ernest  Gilbert  Exhibit  No.  2 


2949 


Ernest  Gilbert  Exhibit  No.  2— Continued 


2950  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLTJX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S. 

Ernest  Gilbert  Exhibit  No.  2— Continued 


^^^^i 


■>w    -. 


J 


Photographs  taken  during  rally  at  Crossroads  Community,  Poplarville,  Miss. 

The  Chairman.  Do  you  have  any  further  questions? 

Mr.  Appell.  I  have  no  further  questions,  Mr.  Chairman. 

The  Chairman.  The  witness  is  excused.    Call  your  next  witness. 

Mr.  Appell.  Joseph  Carlton  Brown. 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Mr.  Chairman,  this  witness  affirms. 

The  Chairman.  Do  you  solemnly  affirm  to  tell  the  truth,  the  whole 
truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth  ? 

Mr.  Brown.  I  do. 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Mr.  Chairman,  before  Mr.  Appell  asks  the  witness 
any  questions,  the  subpena  has  written  over  it  "James  Carlton  Brown" 
and  "James"  is  stricken  out  and  above  it  is  written  "Joseph."  I  would 
like  for  the  subpena  that  I  have  to  be  corrected  or  the  one  the  commit- 
tee has  to  be  corrected  by  letting  me  ask  the  reverened  his  true  name. 

The  Chairman.  All  right. 

Mr.  Chalmers.  It  is  Joseph  Carlton  Brown,  Mr.  Chairman. 

The  Chairman.  Thank  you. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S.  2951 

TESTIMONY  OF  JOSEPH  CARLTON  BROWN,  ACCOMPANIED  BY 
COUNSEL,  LESTER  V.  CHALMERS,  JR. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Brown,  would  you  state  your  full  name  for  the 
record  ? 

Mr.  Brown.  Joseph  Carlton  Brown. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  appearing  here  today  in  accordance  with  the 
subpena  served  upon  you  on  the  29th  day  of  October  1965  by  John  D. 
Sullivan,  an  investigator  of  this  committee? 

Mr.  Brown.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  represented  by  counsel,  Mr.  Brown  ? 

Mr.  Brown.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  counsel  identify  himself  for  the  record  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Lester  V.  Chalmers,  Jr.,  attorney  at  law.  Room  501, 
First  Federal  Building,  Raleigh,  North  Carolina. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Brown,  when  and  where  were  you  born? 

Mr.  Brown.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
reason  that  I  honestly  feel  my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate  me  in 
violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments  5,  1,  4, 
and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  America. 

Mr.  Appell.  Would  you  give  the  committee  the  benefit  of  your 
educational  background  ? 

Mr.  Brown.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  you  give  the  committee  a  resume  of  your  employ- 
ment background  from  1960? 

Mr.  Brown.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  I  don't  think  you  ought  to  do  that.  Reverend.  I 
understand  you  are  a  minister  and  I  really  don't  think  you  ought  to 
do  that.    Why  don't  you  tell  us  what  you  do  ? 

Mr.  Brown.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Brown,  are  you  acquainted  with  an  individual 
who  resided  in  McComb  by  the  name  of  Billy  Earl  Wilson  ? 

Mr.  Brown.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Brown,  Billy  Earl  Wilson  testified  before  this 
committee  on  January  18,  1966,  in  public  session.  In  the  course  of 
his  testimony,  after  he  had  identified  himself  as  being  a  onetime 
member  of  the  United  Klaus  of  America  in  Mississippi  and  after  he 
had  testified  that  he  was  assigned  to  a  Klavern  of  the  United  Klans  of 
America,  which  he  did  not  know  the  number  of  but  vrhich  the  com- 
mittee investigation  establishes  to  be  No.  TOO,  he  identified  as  the 
exalted  cyclops  of  that  Klavern  Ray  Smithj  who  is  employed  by  the 
telephone  company  in  McComb,  MississippL  He  was  asked  in  con- 
nection with  the  officers  of  that  Klavern  as  to  the  identity  of  the  kludd 
or  the  chaplain,  and  he  identified  as  the  kludd  or  chaplain  the  Rev- 
erend J.  C.  Brown.    Was  Mr.  Wilson's  testimony  truthful  ? 

Mr.  Brown.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  gi'ounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Wilson  testified  that  after  he  was  arrested  he  was 
visited,  together  with  his  other  nine  codefendants,  by  the  Reverend 
J.  C.  Brown.    Is  his  testimony  truthful? 


2952  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Brown.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Would  you  tell  the  committee  why  you  visited  Billy 
Earl  Wilson  and  the  other  defendants  while  they  were  in  jail  following 
their  arrests? 

Mr.  Bkown.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  The  other  defendant,  Paul  Dewey  Wils.on,  at  the  time 
you  were  the  kludd  or  chaplain  of  the  Klavem,  was  he  the  klaliff  or  vice 
president  of  the  Klavern  ? 

Mr.  Brown.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Murphy  John  Duncan,  another  of  the  defendants, 
was  he  the  klabee  or  treasurer  of  the  Klavern  ? 

Mr.  Brown.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  also  know  Murphy  John  Duncan  to  be  the 
grand  klabee  or  grand  treasurer  of  the  United  Klans  of  America, 
Realm  of  Mississippi  ? 

Mr.  Brown.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  At  the  time  you  visited  Billy  Earl  Wilson  in  jail,  did 
you  advise  him  that  the  Imperial  Wizard  Shelton  was  going  to  assess 
every  member  of  the  United  Klans  of  America  to  help  pay  their  at- 
torney fees,  court  costs,  and  other  expenses  ? 

Mr.  Brown.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Brown,  I  will  now  read  you  from  Billy  Earl  Wil- 
son's testimony,  who  was  asked  about  his  plea,  and  he  said  that  he 
pleaded  nolo  contendere,  and  continued : 

Yes,  sir,  nolo  contendere,  I  was  sentenced  to  6  months  in  jail  and  a  $500  fine. 
This  6  months  was  to  be  suspended,  and  the  $500  fine  had  to  be  paid  within  a 
weeli's  time,  plus  the  cost  of  court,  which  was  $78.  So  all  told,  I  had  to  get 
hold  of  $578,  I  believe,  is  the  right  amount. 

About  Wednesday  of  that  week  Brother  Brown  sent  word  to  me  for  me  to 
stop  over  at  his  home,  which  I  did.  He  gave  me  $2.50,  which  was  half  of  my  fine, 
and  also  gave  me  $78,  which  was  all  the  costs  of  the  court.  That,  as  far  as  I 
knew  then,  I  was  just  about  in  the  same  shape  as  I  was  in  before.  be<"ause  I 
didn't  have  the  money,  you  know,  to  match  the  other,  for  the  half  of  it. 

So  my  grandad — I  might  say  he  is  a  real  nice  guy — let  me  have  the  other  half 
of  the  money,  which  I  went  down  Immediately  the  next  afternoon  from  work, 
and  I  paid  all  my  fines  and  everything. 

Mr.  Appell.  What  about  the  fee  that  you  had  to  pay  for  an  attorney  to  de- 
fend you  in  this  action? 

Mr.  Wilson.  My  aunts  and  uncles,  and  what  little  money  I  had,  they  all  went 
together  and  tried  for  a  lawyer,  and  I  think  they  asked  about  two,  I  think,  and 
finally  wound  up  with  Mr.  L.  S.  McClaren.  As  a  retainer,  he  said  he  had  to 
have  $500,  which  they  all  went  together  and  made  up  the  money,  and  they  didn't 
have  it,  and  he  was  my  lawyer. 

Mr.  Appell.  So  that  of  the  $500  that  you  had  to  pay  your  attorney  and  the 
$500,  plus  court  costs,  that  you  were  fined,  the  United  Klans  of  America,  of 
which  you  Avere  a  formal  member  and  for  which  you  engaged  in  these  acts  as 
a  result  of  action  formally  taken  within  a  Klavern  chamber,  paid  then  $100.  I 
guess,  toward  your  attorney  fees,  one-half  of  your  fine  in  the  amount  of  $250, 
and  the  $78  court  costs,  or  a  total  of  $428. 

Mr.  Wilson.  As  far  as  I  know,  that  money  that  was  raised  that  we  received 
was  raised  right  there,  you  know,  in  town,  by — it  may  be  some  members  that 
were  in  the  Klan,  but  I  imagine  there  was  a  lot  of  them  that  wasn't  in  the  Klan 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2953 

that  let  us  have  some  money.    So  far  as  I  know,  to  actually  say  that  I  received 
money,  I  can't,  because  I  don't  know. 

Did  Billy  Earl  Wilson  receive  from  you  a  total  of  $428^ 

Mr.  Brown.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
ba,sed  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Where  was  the  money  obtained  which  you  used  to  re- 
imburse Billy  Earl  Wilson  and  the  other  nine  defendants  in  that 
action  ? 

Mr.  Brown.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appeli..  If  Billy  Earl  Wilson  received  $428  and  there  were 
defendants  and  they  each  received  equal  shares,  it  would  be  close  to 
$4,000  that  was  collected.  Did  any  of  this  money  come  from  the  United 
Klans  of  America  imperial  office  in  Tuscaloosa,  Alabama? 

Mr.  Brown.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact  that  none  of  this  money  came 
from  the  United  Klans  of  America  imperial  office  in  Tuscaloosa,  Ala- 
bama.   I  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny  that  fact. 

Mr.  Brown.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Reverend  Brown,  can  you  explain  to  me  how  it  was 
that  Imperial  Wizard  Shelton  would  deny  to  me,  in  an  interview,  that 
these  McComb  people  were  even  members  of  the  United  Klans  of 
America  ? 

Mr.  Brown.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  staff  has  no  further  questions  to  ask 
of  Mr.  Brown. 

The  Chairman.  Sir,  my  information  is  that  you  are  a  minister  of 
the  Gospel,  and  I  am  not,  believe  me,  undertaking  to  delve  into  your 
religious  beliefs  or  to  reproach  you  or  lecture  in  the  least..  It  is  my 
recollection — and  this  recollection  is  in  general  terms — that  Mr.  Wil- 
son did  not  say  that  you  had  obtained  the  money  that  you  gave  him 
from  Klan  members  or  from  Klan  headquarters  or  from  Klan  lead- 
ers. In  fact,  I  got  the  general  impression — and  I  may  be  wrong  as  to 
the  details — that  Mr.  Wilson  was  at  least  implying  you  might  have 
or  probably  did  raise  this  money  locally.  I  want  to  tell  you,  sir,  as  I 
have  said  many,  many  times  before,  if  you  did  raise  money  for  the 
defense  of  this  young  man  or  anybody  in  trouble,  you  would  be  doing 
absolutely  nothing  wrong.  Could  you  tell  us  hoAv  you  went  about 
raising  that  money  ? 

Mr.  Brown.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  I  Avould  even  tell  you,  sir,  that,  if  you  did  relate 
that,  it  wouldn't  subject  you  to  a  continuous  line  of  cross-examination 
on  my  part.  I  would  be  curious  to  know  how  you  did  raise  that  money 
and  do  what  I  assume  you  thought  to  be  an  act  of  kindness.  Why 
can't  you  tell  us  tliat  ? 

Mr.  Brown.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 


2954  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S. 

The  Chairman.  It  is  my  recollection  also  that  this  young  man,  Wil- 
son, who  got  himself  in  an  awful  mess  of  trouble,  said  that  he  joined  the 
Klan  organization  because  he  believed  what  had  been  represented  to 
him,  to  the  effect  that  that  organization,  in  addition  to  standing  for 
other  things,  such  as  Christianity,  which  we  will  overlook  for  the  time 
being,  stood  for  segregation  of  the  races.  He  said  that.  I  think  it  is 
true,  and  that  brought  no  opposition  from  me,  nor  did  it  subject  him 
to  any  cross-examination  on  my  part. 

Anyway,  after  having  said  what  he  was  going  to  stand  on  and  hav- 
ing gotten  in  trouble,  and  believing  in  it  originally,  he  came  to  the  con- 
clusion that  klanism  was  not  the  answer  to  racial  segregation  or  inte- 
gration.    Would  you  care  to  address  yourself  to  that? 

Mr,  Brown.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Buchanan.  Mr.  Brown,  you  have  been  identified  by  our  in- 
vestigation as  the  kludd  or  chaplain  of  a  Klavem,  and  therefore  I  as- 
sume you  are  its  spiritual  adviser.  Do  you  feel  there  are  circum- 
stances which  justify  bombings  and  make  them  acceptable  or 
Christian  acts? 

Mr.  Brown.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Buchanan.  You  are  a  man  in  a  position  of  some  influence  and 
are  in  a  position  to  influence  young  people  to  join  or  not  to  join  such 
an  organization  as  the  Klan.  Do  you  feel  that  the  activities  of  the 
Klan  are  such  that  this  is  a  good  and  healthy  organization  for  young 
people  who  might  be  under  your  influence  to  join  ? 

Mr.  Brown.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

The  Chairman.  The  witness  is  excused. 

The  committee  will  stand  in  recess  until  10  o'clock  tomorrow 
morning. 

(Subcommittee  members  present:  Representatives  Willis  and 
Buchanan.) 

(Whereupon,  at  3 :50  p.m.,  Tuesday,  February  1,  1966,  the  subcom- 
mittee recessed,  to  reconvene  at  10  a.m.,  Wednesday,  February  2, 
1966.) 


ACTIVITIES  OF  KU  KLUX  KLAN  ORGANIZATIONS  IN 
THE  UNITED  STATES 

Part  4 


WEDNESDAY,  FEBRUARY  2,  1966 

United  States  House  of  Representatives, 

Subcommittee  of  the 
Committee  on  Un-American  Activities, 

Washington^  D.C. 

PUBLIC    HEARINGS 

The  subcommittee  of  the  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities, 
as  reconstituted  for  the  February  2  hearings,  met,  pursuant  to  recess, 
at  10:30  a.m.  in  the  Caucus  Room,  Cannon  House  Office  Building, 
Washington,  D.C,  Hon.  Joe  R.  Pool  (chairman  of  the  subcommittee) 
presiding. 

(Subcommittee  members:  Representatives  Joe  R.  Pool,  of  Texas, 
chairman;  Charles  L.  Weltner,  of  Georgia;  and  John  M.  Ashbrook, 
of  Ohio.) 

Subcommittee  mem'bers  present :  Representatives  Pool,  Weltner,  and 
Ashbrook. 

Staff  members  present:  Francis  J.  McNamara,  director;  William 
Hitz,  general  counsel ;  Alfred  M.  Nittle,  counsel ;  Donald  T.  Appell, 
chief  investigator ;  and  Philip  R.  Manuel,  investigator. 

Mr.  Pool.  The  committee  will  come  to  order. 

The  Chair  wishes  to  make  this  announcement:  Mr.  Edwin  Willis, 
the  chairman  of  this  subcommittee  of  the  House  Committee  on  Un- 
American  Activities,  is  not  able  to  be  here  today,  and  he  has  redes- 
ignated the  subcommittee  to  hear  the  witnesses  this  morning,  and  here 
is  the  authority  for  that : 

Pursuant  to  the  provisions  of  the  law  and  the  Rules  of  this  Committee,  I  hereby 
appoint  a  subcommittee  of  the  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  consisting 
of  Honorable  Joe  R.  Pool  as  Chairman,  and  Honorable  Charles  L.  Weltner  and 
Honorable  John  M.  Ashbrook  as  associate  members,  to  conduct  hearings  in 
Washington,  D.C,  on  Wednesday,  February  2,  1966,  as  contemplated  by  the 
resolution  adopted  by  the  Committee  on  the  30th  day  of  March,  1965,  authorizing 
hearings  concerning  the  activities  of  the  various  Ku  Klux  Klan  organizations  in 
the  United  States. 

Please  make  this  action  a  matter  of  Committee  record. 

If  any  member  indicates  his  inability  to  serve,  please  notify  me. 

Given  under  my  hand  this  2nd  day  of  February,  1966. 

Mr.  Appell,  are  you  ready  for  your  next  witness  ? 
Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  sir ;  Mr.  Chairman,  I  would  like  to  call  Mr.  Emmett 
Thomhill,Sr. 

Mr.  Pool.  Will  you  raise  your  right  hand,  please? 

2955 


2956  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S. 

Do  you  solemnly  swear  the  testimony  you  are  about  to  give  will  be 
the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  by  the  truth,  so  help  you  God  ? 
Mr.  Thornhill.  I  do. 

Mr.  Alford.  Mr.  Chairman,  Louis  Alford,  attorney. 
Mr.  Pool.  Just  a  minute. 

TESTIMONY  OF  JOHN"  EMMETT  THORNHILL,  SR.,  ACCOMPANIED 
BY  COUNSEL,  LOUIS  ALFORD 

Mr,  Appell.  Mr.  Thornhill,  will  you  state  your  full  name  for  the 
record  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  John  Emmett  Thornhill. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  appearing  here  today  in  accordance  with  a 
subpena  served  upon  you  on  the  29th  day  of  October  1965  by  John  D. 
Sullivan,  an  investigator  of  this  committee  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Thornhill,  are  you  represented  by  counsel? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  counsel  identify  himself  for  the  record? 

Mr.  Alford.  Louis  Alford,  attorney  at  law,  McComb,  Mississippi. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Thornhill,  when  and  where  were  you  born? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  In  1908,  in  Walthall  County,  Mississippi. 

Mr.  Appell.  If  you  will,  put  that  microphone  a  little  bit  closer  to 
you,  as  the  acoustics  in  this  room  are  terrible. 

Mr.  Thornhill.  All  right,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  We  will  hear  you  a  little  better. 

Now,  would  you  tell  us  where,  the  montli,  and  the  day?  I  didn't 
get  that.     I  heard  the  year  1908. 

Mr.  Thornhill.  October  the  29,  1908,  in  Walthall  County,  State 
of  Mississippi. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr,  Thornhill,  would  you  give  the  committee  a  brief 
resume  of  your  educational  background  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  didn't  get  any  education. 

Mr.  Appell.  Would  you  give  the  committee  a  brief  resume  of  your 
employment  background  since  1960  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  In  1960? 

Mr.  Appell.  Since  1960,  sir. 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Well,  farmer,  and  in  the  oil  business.  Independent 
operator. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  the  oil  business  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  And  what  was  the  first  thing  that  you  said?  I  didn't 
hear  that. 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Farming. 

Mr.  Appell.  Oh,  farming. 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  own  my  own  farm. 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Thornhill,  under  the  subpena  served  upon  you,  there  is  an 
attachment  which  is  made  a  part  of  the  subj^ena,  and  it  commands  for 
you  to  bring  with  you  and  to  produce : 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S.  2957 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  relating  to 
the  organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  business  and  affairs  of  the  Invisible  Em- 
pire, United  Klaus,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also  known 
as  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  and  affili- 
ated organizations,  namely,  the  Alabama  Rescue  Service,  in  your  possession, 
custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  you  or  available  to  you  as  present  or  past 
member  of  the  Invisible  Empire,  United  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan 
of  America,  Inc.,  also  known  as  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of 
the  Ku  Klux  Klan. 

I  ask  you,  Mr.  Thornhill,  whether  you  have  any  such  documents  in 
your  possession,  and  if  you  will  produce  them  in  accordance  with  the 
subpena  ? 

(Witness  confers  w^ith  counsel.) 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  have  none. 

Mr.  Alford.  Mr.  Chainnan,  the  only  thing  that  may  be  interpreted 
as  falling  within  that  category  are  three  canceled  checks,  which 

Mr.  Pool.  Well,  now,  I  would  like  to  have  the  witness  say  whatever 
he  wants  to  on  that. 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Well,  I  have  no  records. 

Mr.  Pool.  You  have  no  records  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  Would  you  produce  the  checks  which 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Thornhill,  the  first  check  which  you  produced  is  a 
check  drawn  on  the  First  National  Bank  of  McComb,  Mississippi,  pay- 
able to  Radio  Station  WHNY,  in  the  amount  of  $17,  dated  June  1, 
1964. 

The  other  is  a  check  on  the  same  bank  in  the  amount  of  $25,  dated 
June  2,  1964,  to  Radio  Station  WAPF;  and  the  third  check  on  the 
same  bank,  dated  June  3,  1964,  in  the  amount  of  $63,  is  payable  to 
the  Enterprise-J aurnal^  all  checks  signed  J.  E.  Thornhill. 

Mr.  Thornhill,  can  you  explain  to  the  committee  how  these  checks 
fall  within  the  purview  of  the  subpena  and  the  purpose  for  which  they 
were  drawn? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Pool.  Let's  see  the  checks. 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  sir ;  I  can  answer  that. 

Those  checks  were  give — they  got  me  to  run  an  ad  on  each  radio,  put 
spots  on  the  radios  for  Mr.  Shelton's  speech,  which  he  was  going  to 
make  at  the  fairground  in  McComb ;  also,  run  an  ad  in  the  paper.  So 
that's  what  the  checks  w^as  give  for. 

(Checks  marked  "John  Thornhill  Exhibit  No.  1"  follow:) 


2958  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S. 

John  Thornhill  Exhibit  No.  1 


MR.  OR  MRS.  J.  E.  THORNHILL 

p.   O.  BOX  c 

SmfMiT,  ivlississipp: 
TO  THE        /  ^    Z/'  J' :7^''-T^  /y. 


r,n^>- "^ 


Dollars 


3^^ 


L^A 


•:qe>5  3"'00^ii:         52  Eon,*- 


MR.  OR  MRS.  J.  F.  THORNHILL 

p.   O.  BOX  C 

StrMMTT,  Mississippi 


y^n^roK  *(^A-;;^>  J^/^^!^  \//Afr     ^^^T^ 

X^^^MJ^       -R^     ^'0^^^      ' T^*^      ••  DoLLARi 


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([^  /C^^y.^.^../^^^ 


MR.  OR  MRS.  J.  E.  THORNHILL 

p.   O.   BOX  ". 

StJMMiT,  Missr>sirpi 
Pt^^'the     Y  iTT  C   .  h    7  1 

loRUF.R   O  K  '-...r-t    I      '^■--'^  i-   Al-     4  C 


For 


ACTIVITIES   OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S.  2959 

Mr.  Appell.  Aiid  the  Mr.  Shelton  that  you  are  referring  to  is  the 
Imperial  Wizard  of  the  United  Klans  of  America  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Wio  approached  you  for  the  purpose  (ff  paying  the 
radio  stations  and  the  newspaper  for  this  advertisement? 

Mr.  Thorxhill.  Well,  I  just  don't  remember.  I  can't  recall  right 
now  just  who  did  do  that. 

Mr.  Appell.  At  the  time  that  you  were  approached  to  make  these 
payments,  covering  advertisement  for  a  speech  to  be  made  by  Imperial 
Wizard  Shelton,  were  you  a  member  of  the  United  Klans  of  America  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  And  when  did  you  first  join  the  United  Klans  of 
America  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  don't  remember  that. 

Mr.  Appell.  Can  you  fix  it  roughly  as  to  the  early  part  of  1964  or 
late  1963  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  No,  sir ;  I  don't  remember. 

Mr.  Appell.  At  the  time  that  you  gave  the  checks  in  June,  can  you 
recall  approximately  how  many  months  you  had  been,  at  that  time  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Three  or  four  months,  something  like  that. 

Mr.  Appell.  Three  or  four  months  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Explain  to  the  committee  the  circumstances  under 
which  you  became  a  member  of  the  United  Klans  of  America. 

Mr.  Thornhill.  What  do  you  mean  by  that,  now  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  Well,  how  did  you  become?  Did  you  seek  membership 
or  did  someone  approach  you  for  the  purpose  of  becoming  a  member 
or  just  what  were  the  circumstances? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  sir;  someone  approached  me  to  join  the 
United  Klans. 

Mr.  Appell.  And  who  approached  you  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Well,  now,  I 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel. ) 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Mr.  Chairman,  with  respect,  I  decline  to  answer 
on  the  grounds  that  my  answer  might  tend  to  involve  me.  I  refuse  to 
answer  it,  based  on  the  right  give  me  under  the  1st,  4th,  5th,  and  14th 
amendments  to  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Thornhill,  in  refusing  to  answer  that  question, 
do  you  rely  upon  an  oath  of  secrecy  which  is  administered  to 
Klansmen  ? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  didn't  hear  you. 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  other  words,  your  refusal  to  answer  that  question 
is  because  as  a  Klansman,  you  were  administered  an  oath  of  secrecy 
which  you  subscribe  to  ? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  sir ;  and  this  I  just  read. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  think  that  for  the  purpose  of  the  record,  if  you  will 
say,  when  you  desire  to  refer  to  the  constitutional  privileges  which 
you  invoked  earlier,  if  you  say  that  it  is  for  the  grounds  previously 
stated,  the  record  will  reflect  all  of  the  reasons  which  you  state. 

59-222  O— 67— pt.  4 5 


2960  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  on  the  grounds  that  previously  just  was 
stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Chairman,  in  view  of  the  fact  that  Mr.  Thornhill,  in  response 
to  a  question,  stated  that  among  the  reasons  he  refused  to  answer  was 
the  oath  of  secrecy  that  he  took,  I  ask  that  he  be  directed  to  answer  the 
last  question. 

Mr.  Pool.  Well,  as  I  understand  him,  he  took  the  fifth  amendment 
also. 

Mr.  Appell.  Not  with  respect  to  whether  or  not  among  his  reasons 
was  the  oath  of  secrecy  which  was  given  to  Klansmen. 

Mr.  Pool.  Wliy  don't  you  restate  your  question.  You  are  talking 
about  his  reasons,  and  that  is  a  little  different  from  trying  to  get  a 
factual  answer. 

I  don't  think  I  should  direct  him  on  that.  Restate  your  question, 
and  maybe  I  can  direct  him. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Thornhill,  I  asked  you  if,  in  refusing  to  answer 
the  question  as  to  the  identity  of  the  person  that  solicited  your  mem- 
bership in  the  United  Klans  of  America,  you  were  relying  upon  an 
oath  of  secrecy  administered  to  Klansmen.     You  said  "yes." 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  then  asked  you  whether  or  not  you  relied  upon  the 
oajth  of  secrecy  which  you  took  as  a  Klansman,  and  you  then  invoked 
constitutional  privileges,  the  reasons  previously  stated. 

Have  I  summarized  that  properly  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  I  understand  it  better  now;  yes.  Well,  that's 
the  same  answer. 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Thornhill.  On  the  grounds  previously  stated  on  the  matter. 

Mr.  Pool.  Well,  Mr.  Thornhill,  you  are  refusing  to  answer  on  the 
fifth  amendment  and  not  on  your  oath  of  secrecy  that  you  took  as  a 
Klansman ;  is  that  correct  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  sir ;  on  the  fifth  amendment. 

Mr.  Appell.  It  was  my  opinion,  Mr.  Chairman,  that  Mr.  Thornhill 
had  waived  his  invocation  by  his  "yes"  answer  to  the  first  question 
asked. 

Mr.  Pool.  But  you  are  satisfied  with  his  answer  now. 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Pool.  Fine. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  addition  to  the  three  checks  that  you  submitted 
in  payment  for  two  radio  advertisements  and  a  newspaper  advertise- 
ment of  a  rally  at  which  the  Imperial  Wizard,  Mr.  Shelton,  was  going 
to  speak,  have  you  made  any  additional  financial  contributions  to  the 
United  Klans  of  America,  or  for  its  use  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  pay  an  initiation  fee  into  the  United  Klans 
of  America  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  purchase  a  robe  within  the  organization  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  pay  dues  to  the  organization  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  And  what  was  the  rate  of  dues  that  you  paid  ? 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2961 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Dollar  and  a  half  a  month. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  summary,  the  $10.00 — and  I  might  ask,  did  you 
pay  a  fee  of  $10.00  as  an  initiation  fee,  or  did  you  pay  more  ? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Thornhill.  $10.00. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  addition  to  the  $10.00  initiation  fee  and  $10.00  for 
the  robe  and  a  dollar  and  a  half  i^er  month  dues  and  the  money  paid 
to  the  radio  stations  and  the  newspaper,  is  this  all  of  the  financial 
contributions  that  you  ever  made  for  the  benefit  of  the  United  Klans 
of  America  or  its  members  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  How  long  did  you  remain  a  member  of  the  United 
Klans  of  America? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  just  don't  remember  that.  I  don't  remember. 
I  can't  recall  just  back,  the  month  that  I  gotten  out.    I  don't  recall  that. 

Mr.  Weltner.  I  didn't  understand  that  answer.     What  was  that? 

Mr.  Appell.  He  does  not  recall  the  month  or  the  time  that  he  ceased 
being  a  member. 

Did  you  cease  being  a  member  ? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  And  why  did  you  cease  being  a  member  ? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Thornkill.  Well,  they  was  doing  some  things  that  I  didn't  ap- 
prove of  too  much,  so  I  thought  maybe  I  would  get  out. 

Mr.  Appell.  Well,  can  you  explain  to  the  committee  some  of  the 
things  that  were  happening  that  you  didn't  like  too  much  that  caused 
you  to  get  out  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Well,  there  was  something  I  didn't  know.  Tliey 
didn't  let  me  know  anything  that  was  going  on.  I  didn't  know 
whether  the  Klan  was  doing  it  or  not,  but  everybody  knew  that  I  was 
in  the  Klan  and  they  thought  that  I  w^as  the  head  of  it,  which  I  didn't 
know^  a  thing  about  what  was  going  on,  and  I  didn't  think  the  Klan 
was  doing  it.  And  so  everybody  was  accusing  me  of  doing  it  anyway, 
and  I  said,  well,  I  would  just  get  out  of  it. 

If  I  was  the  only  one  that  w^as  open,  that  didn't  care  who  knew, 
didn't  care  if  people  knew  that  I  was  a  member,  which  I  didn't  care. 
I  thought  at  that  time  that  it  was  a  mighty  good  organization,  still 
think  it  is,  but  I  didn't  want  everybody  thinking  that  I  was  doing 
those  things,  when  I  was  completely  innocent  of  them. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  vou  determine  tliat  it  was  members  of  the  United 
Klans? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  No,  sir;  never  did  determine  that  it  was  in  the 
United  Klans,  the  Klan  was  doing  this  work  until  they  picked  them  up, 
and  I  couldn't  believe  it  then. 

Mr.  Appell.  Well,  I  mean  after  they  picked  them  up,  did  you  then 
realize  that  they  were  Klansmen  ? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Thornhill.  After  they  plead  guilty  to  it;  yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  And  did  you  know  them  to  be  members  of  the  United 
Klans  of  America  after  they  picked  them  up  ? 


2962  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Thornhill.  No,  sir — well,  I  don't  know  they  was  a  member  until 
they  picked  them  up,  and  they  admitted  that  they  were  a  member  and 
were  the  ones  that  did  the  work. 

Mr.  Appell.  And  at  the  time — we  are  talking  now,  are  we,  about 
the  11  people  who  were  indicted  in  McComb,  Mississippi,  for  engaging 
in  a  series  of  bombings  and  burnings  of  churches  and  other  property  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  At  the  time  tliese  people  were  in  jail,  did  you  visit  %vith 
them? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  sir ;  I  went  to  see  them  onetime. 

Mr.  Appell.  And  what  was  your  purpose  for  going  to  see  them? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Well,  just  went  down  to  see  the  boys,  being  neigh- 
bors, as  far  as  I  know. 

Mr.  Appell.  Were  you  there  also  for  the  purpose  of  satisfying  your- 
self that  they  were  members  of  the  United  Klans  of  America  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Well,  I  asked  them  and  I  also  asked  them,  did  they 
do  it,  and  I  wanted  to  satisfy  myself  on  the  thing.  I  couldn't  believe 
it. 

Mr.  Appell.  And  did  you  satisfy  yourself  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Well,  when  they  pleaded  guilty  to  it,  I  said,  well, 
I  just  can't  understand  it.    I  guess  they  was  the  ones  that  done  it. 

Mr.  Appell.  But  with  respect  to  the  personal  interview  that  you 
had  with  them,  did  that  convince  you  that  they  had 

Mr.  Thornhill.  No,  sir ;  it  did  not. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  they  admit  to  you  that  they  had  engaged  in  it, 
prior  to  the  plea? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  No,  sir;  no,  they  denied  it  to  me  right  up  to  the 
last. 

Mr.  Appell.  They  denied  it  to  you. 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  When  you  went  to  prison  to  visit  them,  were  you  ac- 
companied by  anyone? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  sir;  Brother  Brown  went  with  me. 

Mr.  Appell.  Brother  Brown. 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  sir ;  had  prayer  with  him ;  yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Now,  did  you  know  Brother  Brown  to  be  a  member 
of  the  Klan  also? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Not  at  that  time ;  no,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Not  at  that  time. 

Mr.  Thornhill.  No,  sir;  did  not. 

Mr.  Appell.  But  you  did  learn  that  he  was  a  member  of  the  Klan. 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Well,  later  on ;  yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Now  Mr.  Thornhill,  to  what  Klavern  of  the  Klan  were 
you  assigned  for  membership  purposes  ? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Thornhill.  On  the  grounds  previously  stated,  I  will  take  that. 

Mr.  Appell.  Prior  to  the  arrest  of  the  McComb  boys,  did  you 
know  any  of  them  personally  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Two  of  them ;  yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  And  what  two  did  you  know  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  knew  the  Duncan  boy  and  the  little  Zeeck  boy. 

Mr.  Appell.  Now  did  you  know  Duncan  to  have  been  elected  in 
September  of  1964  to  the  position  of  treasurer  for  the 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2963 

Mr.  Thornhill.  No. 

Mr.  Appell.  — Realm  of  Mississippi  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill..  Did  not. 

Mr.  Appell.  You  didn't. 

Mr.  Thornhill.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  know  that  Dinican  had  gone  to  Birmingham, 
Alabama,  to  attend  the  United  Klans  of  America  klonvokation  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  No,  sir ;  I  did  not. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  ever  meet,  attend  meetings,  of  the  Klavern 
in  McComb  of  which  Ray  Smith  was  the  exalted  cyclops? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  decline  to  answer  that  on  the  grounds  previously 
stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Paul  Wilson,  one  of  the  boys  involved  in  that,  at  the 
time  of  his  arrest  gave  a  statement  to  the  Mississippi  Highway  Patrol 
that  you  sometimes  attended  meetings  there. 

Was  his  statement  factual  ? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  decline  on  the  grounds  previously  stated  on  that. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Thornhill,  an  examination  of  records  of  the  United 
Klans  of  America  reflects  that  some  payments  which  appear  on  an 
analysis  to  be  dues  payable  to  the  Imperial  Realm  were  signed  by 
H.  H.  Mathews,  payable  out  of  a  personal  account. 

Do  you  know  Mr.  Mathews  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Would  you  have  been  assigned  to  a  Klavern  of  which 
Mr.  Matthews  was  the  exalted  cyclops  ? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  decline  to  answer  on  the  grounds  stated  on  that. 

Mr.  Appell.  The  McComb  bombers  were  arrested  in  October  of  1964 
and  thereafter  pleaded  guilty  and  were  given  suspended  sentences 
and  fined ;  some  fined,  some  not.  How  long  after  they  entered  their 
plea  and  you  determined  that  they  were  United  Klansmen  did  you 
drop  out  of  the  United  Klans  of  America  because  it  did  not  stand  for 
what  you  thought  the  organization  should  stand  for  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  No,  sir ;  I  stated  the  reason  a  while  ago,  the  reason 
I  got  out  of  the  Klan.  I  got  out  of  the  Klan  because  my  name  was 
open,  and  they  was  accusing  the  Klan  of  dropping  those  sticks  of 
dynamite  and,  of  course,  everybody,  white  and  colored,  thought  that 
I  was  the  head  of  it,  and  which  was  unbeknownst  to  me.  I  didn't 
know  anything  about  it,  and  that  was  my  reasons  for  getting  out  of 
the  Klan  at  that  time. 

Mr.  Appell.  But  you  did  not  ap])rove  of  bombings. 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Well,  no,  I  didn't  appro\e  of  going  out  there  and 
stirring  up  a  lot  of  trouble  and  getting  a  lot  of  ])ublicity  for  something 
they  can't  buy. 

Mr.  Appell.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  you  were  so  convinced  at  one  time 
that  the  people  engaging  in  these  acts  were  not  Klansmen  that  you 
offered  a  thousand  dollars  reward  for  the  apprehension? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Certainly  was ;  yes,  sir.  Put  up  a  thousand  dollars 
reward,  put  it  in  my  paper.  I  just  didn't  believe  our  boys  would 
have  done  anything  like  that.     I  couldn't  believe  it. 

Mr.  Appell.  And  when  you  found  out  that  some  of  the  United 


2964  ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Klans  of  America  boys  had  done  it,  was  this  one  of  the  things  that 
caused  you  to  drop  out  of  the  organization  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  No,  I  was  done  out.  I  was  done  out,  then,  way 
before  then,  before  they  found  that  out.  They  was  kind  of  putting  me 
oil  the  spot.  If  they  was  doing  it  or  if  they  wasn't  doing  it,  if  the 
colored  people  was  doing  it  themselves,  like  we  figured  at  one  time, 
that  they  was  doing  it  to  get  some  publicity,  I  w^as  getting  out  for  this 
thinking  I  was  the  head  of  it,  anyway. 

Mr.  Appell.  Well,  at  the  time  you  visited  the  boys  in  jail,  by  that 
time,  were  you  already  out  of  the  Klan  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  sir.     Done  out. 

Mr.  Appell.  Now  the  series  of  bombings  started  sometime  in  July. 

Mr.  Thornhill.  You  remember  what  day  it  was?  Do  you  recall 
what  day  it  was  ?     I  can  tell  you  w^hat  day  I  got  out. 

Mr.  Appell.  Well,  let's  see  if  we  can  do  it  this  way.  On  July  27, 
1964,  the  newspaper  reported  your  posting  of  a  thousand  dollar  reward. 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  was  in  the  Klan  when  I  did  that. 

Mr.  Appell.  So  that  it  was  sometime  after  that.  Can  you  recall 
approximately  how^  much  later  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Now,  however,  the  bombs  hadn't  been  throwed  at 
that  time.  The  church  bombs,  at  that  time,  burning  of  the  church  at 
that  time.  And  there  is  not  a  church  in  my  county  that  I  hadn't 
donated  money  to,  one  way  or  another,  colored  or  white. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Thornhill,  some  of  the  newspaper  accounts  quote 
you  as  saying  that  the  bombings  w^ere  carried  out  not  by  members  of 
the  White  Knights,  but  by — not  by  members  of  the  United  Klans  of 
America,  but  by  the  other  Klan  group  in  Mississippi. 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Well,  I  think  that  was  all  a  bare  mistake  there.  I 
don't  know  anything  about  the  other  Klan  in  Mississippi  and  I  don't 
know  anything  about  what  they  do,  and  I  might  have  said  I  didn't — 
I  know  wiiat  I  told  the  reporters.  I  told  them  that  I  didn't  believe 
that  the  United  Klans  done  the  bombing,  which  I  didn't. 

Now  that  Drew  Pearson  column  you  got,  well,  I  think  the  only 
truth  you  can  find  in  that  thing  is  the  day  it  was  printed. 

Mr.  Appell.  Well,  I  don't  have  a  column  by  Mr.  Pearson;  I  am  re- 
ferring to  an  article  in  the  Christian  Science  Monitor.  But  why  did 
you  leave  the  Klan,  or  was  tliere  any  other  reason  for  leaving  the  Klan 
prior  to  the  apprehension  of  these  people  than  the  fact  that  everyone 
thought  that  you  were  the  head  of  the  Klan  and  that  you  were  respon- 
sible for  these  acts  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Well,  now,  that  is  going  back  to  that  Drew  Pearson 
column,  you  see.  He  puts  in  your  paper,  up  here  in  your  paper,  that 
I  was  the  head  man  of  the  United  Klans,  but  I  never  was  a  officer  in 
the  Klan,  and  of  course  people  of  my  county  and  my  State  reads  his 
papers,  and  I  reckon  one  or  two  of  them  might  believe  it.  I  don't 
know.  But  that's  wliat  he  run  in  that  paper,  well,  the  colored  people 
read  it,  the  white  people  read  it,  and  such  as  that  happened,  well,  J.  E. 
Thornhill  is  the  head  of  it,  he  is  backing  it  up,  see,  which  I  didn't 
know  anything  about. 

Mr.  AJppELi..  Have  you  since  the  time  that  you  left  the  Klan,  some- 
time after  July  27  and  sometime  before  October,  have  you  ever  been 
approached  for  the  purpose  of  reorganizing  the  Klan  in  that  area  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Well,  no.     No,  sir.     I  haven't. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2965 

Mr.  Appell.  You  seem  a  little  uncertain,  Mr.  Thomhill.  Is  it  just 
the  way  you  express  yourself,  or  was  there  some  discussion  about  the 
reorganization  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Well,  not  reorganization ;  no.  I  have  never  been 
approached  to  come  back  and  reorganize;  no,  sir,  never  have. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  staff  has  no  further  questions  to  ask 
of  Mr.  Tliornhill. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Thomhill,  I  take  it  that  after  the  arrest  of  some 
11  persons  who  were  charged  with  the  various  bombings  in  your  area, 
that  was  the  time  that  you  determined  to  resign  from  the  Klan  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  When  was  that? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  was  already  out,  way  before  that. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Before  then  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Was  it  before  the  bombings  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Was  it  between  the  bombings  and  the  arrests  that 
you  resigned  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  No  ;  now  it  was  when  they  began  to  burn  down  the 
churches,  the  people  in  there,  everybody  was  accusing  me  of  being  the 
head  of  it,  and  it  was  all  done  unbeknownst  to  me.  I  didn't  know  any- 
thing about  it  and  I  didn't  believe  that  they  was  the  ones  doing  it,  but 
to  clear  myself,  I  got  out  and  had  it  run  in  the  paper  that  I  was  out  of 
the  Klan. 

Mr.  Weltner.  I  see. 

So  after  the  various  acts  of  violence  in  that  area,  you  resigned  and 
got  out  and  made  a  public  notice  to  that  effect, 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  sir;  I  had  to  work  those  colored  boys.  They 
work  for  me,  and  I  don't  want  any  of  them  having  any  hard  feelings 
at  me,  thinking  that  I  was  doing  such  things  as  that. 

Mr.  Weltner.  You  do  not  approve  of  burning  churches,  bombing 
homes,  and  that  sort  of  thing ;  do  you  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Absolutely  not.  The  United  Klans  don't  approve 
of  anything  like  that,  either. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Beg  your  pardon  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Tlie  United  Klans  of  America  don't  believe  that, 
either.    If  a  man  in  our  Klavern — will  you  let  me  talk  just  a  minute? 

If  a  man  would  get  up  in  the  Klavern  and  bring  up  something  like 
that,  to  go  bomb  a  place  of  business  and  burn  down  a  church,  he 
wouldn't  be  a  member  long. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Well,  did  anyone  ever  do  that  in  any  Klavern  dis- 
cussion ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  No,  sir;  no,  sir;  didn't. 

Mr.  Weltner.  All  right,  sir,  now  you  say,  or  I  believe  your  testi- 
mony previously  was,  that  everyone  had  the  idea  that  you  were  the 
head  of  this  organization  and  that  you  were  the  only  one  who  didn't 
care  whether  or  not  the  people  knew  you.  were  in  the  Klan.  Is  that 
right? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  And  your  testimony  is  that  everybody  else  in  the 
Klan  was  anxious  that  their  membership  in  the  Klan  be  not  publicly 
known? 


2966  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes. 

Mr.  Weltner.  That  people  not  know  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Well,  really ;  yes.  You  see,  j^  lot  of  the  members 
working  for  people  were  probably  companies,  maybe,  railroad  com- 
panies; well,  if  they  knew  they  belonged  to  the  Ku  Kliix  Klan,  they 
would  want  to  maybe  take  their  jobs,  see.  But  they  can't  take  my 
job,  I  can  get  a  job,  so  I  didn't  care  who  knew  it.  It  w^as  a  fine  organi- 
zation, was  set  up  for  a  good  purpose,  and  I  think  it  was  to  do  a  lot  of 
good. 

Mr.  Weltner.  But  you  were  the  only  one  in  there  who  was  willing 
to  have  your  membership  known  to  the  public.  Is  that  right?  Do  I 
understand  this  correctly,  that  everybody  else  in  the  Klan  that  you 
knew  was  anxious  that  the  public  had  no  knowledge  of  their  member- 
ship in  the  Klan? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Well,  it  is  supposed  to  be  a  secret  organization. 

Mr.  Weltner.  What  is  the  purpose  of  the  secrecy  of  it,  Mr,  Thorn- 
hill? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Well,  as  I  just  stated,  maybe  you  are  working  for, 
myself,  for  J.  E.  Thornhill,  and  J.  E.  Thornhill  don't  approve  of  the 
Klan.  Well,  if  I  find  out  you  are  a  member,  well,  naturally  I  would 
fire  you,  get  me  somebody  that  wasn't  a  member  of  the  Klan.  There 
are  lots  of  people  like  that. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Well,  there  is  a  reason  for  the  secrecy.  Is  the  reason 
for  the  secrecy  to  protect  the  jobs  of  members  of  the  Klan,  to  keep 
them  from  being  fired  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Pardon  me  again,  now  ? 

Mr.  Weltner.  Is  the  reason  for  the  secrecy  of  the  Klan  to  protect 
the  jobs  of  the  members  of  the  Klan  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Well,  I  am  not  educated  much,  but  that's  what  I 
figure  it  was ;  yes. 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  didn't  make  the  rules.  I  didn't  make  the  con- 
stitutions of  it,  and  when  I  got  in  there,  I  taken  one  of  the — I  made 
an  oath  that  a  man  can  take.  When  you  join  the  United  Klans,  you 
take  an  oath  that  you  will  uphold  the  law  and  the  Constitution  of  the 
United  States  until  death,  and  that's  pretty  good. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Well,  I  will  grant  you  that,  sir.  It  is  a  very  worth- 
wliile  oath  to  take  to  uphold  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States,  and 
I  am  just  wondering  why  members  should  be  fearful  that  the  public 
knows  they  take  such  an  oath,  to  uphold  the  Constitution  of  the 
United  States. 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr,  Thornhill.  I  don't  know  nothing  about  why — well,  I  don't 
know  why  they  didn't  let  me  know  they  were  going  to  do  those  jobs. 
I  believe  I  could  have  done  a  better  job,  but  when  I  was  16  years  old, 
that  was  my  job,  blowing  up  stumps  on  the  highway. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Beg  pardon  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  That  was  my  job,  blowing  up  stumps.  That  was 
my  job  when  I  was  a  16-year-old  boy. 

Mr.  Weltner.  A  better  job  than  what,  Mr.  Thornhill  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Throwing  those  sticks  of  dynamite. 

Mr.  Weltner.  I  still  can't  understand  you.    A  better  job  of  what? 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2967 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Throwing  those  sticks  of  dynamite.  I  believe  I 
could  have  placed  them  a  little  better.  Dynamite  blows  up,  not  side- 
ways. 

Mr.  Weltner.  You  mean  if  you  had  been  in  charge  of  this  opera- 
tion, you  could  have  done  a  better  job  of  blowing  up  things  than 
they  did  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  could  have  done  a  better  job,  I  believe.  I  don't 
think  they  intended  to  hurt  anybody.     That's  my  belief. 

Mr.  Weltner.  I  thought  you  said  you  didn't  approve  of  blowing 
things  up  like  that,  either. 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  didn't  say  then  I  did,  either. 

Mr.  Weltner.  You  just  think  technically  the  job  was  not  well  done. 
Is  that  it? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  No;  for  what  they  was  trying  to  do,  probably 
might  have  been  all  right. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Well,  wait  a  minute  now.  What  they  were  trying 
to  do  was  to  blow  up  houses  and  bum  churches,  wasn't  it,  Mr,  Thorn- 
hill? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  don't  think  they  was  trying  to  blow  up  any 
houses.    I  think  they  tried  to  throw  the  dynamite  out  in  the  yard. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Wasn't  it  really  just  designed  to  blow  up  and  ex- 
plode in  the  yard  and  not  hurt  anybody  or  damage  any  property? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes.  Now  I  don't  know  whether  you  have  the 
paper,  Mr.  Chairman. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Well,  did  you  happen  to  have  an  opportunity  of 
looking  at  any  of  these  houses  or  properties  that  were  blown  up  in 
that  area  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  saw  one  church. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Saw  one  church  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  That  was  blowed  up.  I  saw  several  churches  that 
was  burned  down,  a  couple  of  them. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Did  you  see  property  owned  by  a  person  named 
Quinn  that  was  destroyed  on  September  the  20th  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  No,  sir ;  I  did  not. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Do  you  know  where  that  property  is  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  But  you  know  that  was  one  of  the  houses  that  was 
blown  up  around  there  at  the  time ;  don't  you  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  read  it  in  the  paper,  heard  about  it,  sure  did. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Look  at  these  photographs  there. 

(Documents  handed  to  witness.) 

Mr.  Thornhill.  My  boy  that  worked  for  me  lived  about  a  hundred 
yards  from  that  house,  but  I  never  did  see  it. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Now  you  will  notice,  looking  at  those  photographs, 
that  it  appears  as  though  one  whole  side  of  the  house  has  been  blown 
in,  and  the  furniture  and  contents  in  a  state  of  disarray,  ceilings  falling 
down.     But  you  did  not  see  that  yourself. 

Mr.  Thornhill.  No,  sir.     I  heard  that  bomb  go  off,  though. 

(Photographs  previously  marked  "Billy  Wilson  Exhibit  No.  1." 
See  pp.  2853, 2854.) 

Mr.  Weltner.  You  heard  that  Quinn  explosion  go  off  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  I  sure  did. 

Mr.  Weltner.  All  right. 


2968  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Now  did  I  understand  that  you  think  it  was  that  the  boys  just  made 
the  mistake,  threw  this  thing  too  close  to  the  house,  so  that  it  blew  up 
the  house,  instead  of  blowing  up  out  in  the  yard? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  don't  know  about  that;  no. 

Mr,  Weltner.  But  if  you  had  been  doing  that,  you  would  have 
fixed  it  so  it  just  blew  up  out  in  the  yard;  is  that  so? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  w^ouldn't  have  done  it  at  all. 

Mr.  Weltner.  But  if  you  had  done  it,  you  would  have  done  a  better 
job. 

Mr.  Thornhill,  I  tell  you,  four  or  five  sticks  of  dynamite  is  too 
heavy  for  me  to  pick  up,  so  I  am  not  going  to  be  bothered  about  doing 
that. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Thornhill,  I  don't  exactly  understand  some  of 
these  matters. 

Did  you  have  any  reason  for — let  me  back  up  a  minute.  You  quit 
because  you  didn't  want  people  thinking  you  were  head  of  this  Klan 
operation  that  was  conducting  all  these  bombings.     Is  that  right? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Church  bombings.  I  was  out  before  the  bombings 
started, 

Mr.  Weltner.  What  was  that  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  was  out  of  the  Klan  before  the  bombings  started, 
before  they  ever  done  any  of  the  burnings. 

Mr.  Weltner.  You  resigned  before  the  first  bombing? 

Let  me  put  the  question  again.  You  say  you  were  not  a  member  of 
the  Klan  when  the  first  bombing  took  place? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  No. 

Mr,  Weltner,  All  right,  and  you  resigned  before  that  time. 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  But  you  resigned  after  the  burnings?  Is  that 
correct  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Church  burning ;  yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  I  see. 

Now  how^  many  churches  had  been  burned  before  you  resigned? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  couldn't  answ^er  that. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Sir? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  don't  know. 

Mr,  Weltner.  Well,  on  July  17,  the  Zion  Hill  Free  Baptist  Church, 
McComb,  Mississippi,  was  burned;  on  July  18,  the  Sweet  Home 
Church  in  McComb,  Mississippi,  was  burned.  Was  that  about  the 
time  that  you  resigned,  sometime  after  that  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  It  was  about  in  that. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Then  on  July  21,  the  Mount  Vernon  Missionary  Bap- 
tist Church  was  burned ;  and  on  the  22d  of  July,  the  Rose  Bower  Mis- 
sionary Baptist  Church  was  burned;  then  on  the  5th  of  August,  the 
Mount  Canaan  Missionary  Baptist  Church  in  Smithtown(?)  was 
burned.  That  was  sometime  in  that  area ;  wasn't  it  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Sometime  in  that  area ;  yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  And  you  resigned  about  in  that  time.  And  you  said 
you  didn't  want  people  thinking  you  were  responsible  for  these 
burnings. 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Right.    White  and  colored. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2969 

Mr.  Weltner.  I  believe  you  also  said  that  you  didn't  believe  the 
Klan  had  anything  to  do  with  those  burnings. 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Thornhill.  At  that  time,  I  did  not. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Well,  do  you  know  they  did  now  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  No,  I  don't  know  that  they  did.  All  I  know  is 
what  they  say. 

iMr.  Weltner.  Well,  you  know  they  pleaded  guilty;  don't  you? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  but  1  have  never  seen  one  of  them  do  it. 

Mr.  Weltner.  You  resigned  because  you  didn't  want  people  think- 
ing you  had  anything  to  do  with  burning  those  churches. 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Well,  I  stated  a  little  while  ago,  I  have  to  work 
people.  I  don't  do  it  myself  and  I  hire  people  to  do  it.  Most  of  it 
is  colored  workers,  and  naturally,  it  is  getting  to  where  it  looked  like 
it  was  hard  for  me  to  get  anybody.  When  I  wanted  somebody  to  do 
anything,  it  was  hard  to  me  to  get  them ;  they  thought  I  was  the  head 
of  the  bombings  and  burning  churches,  and  things,  and  I  just  got  out 
and  made  it  public  that  I  was  out  of  the  Klan. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Well,  when  you  made  that  public,  was  it  easier  to 
get  help  after  having  resigned  from  the  Klan  ? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Well,  I  don't  have  to  do  my  own  work;  yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  That  means,  I  take  it,  you  could  get  help  now. 
Right? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes. 

Mr.  Weltner.  So  you  resigned  for  economic  reasons,  because  it  was 
affecting  your  ability  to  hire  Negro  employees;  is  that  right? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Thornhill.  No,  it  wasn't  that,  altogether.  I  just  didn't  want 
people  thinking  that  I  was  doing  things  and  having  things  done  that 
I  didn't  know  anything  about  and  accusing  me  of  things  like  that. 
Every  time  a  couple  of  FBI  would  be  sent  to  my  State,  to  my  town, 
they — it  didn't  matter  who  he  approached,  they  would  say,  "Wliy  don't 
you  go  pick  up  the  big  man,  the  head  man  ? "     See  ? 

Mr.  Weltner.  And  you  were  known  as  the  head  man  of  the  Klan  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Pardon  me  ? 

Mr.  Weltner.  You  were  known  as  the  head  man. 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  because  of  Drew  Pearson,  Twas. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Were  you  the  head  man  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  have  never  been  an  officer  in  the  Klan  in  my  life. 

Mr.  Weltner.  ^Yho  was  the  head  man  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  don't  Imow.  Mr.  Shelton,  as  far  as  I  know,  the 
Imperial  Wizard. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Who  was  the  head  man  in  your  Klavern  ? 

Mr.  Thornihll.  I  decline  to  answer  that. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Do  you  have  any  reason,  other  than  the  economic 
reasons,  for  not  wanting  people  to  believe  you  were  a  member  of  the 
Klan  ? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  just  didn't  want  my  friends  thinking  that  I  was 
the  one  doing  all  that.  And  you  have  got  to  understand,  I  am  in  the 
oil  business.  I  made  millions  of  dollars  off  of  the  colored  people  and 
the  white  people's  land,  by  buying  their  lease  and  drilling  their  oil 
wells.     And  naturally,  if  a  colored  man  reads  that  paper  that  J.  E. 


2970  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Thomhill  is  the  head  man  of  the  Ku  Khix  Klan,  you  think  I  can  walk 
up  to  his  house  and  tell  him  I  want  to  buy  his  oil  lease  for  $10.00  an 
acre  or  $25.00  an  acre?  He  wouldn't  let  me  have  it.  That's  how  I 
make  my  money,  how  I  make  my  living. 

Mr.  Weltner.  This  public  notoriety  or  public  knowledge  that  you 
were  a  member  of  the  Klan  hurt  your  ability  to  make  profitable  oil 
leases  from  colored  landholders. 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Well,  did  you  ever  have  any  discussion  in  the  Klavern 
about  any  action  that  the  Klan — what  was  the  program  of  the  Klan 
after  the  time  you  joined  it?     From  the  time  you  quit? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Weltner.  I  mean,  what  was  the  policy  of  the  Klan,  what  was 
the  purpose  of  it  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  respectfully  decline  on  the  grounds  previously 
answered. 

Mr.  Weltner.  But  did  you  testify  a  moment  ago  that  no  suggestion 
was  ever  made  in  the  Klavern  meeting  that  any  acts  of  violence  be 
conducted  against  any  individual  ? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Not  in  my  presence,  there  never  was ;  no. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Well,  did  you  go  to  Klan  meetings  regularly,  the 
Klavern  meetings? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  I  went  to  my  meetings  regularly. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Was  that  every  week  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  practically  every  week. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Wliere  did  it  meet  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Well,  we  had  a  building  there,  what  we  call  the 
Hinton  Building,  I  believe,  and  that's  where  we  met  at,  but  we  dis- 
cussed, we  had  a  committee  of  four  men.  Would  you  like  me  to  tell 
you  about  that  ? 

Mr.  Weltner.  Yes,  I  sure  would. 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Weltner.  I  would  like  very  much  to  accept  your  offer  and  to 
have  you  tell  us  about  it,  Mr.  Thomhill,  and  I  wish  you  would  pro- 
ceed.    And  I  am  sure  this  committee  is  anxious  to  accept  your  offer. 

You  are  the  first  member  that  has  come  here  that  has  offered  to 
testify  anything  about  the  Klan,  and  we  have  had  a  lot  of  members 
of  the  Klan  here  who  refused  to,  and  I  appreciate  your  offering  to 
tell  us  about  it,  so  you  have  all  the  time  you  need,  and  we  accept  your 
offer,  sir. 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Well,  I  stated  a  while  ago  that  if  a  man  would  get 
in  a  Klavern  and  mention  about  a  bombing,  he  Avould  be  throwed  out 
of  the  Klan  right  then,  not  after  while,  but  right  then,  if  he  had 
brought  up  a  subject  like  that. 

We  had  a  committee  of  men  appointed  to  go  see  the  sick  in  the 
hospital,  preachers,  and  deacons  of  the  church.  We  had  another  com- 
mittee, appointed  to  see  about  the  needy  in  the  community.  Women 
with  children,  no  groceries  in  the  house,  and  we  carried  them  groceries, 
white  and  colored. 

We  didn't  discuss  any  bombings  of  churches,  burning  churches,  and 
bombing  houses,  nothing  like  that,  wasn't  never  brought  up. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S.  2971 

Mr.  Weltner.  You  mean  the  only  thing  you  did  in  tlie  Klan  was  to 
help  the  needy  and  the  sick,  and  those  were  the  only  discussions  you 
ever  had  in  the  Klan  meetings  about  which  needy  and  which  sick  you 
were  going  to  help  ? 

Mr,  Thornhill.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Are  you  testifying  that  as  a  fact  now,  Mr.  Thornhill  ? 

Mr.  Thorxhill.  Yes,  sir.  Yes,  sir.  We  had  another  committee  of 
men  to  go  around  to  the  schools,  screen  the  libraries. 

Mr.  AVeltner.  Screen  the  libraries  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  sir.     Get  the  books  out  of  there. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Now  there  is  another  thing  you  talked  about.  Wliat 
were  the  books  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  don't  know.  I  don't  have  that  much  education. 
We  had  a  committee  of  men  to  do  that. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Do  you  recall  the  names  of  any  books  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  No.     No. 

Mr.  Weltner.  "VYliich  committee  did  you  serve  on  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  wasn't  on  the  committee.  I  haven't  got  that 
kind  of  education. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Who  was  the  head  of  the  book  committee  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  don't  know  that,  either. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Wliat  libraries  did  they  go  to  see  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Well,  the  ones  in  the  schools. 


Mr.  Weltner.  Well,  is  that  the  public  schools 


Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  And  how^  many  public  school  libraries  were  there  in- 
volved in  that  work  of  the  book  committee  ? 

Mr.  Thornhiul.  Well,  we  had  two  or  three  in  our  unit.  They  were 
supposed  to  screen  and  see  about  it. 

Mr.  Weltner.  You  don't  recall  the  names  of  any  books  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  No,  sir ;  but  we  found  one,  we  found  the  books  in 
one  library,  and  we  also,  that  company  that  put  those  books  in  there 
will  never  sell  any  more  books  in  Mississippi,  but  I  can't  call  the  com- 
pany that  put  the  books  in  there. 

Mr.  Weltner.  What  was  the  book  about  ? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Some  sex  book. 

Mr.  Weltner.  And  it  was  in  the  public  library  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  A  little  girl  15  years  old  checked  the  book  out; 
yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  From  the  public  library  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  And  you  don't  know  the  name  of  the  book  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  No,  I  sure  don't. 

Mr.  Weltner.  You  don't  know  the  name  of 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  wish  I  did. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Wliat  library  was  that,  Mr.  Thornhill  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  North  Pike  School. 

Mr.  Weltner.  North  what? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  North  Pike. 

Mr.  Weltner.  P-i-k-e  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  P-i-k-e ;  yes  sir. 


2972  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Weltner.  And  that  is  some  members  of  the  Klan  library  com- 
mittee called  upon  the  school  principal?  Is  that  the  way  it  would 
work  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Let's  go  back  again  now. 

Mr.  Weltner.  How  did  you  work  that?  You  decided  this  book 
needed  to  come  out  of  the  library,  and  then  the  members  of  the  com- 
mittee called  on  the  librarian  ? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  don't  know  the  complete  details  on  it,  but  I  guess 
that's  way  it  was ;  yes  sir, 

Mr.  Weltner.  And  then  they  took  the  book  out  of  the  library  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Well,  a  little  girl  checked  the  book  out,  and  the 
Klan  somehow  or  another  got  hold  of  the  book.  I  don't  know  how, 
but — and  then  they  appointed  a  committee  to  go  to  the  libraiy  and 
check  the  books  and  screen  the  libraries  and  get  those  kind  of  books 
out.  We  didn't  need  them  in  there,  and  I  still  don't  believe  we  need 
them  in  there. 

Mr.  Weltner.  What  other  books,  other  than  the  sex  books,  were 
they? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  don't  know  the  name  of  the  book. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Do  you  mean  a  book  about  the  physical  and  physio- 
logical aspects  of  marriage  ?  Is  that  the  kind  of  book  you  are  talking 
about,  or  was  this  a 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  don't  know.  They  didn't  tell  the  book.  All  I 
know  is  of  course  they  said  we  didn't  need  this  kind  of  books  in  there, 
and  we  got  them  out,  and  I  can't  read  a  newspaper  and  I  can't  read  a 
book,  so  how  would  I  know  what  kind  of  a  book  it  was  ? 

Mr,  Weltner.  Yet  you  think  this  book  ought  to  come  out  of  there. 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Thornhill.  From  what  they  said,  it  ought  to  come  out ;  yes. 

Mr.  Weltner.  What  did  they  say  about  it,  Mr.  Thornhill? 

Mr,  Thornhill.  I  said  they  didn't  liave  any  business  a  teenager 
reading  the  book,  and  I  didn't  think  they  did,  either.  I  am  a  pretty 
good-sized  taxpayer  in  my  county,  and  the  principal  didn't  think  they 
ought  to  be  up  there  screening  the  libraiy,  and  I  went  to  see  him  and 
talked  to  him,  and  he  told  us  that — my  committee  that  did  screen- 
ing— the  library  lady  just  hadn't  had  time  to  separate  the  books,  and 
that  book  got  in  there  accidentally,  some  way. 

Mr.  Weltner.  You  say  the  principal  at  firet  thought  the  Klan 
didn't  have  any  business  screening  the  library? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Right. 

Mr.  Weltner.  And  then  you  went  to  call  on  the  principal. 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  And  the  principal  decided  that  the  Klan  actually  did 
have  some  business  screening  the  library.    Is  that  right? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Well,  not  necessarily  the  Klan,  but  the  people  of 
the  community.  The  taxpayers.  I  have  a  little  daughter.  She  is 
17  now.  And  if  my  little  girl  had  brought  that  book  home,  it  would 
have  been  more  sand  raised  than  there  was,  I  expect. 

Mr.  Weltner.  All  right,  sir,  and  tliis  book-screening  took  place  in 
every  public  library  in  the  area. 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel. ) 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2973 

Mr.  Weltner.  In  addition  to  the  North  Pike  School  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Well,  we  had  our  own  territoi-y  to  screen;  other 
units  had  theirs,  I  guess. 

Mr.  Weltner.  What  was  your  territory  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  North  Pike  School. 

Mr.  Weltxer.  Just  one  school  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  But  you  weren't  on  that  book  committee,  were  you  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  No. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Your  Klavern,  though,  had  jurisdiction  ? 

Mr,  Thornhill.  I  am  a  businessman.  I  haven't  got  time  to  be  on 
any  kind  of  committee  like  that. 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Weltner.  Your  Klaveni  had  jurisdiction  just  over  screening 
books  in  the  North  Pike  School  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  And  as  I  understand,  then,  that  other  Klaverns 
had  the  other  schools  in  the  area,  the  other  public  schools? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  don't  really  know,  but  they  are  supposed  to. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Well,  what  is  your  understanding  of  it? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  My  understanding  was  that  they  did ;  yes. 

Mr.  Weltner.  All  right,  you  had  a  sick  committee  and  a  needy 
committe  and  a  book  committee.  Where  did  the  Klan  get  its  funds  to 
take  groceries  to  poor  people,  if  the  dues  were  only  a  dollar  and  a 
quarter  or  a  dollar  a  month  ? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Well,  it  passed  the  hat  around,  and  they  would 
take  up  collections  for  donations  like  that. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Did  you  ever  contribute  to  any  fund  for  the  needy, 
food  for  the  needy  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Well,  yes,  there  has  never  been  anybody  come  to 
me  needing  funds  that  I  didn't  help,  in  the  last  10  years. 

Mr.  Weltner.  All  right.  Let's  get  this  straight  now.  You  are 
under  oath  and  you  are  on  the  record.  A  while  ago,  you  testified 
the  only  contribution  you  made  to  any  Klan  activities — — 

Mr.  Thornhill.  That  wasn't  in  the  Klan. 

Mr.  Weltner.  —was  the  klectokon  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  That  didn't  go  in  the  Klan  treasury  at  all. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Permit  me,  please,  to  finish  my  statement.  You  will 
have  full  time  to  answer. 

— was  the  klectokon,  the  initiation  fee,  the  monthly  dues,  and  these 
three  checks.  Now^  in  addition  to  that,  you  testified  you  contributed 
money  for  the  needy  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  No,  we  were  talking  about  a  while  ago  what  went 
into  the  Klan  treasury.  This  didn't  ever  get  into  the  Klan  treasury. 
This  went  for  a  purpose  donation. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Who  collected  the  money  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Well,  I  can't  even  recall  who 

Mr.  Weltner.  Was  there 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Maybe  lialf  a  dozen  passed  the  hat  around. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Was  there  a  chairman  of  the  needy  committee? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel. ) 


2974  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Thornpiill.  It  varies  from  time  to  time.  It  wouldn't  be  the 
same  one.  Maybe  I  would  grab  a  hat  and  go  around,  "Here,  $3.00, 
$25.00,  $2.00,"  or  something,  and  maybe  if  you  had  been  in  there,  you 
would  have  grabbed  the  hat.  Well,  you  can't  remember  such  things  as 
that  goes  on,  but  that's  the  way  it  was  worked,  and  that  money  didn't 
ever  get  into  the  Klan  at  all, 

Mr.  Weltner.  Who  would  deliver  the  groceries,  Mr.  Thornhill? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  The  committee  would  be  appointed. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Well,  the  committee  was  secret,  though;  wasn't  it? 
I  mean,  they  wouldn't  let  anybody  know  they  were  in  the  Klan; 
would  they  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Well,  when  they  delivered  those  groceries,  he  didn't 
let  anybody  know  it,  either. 

Mr.  Weltner.  So  did  you  ever  go  on  a  grocery- delivering  com- 
mittee ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  No,  sir;  I  didn't  ever.  No,  sir;  I  didn't.  But  I 
do  deliver  a  lot  of  them. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Well,  they  wouldn't  tell 

Mr.  Thornhill.  But  not  in  the  Klan ;  no. 

Mr.  Weltner.  You-  mean  they  would  just  go  give  these  groceries 
and  not  tell  anybody  it  was  a  gift  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  they  would  tell  them  it  was  a  gift.  I  just 
didn't  know  it.    They  had  on  the  robe  and  hood,  when  they  delivered. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Did  you  say  they  delivered  groceries  to  colored 
families  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Did  they  wear  hoods  and  robes  when  they  delivered 
those  groceries  to  colored  families? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  They  would  have  on  their  hood  and  robe ;  yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Did  those  colored  families  appreciate  it  ? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  don't  know  about  that.    I  guess  they  did. 

Mr.  Weltner.  I  would  just  as  soon  go  hungry,  if  I  were  under 
circumstances  like  that. 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  think  they  might  be  proud  to  get  them. 

Mr.  Weltner.  All  right,  you  had  a  sick  committee  and  a  needy 
committee  and  a  book  committee. 

What  other  committees  did  you  have? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Thornhill.  That's  all  I  can  recall  right  now.  All  the  com- 
mittees. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Did  you  have  a  wrecking  crew  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Have  a  what? 

Mr.  Weltner.  A  wrecking  crew? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Wrecking  crew? 

Mr.  Weltner.  Wrecking  crew? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  What  would  they  wreck?  No,  we  never  had  no 
wrecking  crew  in  my  unit.  Of  course  I  had  a  wrecking  crew,  but  he 
wasn't  in  the  Ku  Klux  Klan. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Who  was  that? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  A  boy  that  worked  for  me,  a  colored  boy  that 
worked  for  me.     He  tore  up  three  cars  that  I  bought  him.     I  give  him  a 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S.  2975 

motor  bike  then,  and  he  wrecked  that  motor  bike  the  first  week.  The 
next  week  I  give  him  another  motor  bike,  and  he  got  killed  on  it. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Well,  Mr.  Thornhill,  if  you  did  all  these  good  works 
and  kept  those  dirty  books  out  of  the  schools  and  delivered  those 
groceries  to  those  poor  colored  folks  down  there,  why  do  you  have  to 
keep  the  membership  secret? 

Mr.  TiioRNHiLL.  Have  to  keep  what,  now? 

Mr.  Weltner.  Have  to  keep  the  membership  secret,  if  this  is  no 
more  than  a  charity  group? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  don't  know.  I  didn't  keep  mine  secret.  I  could 
tell  anybody  I  was  a  member,  but  I  taken  an  oath  that  I  couldn't  tell 
anybody  that  you  belonged. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Is  that  why  you  are  not  telling  me  who  the  members 
of  this  Klan  were? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Thornhill.  No. 

Mr.  AVeltner.  Wliy  are  you  refusing  to  tell  us  the  name  of  the 
member  of  your  Klavem? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  On  the  fifth  amendment. 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Ashbrook. 

Mr.  Ashbrook.  Mr.  Thornhill,  I  am  interested  very  much  in  one 
particular  facet  of  your  testimony.  You  impressed  me  with  your 
business  background,  and  so  forth,  as  being  a  man  of  considerable 
intelligence,  notwithstanding  education. 

I  happen  to  be  one  who  believes  that  a  person  can  succeed,  regard- 
less of  education.  You  obviously  have,  and  yet  with  your  intelligence, 
which  you  obviously  have,  you  still  don't  seem  to  want  to  believe 
that  the  Klan  has  participated  in  bombings  or  acts  of  violence  in 
your  area. 

It  seems  to  me  all  the  questions  that  have  been  propounded,  you 
pretty  well  insist  that  the  Klan  has  not  perpetrated  acts  of  violence. 
,Is  that  a  meaningful  position  that  you  take?  Do  you  honestly  believe 
the  Klan  has  not? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  don't  believe  the  Klan  has  ever,  the  United  Klans 
of  America  has  ever  participated  in  agitating  any  kind  of  work  like 
that,  no. 

Mr.  Ashbrook.  What  about  the  pleas  of  guilty  of  the  Klan 
members  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Well,  that's  the  same  thing  in  your  church.  A 
preacher  will  get  up  there  and  preach  to  you  all  day  long,  but  you 
ain't  going  to  do  what  he  tells  you  to  do.  That's  tlie  boys  in  that 
United  Klan,  some  of  them  won't  do  what  you  tell  them  to  do. 

Mr.  Ashbrook.  I  think  you  mentioned  at  one  point  that  you  had 
never  seen  any  acts  of  violence.  Is  that  the  basis  for  your  refusing 
to  believe  that  the  Klan  had  participated  in  any  acts  of  violence? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Tliey  claimed  that.  They  never  admitted  it. 
Sometimes  you  think,  "Well,  I  guess  they  did  do  it,"  and  then  again, 
you  think,  "they  done  that  just  to  get  out  of  court,"  so  I  just  don't 
«  know. 

Mr.  Ashbrook.  Then  in  asking  you  a  straight  question,  do  you 
believe  the  Klan  lias  participated  in  violence  in  your  area,  what  would 
be  your  answer  ? 

59-222  O— 67— pt.  4 6 


2976  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Thornhill.  No,  sir;  no,  sir. 

Mr.  AsHBROOK.  How  do  you  possibly  square  that  with  testimony 
you  made  a  few  moments  ago,  and  I  recall  because  I  wrote  down 
almost  specifically  what  you  said,  and  you  said,  and  I  quote  roughly 
what  you  said,  at  one  point,  you  believed  the  Negroes  were  doing 
these  bombings  to  get  publicity. 

Is  that  not  correct?     You  stated  that  just  a  few  moments  ago. 

Mr.  Thornhill.  That  was  the  rumor  around,  yes,  in  town.  That 
they  was  doing  it. 

Mr.  AsHBROOK.  That  was  the  purport  of  what  you  said.  You  said, 
"At  one  point  we  believed,"  and  obviously,  you  were  a  part  of  that. 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  did,  I  believed  they  were  doing  it,  some  of  it; 
yes.  They  were  throwing  it  out  in  the  yard,  not  in  the  house,  and 
it  looked  to  me  like  that;  yes. 

Mr.  AsHBROOK.  You  weren't  present  when  any  Negroes  bombed, 
were  you  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  No,  I  wasn't. 

Mr.  AsHBRooK.  Then  how  could  you  possibly  want  to  believe  that 
Negroes  were  doing  this,  when  you  had  no  evidence,  but  you  can't 
possibly  bring  yourself  to  believe  that  the  white  Klanners  were 
doing  this,  when  there  is  considerable  evidence? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  It  just  looked  to  me  like  if  I  was  going  to  bomb 
my  house,  wouldn't  I  throw  it  out  there  in  the  yard  with  a  stick  of 
dynamite  at  my  house  ?     Would  it  to  you  ? 

Mr.  Ashbrook.  The  question  I  am  raising  is  you  have  already  ex- 
pressed an  indication  that  you  believed  and  thought  that  the  Negroes 
were  doing  this  to  gain  publicity,  when  there  was  no  real  evidence, 
or  at  least  you  haven't  cited  any. 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  have  reasons  to  believe. 

Mr,  Ashbrook.  When  there  is  a  record  full  of  evidence  that  Klan 
members  were  doing  this,  you  do  not  want  to  believe  in  their  cage  that 
they  had  done  tliese  acts  of  violence.  It  just  does  not  seem  to  me  that 
that  is  consistent  and  can't  possibly  be  a  position  that  you,  as  an  intelli- 
gent, successful  man,  can  take. 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel. ) 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Well,  I  am  quoting  the  rumors.  It  was  going 
around  in  town,  see. 

Mr.  Ashbrook.  What  about  the  rumors  of  the  Klan  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  And  my  own  belief,  too,  now.  If  I  was  going  to 
bomb  my  house,  and  make  somebody  think  that  somebody  else  done  it, 
naturally,  I  would  throw  it  where  it  wouldn't  do  any  damage,  and 
that's  where  tlie  sticks  of  dynamite  was  hitting  there  to  start  with. 

Mr.  Ashbrook.  Okay,  admitting  that  there  were  rumors  going 
around  your  town  that  the  Negroes  were  doing  it  to  gain  publicity,  a 
rumor  which  by  your  own  statement  you  admitted  that  you  tended 
to  believe,  what  were  the  rumors  that  were  going  around  town  regard- 
ing the  Klan  involvement  in  these  bombings  ? 

Did  you  choose  not  to  believe  these? 

{Witness  confers  with  coimsel.) 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Well,  I  guess  so.  I  never  had  heard  anything  in  the 
organization  on  tliat  line  at  all.     And 

Mr.  Ashbrook.  Well,  not  in  the  organization.  I  am  talking  about 
rumors  around  town.     You  are  talking  about  rumors  regarding  the 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2977 

Negroes.  There  certainly  must  have  been  rumors  regarding  the  Klan. 
I  find  it  a  very  interesting  inconsistency  and  one  which,  I  might  say, 
is  a  pattern  of  the  Klan,  to  want  to  believe  the  worst  about  the  Negro, 
but  not  to  recognize,  even  when  evidence  is  demonstrated,  that  any  of 
your  own  members,  any  of  your  own  people,  could  possibly  be  partici- 
pants in  these  matters.  And  I  merely  want  to  point  out  for  the  record 
what  I  think  is  a  verj'  glaring  inconsistency  and  a  very  unfair  in- 
consistency as  far  as  your  statement  is  concerned,  your  willingness 
to  believe  the  Negroes  were  doing  this  to  get  publicity,  but  your 
unwillingness  in  the  face  of  a  mountain  of  evidence  to  think  that 
any  Klamiers  could  be  participants  in  these  bombings. 

And  that,  Mr.  Chairman,  is  all  I  have  to  say. 

Mr.  Pool.  I  want  to  ask  you:  I  think  during  the  testimony  you 
said  that  the  reason  that,  I  think  something  to  this  effect,  that  they 
would  take  their  jobs.  You  remember  that  a  while  ago?  Why 
would  they  t ake  their  j  obs  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Well,  as  I  stated  a  while  ago,  maybe  a  man  was 
working  for  you,  and  you  didn't  believe  in  the  Klan  and  you  didn't 
like  the  Ku  Klux  Klan.  Maybe  you  had  read  a  whole  lot  about  Klans 
accused  of  them  that  they  didn't  do,  and  they  laid  off,  but  anyway,  you 
didn't  believe  in  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  but  I  was  working,  see,  and  that's 
the  only  way  I  had  of  making  a  living,  working  for  you,  and  you  find 
out  I  was  in  the  Klan.  Naturally  you  would  fire  me,  wouldn't  you  ? 
You  didn't  like  the  Klan,  didn't  believe  in  the  Klan,  you  would  get  rid 
of  me  and  get  somebody  that  didn't  belong  to  the  Klan. 

Mr.  Pool.  Well,  then,  is  it  prevalent  in  your  area  that  the  Klan  is 
unpopular  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  With  some  people  they  are;  yes,  sir.  Yes,  sir. 
Certainly  are. 

Mr.  Pool.  Would  you  say  a  majority  of  the  people  in  your  area? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  No,  I  wouldn't  say  that  much ;  no.  I  wouldn't  say 
that. 

Mr.  Pool.  Would  you  say  a  majority  of  the  people  approve  of  the 
Klan  in  your  area  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  wouldn't  say  that  either. 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Pool.  What  is  your  opinion  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  There  are  a  few  that  disapproves  of  it. 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Thornhill.  The  large  majority,  I  don't  know  which  way  they 
go,  but  there  are  a  few  of  them  that  don't  approve  of  the  Klan,  I  think, 
but  of  course,  I  think,  the  large  majority  understands  what  the  orga- 
nization was  for  and  what  it  means,  and  I  think  the  large  majority 
approves  of  the  Klan. 

Mr.  Pool.  Well,  is  the  Klan  losing  membership  in  your  area  ? 
(Witness  confers  with  counsel. ) 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  wouldn't  know  about  that.  I  haven't  been  m 
it  in  a  long  time. 

Mr.  Pool.  What  is  the  talk  around  town?  What  do  they  say 
around  town  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  never  discuss  it  any  more. 
Mr.  Pool.  You  never  discuss  it  ? 


2978  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Thornhill.  No,  sir;  I  don't  talk  about  that.  I  talk  about  my 
business.  I  have  got  enough  business  of  my  own  to  talk  about,  with- 
out talking  about  somebody  else's. 

Mr.  Pool.  What  is  your  feeling  about  your  activities  as  a  Klansman  ? 
Are  you  proud  of  the  fact  that  you  were  a  former  Klansman  ? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel. ) 

Mr.  Pool.  Or  are  you  ashamed  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Pardon  me,  now  ? 

Mr.  Pool.  Are  you  proud  of  the  fact  that  you  are  an  ex-Klansman  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Well,  I  would  rather  not  answer  that.  I  think  it 
is  a  good  organization,  put  it  that  way. 

Mr.  Pool.  You  think  it  is  a  good  organization  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  certainly  do. 

Mr.  Pool.  You  think  it  still  is  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  One  of  the  finest,  help  a  lot  of  people. 

Mr.  Pool.  Why  did  you  resign?  What  was  your  reason  for 
resigning  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  What  was  my  reason  for  resigning  ? 

Mr.  Pool.  Yes. 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Well,  because  of  all  the  publicity  I  was  getting. 
I  didn't  approve  of  that.  I  don't  like  that  publicity.  The  only  place 
a  man  ever  sees  my  name,  if  it  is  left  up  to  me,  is  in  a  telephone  book, 
and  I  was  getting  too  much  publicity,  bad  publicity  and  some  good 
publicity,  and  I  just  didn't  approve  of  that,  so  I  thought  maybe  if  I 
would  get  out,  I  would  stop  some  of  it. 

Mr,  Pool.  You  still  obey  your  Klan  oath  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Pardon  me,  now  ? 

Mr.  Pool.  Do  you  still  obey  your  Klan  oath  that  you  took  ? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  fully  decline  on  the  ground  that 

Mr.  Pool.  Well,  I  would  consider  that  you  do,  because  you  have 
refused  to  name  other  people,  even  though  you  are  using  the  fifth 
amendment,  but  I  would  assume  that  the  Klan  oath  also  has  quite  an 
effect  on  your  answers. 

These  boys  that  you  testified  lived  100  yards  from  the  Quinn  house, 
were  they  boys  that  worked  for  you  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  sir;  one  boy.  That  was  the  boy  that  managed 
my  ranch,  my  farm. 

Mr.  Pool.  That  was  a  colored  boy  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes. 

Mr.  Pool.  Lived  within  a  hundred  yards  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Well,  I  say  a  hundred  yards.  It  might  have  been 
200  yards.  Somewhere  near.  But  the  Quinn  house  was  up  on  this 
block.  I  would  come  in,  whenever  I  wanted  him,  and  maybe  he 
wouldn't  show  up  this  morning,  I  would  want  him  in,  and  I  would  come 
in  thisaway,  and  I  never  had  any  reason  to  go  down  Sumter  Street 
at  all. 

Mr.  Pool.  Did  you  know  the  Quinn  people  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Pardon  me,  now  ? 

Mr.  Pool.  Did  you  know  the  Quinns  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  No,  I  know  her  now.  Yes,  I  know  her  now,  but 
I  didn't  know  her  until  after  this  house  was  bombed  and  all,  and  all 
the  publicity  got  out  on  her,  I  didn't  ever  know  her. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2979 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Appell,  I  think  you  have  some  questions. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Thornhill,  you  talked  about  the  oath  that  you 
took  as  a  KlansmaJi,  about  how  it  is  sworn  to  uphold  the  Constitution. 

Will  you  explain  to  the  committee  that  part  of  the  oath  that  you 
took  in  which  you  swore,  and  I  quote  it;  "I  swear  that  I  will  keep 
secure  to  myself  a  secret  of  a  [Klan]  *sman" 

Mr.  Thornhill.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  [Continues  reading :] 

— when  same  is  committed  to  me  in  the  sacred  bond  of  [Klan]*smanship,  the 
crime  of  violating  THIS  solemn  oath — treason  against  the  United  States  of 
America,  rape,  and  malicious  murder  alone  excepted. 

Why  did  you^ — ^what  is  the  purpose  of  that  oath  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  That's  not  in  the  United  Klans. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  beg  to  differ  with  you,  Mr.  Thornhill.  I  show  the 
series 

Mr.  Thornhill.  That's  not  the  oath  that  I  taken. 

Mr.  Appell.  Let  me  show  you.  This  is  not  in  the  form  that  the 
United  Klan  prints  it.  It  is  in  the  reprinted  form,  because  we  needed 
so  many  of  them,  but  let  me  show  you  this. 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Read  that  off  to  me  again.  Let  me  hear  that  again. 
I  want  to  hear  that. 

Mr.  Appell.  Well,  I  want  you  to  see  the  entire  series  of  oaths,  a 
section  on  obedience,  a  section  on  secrecy,  a  section  on  fidelity,  and  a 
section  on  Klanishness. 

Now  I  give  you  this. 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  can't  read  that  thing.     You  just  read  it  off. 

|Mr.  Appell.  [Reading:]  "I  swear  that  I  will  keep  secure  to  myself 
a  secret  of  a  [Klan]  *sman." 

Now  you  are  shaking  your  head. 

Mr.  Thornhill.  In  the  United  Klan,  you  can  tell  anybody  that  you 
are  a  member,  but  you  can't  tell  the  other  members. 

Mr.  Appell.  Well,  that  is  one  of — that  which  you  are  talking  about 
is  also  here,  but  then  it  says,  it  goes  on,  the  secret — 

when  same  is  committed  to  me  in  the  sacred  bond  of  [Klan]*smanship,  the 
crime  of  violating  THIS  solemn  oath — treason  against  the  United  States  of 
America,  rape,  and  malicious  murder  alone  excepted. 

Now  why  would  you  be  required  to  keep  a  secret  of  a  fellow  Klans- 
man,  except  in  the  case  of  treason,  raj^e,  and  malicious  murder,  if  the 
Klan  did  not  engage  in  acts  other  than  that  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  don't  know. 

(Document  previously  marked  "Robert  Shelton  Exhibit  No.  4."  See 
committee  report.  The  Presenf-Day  Ku  Klux  Klan  Moveiivent^  pp. 
343-346.) 

Mr.  Appell.  Now  you  testified  that  you  attended  Klan  meetings  in 
the  Hinton  Building.     On  what  nights Vlid  you  attend  Klan  meetings? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Thursday  night. 

Mr.  Appell.  Thursday  night.  Now  did  you  have  knowledge  that 
there  was  another  Klavern  that  also  met  there  on  Tuesday  nights? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Yes,  sir.  Yes.  I  reckon  on  Tuesday  night.  I 
knew  that  there  was  some  more  Klansmen  meeting  there.  I  didn't 
know  what  night.     I  don't  recall  what  night. 

Mr.  Appell.  And  did  you  know  that  the  exalted  cyclops  of  that  Kla- 
vern was  Ray  Smith  ? 


2980  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Well,  I  decline  to  answer  that,  on  the  grounds. 

Mr.  Appeal.  And  did  you  also  know  that  the  members  of  that 
Klavern  were  the  members  who  engaged  in  acts  of  violence  that  they 
later  admitted  and  confessed  to  ? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Thornhill.  No,  sir.  I  did  not  know  those  boys.  I  didn't  even 
know  the}^  was  in  the  Klan. 

Mr.  Appell.  Didn't  know-  any  of  them  in  the  Klan  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  knew  one  of  the  boys.  I  knew  Duncan,  is  the 
only  boy  that  I  knew  that  they  picked  up. 

Mr.  Appell.  You  knew  him  to  be  a  member  of  the  Klan  ? 

Mr,  Thornhill.  No,  sir;  I  didn't  know^  he  was  a  member  of  the 
Klan.  He  wasn't  in  my  Klavern.  I  didn't  know^  he  was  a  member. 
But  I  knowed  him.  I  knowed  that  boy  all  my  life.  The  only  one  of 
the  10  or  9  or  11  that  they  arrested  that  I  knew.  I  knew  the  faces; 
by  name,  I  didn't  know  them.    I  knew  the  Zeeck  boy,  I  knew  him. 

Mr.  Appell.  Well,  now,  can  you  explain  to  me  how  this  happens, 
that  one  of  the  Klansmen  who  were  involved  in  an  act  of  violence, 
attempted  burning  of  a  church,  becomes  a  delegate  to  a  supreme  con- 
vention of  this  organization,  which  you  say  is  a  good  organization,  and 
doesn't  engage  in  these  things  ? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Don't  know^  about  that.    I  don't  know  that. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  make  an  investigation  to  determine  whether 
or  not  this  organization  met  your  ideals  or  whether  or  not  its  members 
did  engage  in  such  things  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  No.  No,  I  didn't.  I  thought  it  all  just  like  ours. 
I  thought  that  all  the  units  was  like  my  unit,  and  I  know  things  like 
that  were  never  brought  up  and  discussed  in  our  unit. 

Mr.  Appell.  Now  can  you  explain  to  the  committee  if  this  sort  of 
thing  is  not  condoned  by  the  United  Klans  of  America,  why  the  Grand 
Dragon  of  Georgia  solicited  funds  for  the  boys  that  were  arrested  and 
wdiy  the  Eealm  of  Louisiana  submitted  money  to  the  Grand  Dragon  of 
Mississippi  for  a  defense  fund  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Well,  now,  that's  something  I  wouldn't  know.  I 
couldn't  answer  that, 

Mr.  Appell.  Well,  if  you  knew  that  they  were  financing  attorneys" 
fees  and  helping  to  pay  costs  of  expenses  of  people  who  were  involved 
in  bombing,  what  would  your  reaction  be  with  respect  to  the  worth- 
whileness  of  the  organization  ? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel. ) 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Well,  I  don't  think  I  would  have  liked  that  too 
much. 

Mr,  Pool,  I  did  not  get  your  answer  to  that. 

Mr.  Appell.  He  said  he  did  not  think  that  he  would  like  that  too 
much. 

Well,  Mr.  Thornhill,  I  suggest  that  you  make  an  investigation,  be- 
cause there  are  many  acts  of  violence. 

Mr.  Thornhill,  I  am  not  going  to  make  no  investigation  now.  If 
I  am  out,  I  intend  to  stay  out. 

Mr.  Appell.  There  are  many  acts  of  violence  which  are  still  un- 
solved, whidh  this  committee's  investigation  establishes  to  have  been 
committed  by  Klansmen  and  members  of  the  United  Klans  of  America, 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2981 

and  your  investigation  could  satisfy  to  yourself  whether  the  organiza- 
tion that  you  say  is  a  worthwhile  organization  is  in  fact  worthwhile. 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Well,  I  am  out  of  it  now,  and  I  intend  to  stay 
out  of  it,  and  I  hope  the  boys  will  do  as  we  intended  to  do  to  start 
with,  if  they  are  going  to  stay  in.  But — it  is  not  up  to  me  to  investi- 
gate, if  I  am  out  of  it  now.  And  I  don't  think  it  would  be  my  duty 
to  go  around  investigating. 

Mr,  Appell.  Would  you  encourage  someone  to  join  a  Klavern  of 
the  United  Klans  of  America  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  No,  sir ;  no,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  have  no  further  questions,  Mr.  Chairman. 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Weltner. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Why  could  you  not  encourage  someone  to  join? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  am  out  of  it,  and  I  don't  reckon  it  would  be 
my  duty  to  encourage  anyone  to  get  into  it  now,  for  I  am  out  of  it  per- 
sonally, myself,  and  that's  up  to  him.  If  he  wants  to  join,  that's  his 
opportunity,  not  mine. 

Mr.  Weltner.  But  you  would  not  encourage  anyone  to  join  that? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Thornhill.  No. 

Mr.  Weltner.  If  someone  asked  you  your  opinion  as  a  former  Klan 
member  as  to  whether  or  not  to  join  the  Klavern  to  which  you  were 
assigned  what  would  you  advise  him  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Well,  I  think  I  would  tell  him  that  I  got  out  of  it 
for  my  own  personal  reasons. 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Thornhill.  And  he  would  have  to  decide  that  his  own  self. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Let  me  ask  you  just  one  or  two  questions  about 
these  business  reasons  here.    How  many  employees  do  you  have? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  How  many  what  ? 

Mr.  Weltner.  How  many  people  working  for  you  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  You  mean — oh,  well,  I  couldn't  answer  that  exactly. 
Maybe  one  day  I  will  have  maybe  six  or  eight,  and  another  day  I 
will  have  two,  but  I  have  two  maids  regular  and  one  man  to  oversee. 

Mr.  Weltner.  How  many  oil  leases  do  you  have  now  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  How  many  what? 

Mr.  Weltner.  How  many  current  oil  leases? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  What  are  you  talking  about?  Oh,  I  don't  know. 
I  have  interests  in  over  200  wells,  producing  now.  I  bought  about 
43,000  acres  up  here  in  Ohio,  drilled  23  wells  up  there,  and  haven't 
raised  a  bit  yet. 

Mr.  Pool.  I  did  not  get  the  last  statement. 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Drilled  23  wells  and  haven't  raised  a  bit  yet. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Does  that  mean  you  have  not  struck  any  oil? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Haven't  struck  any  oil  yet  in  Ohio;  right. 

Mr.  AsHBROOK.  The  Klan  has  been  about  that  successful,  too. 

Mr.  Pool.  I  want  to  ask  you  about  these  leases  that  you  took  from 
these  colored  people. 

AVTiat  did  you  pay  them  for  their  leases?     Do  you  remember? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 


2982  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Oh,  man,  that  price  runs  up.  I  paid  as  high  as 
$3,000  an  acre  for  some  of  them,  $75.00  an  acre,  two  and  a  half,  $3.00 
an  acre  for  others.    It  depends  on  what's  going  on,  your  activities. 

Mr.  Pool.  Were  they  satisfied  wnth  the  leases  that  you  took  ? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  Pardon  me  ? 

Mr.  Pool.  Were  they  satisfied  in  the  leases  that  you  took  from 
them? 

Mr.  Thornhill.  I  have  never  had  a  lawsuit.  I  have  never  had  one 
to  sue  me  yet  for  fraud,  getting  something,  taking  with  a  gun.  I 
always  buy  it  with  money  and  I  have  never  had  a  lawsuit,  one  of  them 
to  sue  me  yet,  and  that  is  something  that  I  am  very,  very  proud  of. 

Mr.  Pool.  Further  questions  ? 

Mr.WELTNER.   No. 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Appell? 

Mr.  Appell,  No  further  questions. 

Mr.  Pool.  The  witness  is  excused. 

Call  the  next  witness. 

Mr.  Appell.  John  Dawson. 

Mr.  Pool.  Do  you  solemnly  swear  that  the  testimony  you  are  about 
to  give  will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth, 
so  help  you  God  ? 

Mr.  Dawson.  I  do. 

TESTIMONY  OF  JOHN  DAWSON,  ACCOMPANIED  BY  COUNSEL, 
LESTER  V.  CHALMERS,  JR. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Dawson,  state  your  full  name  for  the  record. 

Mr.  Dawson.  John  Dawson. 

Mr.  Appell.  You  will  have  to  speak  up  a  little  louder. 

Mr.  Dawson.  John  Dawson. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  appearing  here  today  in  accordance  wdth  a 
subpena  served  upon  you  on  October  30,  1965,  by  John  D.  Sullivan, 
a  member  of  the  investigative  staff  of  this  committee  ? 

Mr.  Dawson.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  represented  by  counsel  ? 

Mr.  Dawson.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  counsel  identify  himself  for  the  record? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Lester  V.  Chalmers,  Jr.,  attorney  at  law,  Room  501, 
First  Federal  Building,  Raleigh,  North  Carolina. 

Mr.  Pool.  Let  me  ask  the  witness :  Are  you  familiar  with  the  chair- 
man's opening  statement  of  this  hearing  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir ;  all  of  my  clients  have  been  advised  of  the 
chairman's  opening  statement,  Mr.  Pool.     So  stipulated. 

Mr.  Pool.  You  have  read  it  and  are  familiar  with  the  contents  of 
it? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Dawson,  the  subpena  served  upon  you  had  an  at- 
tachment to  it,  which  was  a  part-  of  the  subpena,  and  commanded  you 
to  bring  with  you  and  to  produce  items  set  forth  in  the  subpena. 

Part  1  of  the  subpena  reads : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  relating  to  the 
organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  business  and  affairs  of  the  Invisible  Empire, 
United  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also  known  as  the 
United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  and  affiliated  or- 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2983 

ganizations,  namely,  the  Alabama  Rescue  Service,  in  your  possession,  custody 
or  control,  or  maintained  by  you  or  available  to  you  as  present  or  past  Grand 
Klabee  of  the  Invisible  Empire,  United  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan 
of  America,  Inc.,  also  known  as  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of 
the  Ku  Klux  Klan. 

In  a  representative  capacity,  set  forth  in  the  subpena,  I  ask  you  to 
produce  the  documents  called  for  in  paragraph  1. 

(At  this  point  Mr.  Weltner  left  the  hearing  room.) 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Dawson.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any 
and  all  documents  as  demanded  by  the  committee  in  the  subpena  dated 
October  the  6th,  1965,  for  the  reason  that  I  honestly  feel  that  to  do 
so  might  tend  to  incriminate  me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guar- 
anteed to  me  by  amendments  5,  1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the 
United  States  of  America. 

I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any  and  all  rec- 
ords as  requested  by  the  committee  under  the  subpena  dated  October 
the  6th,  1965,  for  that  information  is  not  relevant  and  germane  to  the 
subject  under  investigation  and  the  same  would  not  aid  the  Con- 
gress in  consideration  of  any  valid  remedial  legislation,  nor  is  such 
inquiry  within  the  scope  of  that  authorized  to  be  investigated  by  the 
Rule  XI  of  the  rules  adopted  by  the  89th  Congress,  by  House  Resolu- 
tion 8,  adopted  January  the  4th,  1965. 

Mr.  Pool.  The  reasons  you  have  given  for  your  refusal  to  produce 
the  documents  called  for  by  the  subpena  did  not  really  justify  your 
refusal.  These  reasons  are  rejected.  I  order  and  direct  you  to  produce 
these  documents. 

And,  Mr.  Witness,  is  it  understood  by  you  that  the  request  of  the 
interrogator,  pursuant  to  the  terms  of  subpena,  is  to  produce  the  docu- 
ments called  for  therein,  in  the  representative  capacities  stated  in  the 
subpena  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  So  stipulated,  Mr.  Chairman. 

Mr.  Dawson.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee 
the  documents  heretofore  ordered  by  the  chairman,  based  on  the 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Pool.  That  is  not  acceptable. 

Go  ahead  to  the  next  one. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  before  proceeding  to  part  2  of  the 
subpena,  I  desire  to  show  the  witness  a  readable  copy  of  a  bank  signa- 
ture card  filed  in  connection  with  a  bank  account  of  the  United  Klans 
of  America,  Realm  of  Mississippi,  account  maintained  at  the  Britton 
&  Koontz,  B-r4-t-t-o-n,  and  K-o-o-n-t-z,  National  Bank,  Natchez, 
Mississippi,  and  put  it  to  Mr.  Dawson  as  a  fact,  and  ask  him  to  affirm 
or  deny  thQ  fact,  that  the  "John  Dawson,"  which  appears  on  the 
signature  card  that  will  be  handed  to  liim,  is  his  signature. 

(Document  handed  to  witness.) 

Mr.  Dawson.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
reasons  I  honestly  feel  that  my  answer  miglit  tend  to  incriminate  me 
in  violation  of  my  rights  that  are  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments  5, 
1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

(Document  marked  "John  Dawson  Exhibit  No.  1"  follows:) 


2984  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

John  Dawson  Exhibit  No.  1 


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U  bRr^i*  anthMltf  i  Ut  *oco(puM  tSe  »lKTUiW/»a  swriW  Kck  ■  in  psyrien*  of  fon-is  on  dep:>il,  or  ic  «b«  trenjictiiw  of  other 
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Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Dawson,  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to 
affirm  or  deny  the  fact,  that  in  May  of  1965  you  were  elected  to  the 
office  of  grand  klabee  or  treasurer — — 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Appell,  just  a  second. 

Are  you  going  into  the  second  part  of  the  subpena  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Pool.  All  right. 

Mr.  Appell.  That  in  May  of  1965  you  were  elected  to  the  office  of 
grand  klabee  or  treasurer  of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Realm  of 
Mississippi,  and  I  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny  that  fact. 

Mr.  Dawson.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Ajid  these  are  the  grounds  whicli  include  the  fifth 
amendment,  not  the  ground  relating  to  production  of  documents  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Dawson,  part  2  of  the  subpena  calls  upon  you  to 
produce : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  in  your  pos- 
session, custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  or  available  to  you,  in  your  capacity 
as  present  or  past  Grand  Klabee  of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights 
of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  which  the  "Constitution  and  Laws"  of  said  organization 
authorize  and  require  to  be  maintained  by  you  and  any  other  officer  of  said 
organization,  the  same  being  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control. 

In  a  representative  capacity  set  forth  in  part  2, 1  ask  you  to  produce 
the  documents  called  for. 

Mr.  Dawson.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee 
any  and  all  documents  as  demanded  by  the  committee  in  a  subpena 
dated  October  the  6th,  1965,  for  the  reasons  that  I  honestly  feel  that 
to  do  so  might  tend  to  incriminate  me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as 
guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments  5,  1,4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of 
the  Unite/d  States  of  America. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2985 

And  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any  and  all 
records  as  requested  by  the  committee  under  subpena  dated  October 
the  6th,  1965,  for  that  information  is  not  relevant  and  germane  to 
the  subject  under  investigation  and  the  same  would  not  aid  Congress 
in  the  consideration  of  any  valid  remedial  legislation,  nor  is  such  in- 
quiry within  the  scope  of  that  authorized  to  be  investigated  by  Rule 
XI  of  the  rules  adopted  by  the  89th  Congress,  by  House  Resolution  8, 
adopted  January  the  4th,  1965. 

Mr.  Pool.  The  reasons  you  have  given  for  your  refusal  to  produce 
the  documents  called  for  by  this  subpena  do  not  legally  justify  your 
refusal  and  these  reasons  are  rejected.  I  order  and  direct  you  to 
produce  those  documents. 

Mr.  Witness,  it  is  understood  by  you  that  the  request  of  the  inter- 
rogator pursuant  to  the  terms  of  the  subpena  is  to  produce  the  docu- 
ments called  for  therein,  in  the  representative  capacities  stated  in  the 
subpena  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  So  stipulated,  Mr.  Chairman. 

Mr.  Dawson.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee 
the  documents  heretofore  ordered  by  the  committee,  based  on  the 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Pool.  Your  answer  is  not  acceptable.    Go  ahead,  Mr.  Appell. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chainnan,  paragraph  3  called  upon  Mr.  Dawson 
in  his  position  as  treasurer  to  produce  the  corporate  tax  returns  of  the 
Realm  of  Mississippi,  the  United  Klans  of  America,  also  under  cover 
name  of  the  Mississippi  Rescue  Service. 

We  have  been  advised  by  the  Internal  Revenue  Service  that  no  re- 
turns were  filed,  so  I  shall  not  make  demand  for  production  of  those 
documents. 

Mr.  Dawson,  I  hand  you  two  documents.  One  is  a  request  for  a 
reserv^ation  at  the  Dinkier- Tutwiler  Hotel  in  Birmingham,  Alabama, 
from  John  Dawson,  3809  Ridgewood  Road,  Natchez,  Mississippi,  ad- 
vising the  Dinkler-Tutwiler  Hotel  that  you  intend  to,  or  that  John 
Dawson  plans  to,  attend  the  convention  of  the  Alabama  Rescue  Serv- 
ice; and  the  second  docmnent  is  a  copy  of  the  original  hotel  registra- 
tion card  which  shows  that  John  Dawson  of  the  same  address  regis- 
tered on  September  4  in  the  year  1964. 

Did  you,  Mr.  Dawson,  file  the  request  for  a  reservation  and  did 
you,  in  fact,  sign  the  registration  card,  a  copy  of  which  was  referred 
to? 

Mr.  Dawson.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
reasons  that  I  honestly  feel  that  my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate 
me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments  5,  1, 
4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

(Documents  marked  "John  Dawson  Exhibits  Nos.  2-A  and  2-B," 
respectively,  follow:) 


2986  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

John  Dawson  Exhibit  No.  2-A 


MAKE  YOUR  HQTEL  RESERVAHONS   NOW! 


I   v.'ill    !>?   aftendinq   the   convention   of   the   .    .    . 

Aiti  cue  St'K y LCl 

e   cf    group   c    association) 
I  will  arrive  (dciyl-A/47/ .   .     idateiy.'^ -<?f_  (hour)^'y4.  m. 

:  ■        ',        '      -  f     .  (hour)  .. m. 


U   Single 
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ADDRESS         Zc^_5jL  SJ  Q.Gc   [^^'OoJ^ £il 

CITY        /\6iHdAL^L^^ZAU.5__ 


John  Dawson  Exhibit  No.  2-B 


99S  DAWSOW  JOHN  5/03  656«t 
NAT  MtSa 
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H    65B60 


^^^^ 


OTHCRWISK   THK    HOTEL   COMPANY   WILL 


Dinkl^r^'tutwiler 

0^  DmBcnoN 


DINKLER    HOTEL    CORPORATION 
'DiBPaNSCm  OF  Thuk  •outhenn  Hosmtauty- 


-^^fi^f  /ffDCcu»>op     City    /^y4^/2r//^7     S*''*^  A^/^S 

m City y  ^  ■^ State 


Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  that  in  addition  to  delegates  from  Mississippi  to  that  klon- 
vokation  or  convention  was  Murphy  John  Duncan,  who  was  later  ar- 
rested and  pleaded  guilty  to  a  charge  involving  conspiracy  to  violate 
Mississippi  law  for  illegal  use  of  explosives  ? 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S.  2987 

Mr.  Dawson.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  in  view  of  Mr.  Dawson's  refusal  to 
answer  questions  on  the  claim  of  privilege,  I  present  to  the  committee 
the  results  of  our  investigation  as  they  pertain  to  Mr.  Dawson. 

Mr.  Pool.  Go  right  ahead. 

Mr.  Appell.  First,  I  will  ask  you,  Mr.  Dawson,  when  and  where 
were  you  bom  ? 

Mr.  Dawson.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  John  Dawson  was  bom  on  July  11,  1924,  at  Gloster, 
G-1-o-s-t-e-r,  Mississippi.  In  April  1943  he  entered  the  United  States 
Navy,  while  a  senior  at  the  Oxford  Consolidated  School  of  Amite 
County,  Mississippi.    He  was  discharged  in  May  of  1944. 

In  1949  he  began  employment  with  the  International  Paper  Com- 
pany, where  he  is  presently  a  field  inspector. 

Dawson  joined  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Realm  of  Mississippi, 
in  1964.  He  was  a  delegate  to  the  Imperial  Klonvokation  held  at  the 
Dinkler-Tutwiler  Hotel,  Birmingham,  Alabama,  on  September  5-6, 
1964. 

Dawson  replaced  Murphy  John  Duncan  following  his  conviction 
along  with  other  UKIA  Klansmen,  for  his  role  in  the  series  of  bombings 
and  burnings  in  the  McComb,  Mississippi,  area. 

At  a  state  convention  on  May  15-16,  1965,  Mr.  Dawson  was  elected 
the  grand  klabee  or  State  treasurer  for  the  Realm  of  Mississippi. 

Through  subpena  duces  tecum,  Mr.  Chairman,  the  committee  sub- 
penaed  certain  bank  accounts,  one  in  the  name  of  the  Mississippi 
Rescue  Service,  the  other  in  the  name  of  the  United  Klans  of  America, 
Realm  of  Mississippi.  This  first  bank  account  of  the  United  Klans  of 
America,  Realm  of  Mississippi,  was  opened  in  September  1964  under 
the  name  of  the  Mississippi  Rescue  Service. 

The  authorized  signature  to  this  account  was  Murphy  J.  Duncan,  one 
of  the  10  McComb  Klansmen  arrested  in  connection  with  burning  and 
bombing  in  McComb  area.  Duncan  used  the  alias  of  John  K.  Duncan. 
The  account  was  closed  in  October  1964,  after  Duncan's  arrest.  Docu- 
ments seized  from  Duncan  established  these  facts. 

The  next  account  located  by  the  committee  was  at  the  Britton  & 
Koontz  National  Bank,  Natchez,  Mississippi.  This  account  was  opened 
on  July  26, 1965,  with  Edward  L.  McDaniel  signing  as  Grand  Dragon 
as  the  authorized  signature. 

(Signature  card  marked  "John  Dawson  Exhibit  No.  3."  Not  re- 
producible; retained  in  committee  files.) 

This  designation  was  changed  on  September  21,  1965,  when  any  two 
signatures  of  the  following  names  were  required  on  all  checks :  Edward 
L.  McDaniel,  Grand  Dragon;  John  Dawson;  L.  C.  Murrayj  field  sec- 
retary.    (See  Dawson  Exhibit  No.  1,  p.  2984.) 

From  July  26,  1965,  to  October  12,  1965,  the  date  covered  by  the 
committee's  subpena,  $9,948.39  was  deposited  to  the  account.  Checks 
written  against  tlie  account  during  the  same  period  total  $9,337.65. 


2988 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 


Checks  of  interest  in  this  account  to  the  committee's  investigation 
are  as  follows :  Checks  dated  9/24/1965  and  10/8/1965  paid  to  L.  C. 
Murray,  $75  each,  and  comakers  of  the  checks  were  Jolm  Dawson  and 
Edward  L.  McDaniel.    The  puri:)ose  for  which  drawn  was  "salary." 

Check  of  10/2/1965,  made  payable  to  cash,  in  the  amomit  of  $2,766, 
the  comakers :  L.  C.  Murray  and  Jolin  Dawson.  The  endorsers  on  the 
check :  L.  C.  Murray  and  Jolm  Dawson. 

9/26/65  check  to  E.  L.  McDaniel  in  the  amount  of  $177.40,  the 
makers:  L.  C.  Murray  and  John  Dawson;  the  endorser:  E.  L.  Mc- 
Daniel.    Purpose  for  which  drawn :  Expenses. 

A  check  of  October  15, 1965,  payable  to  cash,  in  the  amount  of  $2,000. 
The  makers:  L.  C.  Murray  and  Edward  L.  McDaniel;  the  endorser: 
Edward  L.  McDaniel. 

Mr.  Dawson,  I  show  you  this  check  payable  to  cash  in  the  amount  of 
$2,766,  with  the  endorsers  of  the  check  being  the  same  as  the  makers, 
L.  C.  Murray  and  Jolm  Dawson,  and  ask  you  to  advise  the  committee 
the  purpose  for  which  that  check  was  drawn  and  the  money  used  ? 

( Check  handed  to  witness. ) 

Mr.  Dawson.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Checks  marked  "John  Dawson  Exhibit  No.  4"  follow:) 

John  Dawson  Exhibit  No.  4 


XtA^WtlX.  MlMW. 


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.^Zl^  }Zl^</t^ 


-^':t/^ 


J>l  I'LJUVItN 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2989 

John  Dawson  Exhibit  No.  4 — Continued 


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2990  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

John  Dawson  Exhibit  No.  4 — Continued 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2991 

John  Dawson  Exhibit  No.  4— Continued 


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59-222  O— 67— pt.  4- 


2992  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  staff  has  no  further  questions  to  ask 
of  this  witness. 

Mr.  Pool.  The  witness  is  excused  permanently. 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Thank  you. 

Mr.  Pool.  The  committee  will  stand  in  recess  until  three  o'clock. 

(Subcommittee  members  present:  Representatives  Pool  and  Ash- 
brook.) 

( Wliereupon,  at  12 :05  p.m.,  Wecbiesday,  February  2,  1966,  the  sub- 
committee recessed,  to  reconvene  at,  3  p.m.,  the  same  day.) 

AFTERNOON  SESSION— WEDNESDAY,  FEBRUARY  2,  1966 

(The  subcommittee  reconvened  at  3 :20  p.m.) 

Mr.  Appell.  I  have  been  asked  by  the  chairman  of  the  committee  to 
announce  that  because  of  business  on  the  floor  of  the  House  that  the 
committee  will  not  be  able  to  resume  its  hearings  this  afternoon  and 
that  witnesses  under  subpena  are  excused  until  10  o'clock  tomorrow 
morning,  and  they  are  to  report  in  Room  313-A. 

The  committee's  hearings  tomorrow^  will  be  in  that  room. 

(Wliereupon,  at  3 :21  p.m.,  Wednesday,  February  2,  1966,  the  sub- 
committee recessed,  to  reconvene  at  10  a.m.,  Thursday,  February  3, 
1966.) 


ACTIVITIES  OF  KU  KLUX  KLAN  ORGANIZATIONS  IN 
THE  UNITED  STATES 

Part  4 


THURSDAY,  FEBRUARY  3,  1966 

United  States  House  of  Representatives, 

Subcommittee  of  the 
Committee  on  Un-American  Activities, 

Washington,  D.C. 

PUBLIC  HEARINGS 

The  subcommittee  of  the  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities,  as 
reconstituted  for  the  February  3  hearings,  met,  pursuant  to  recess,  at 
10:25  a.m.  in  Room  313-A,  Cannon  House  Office  Building,  Washing- 
ton, D.C,  Hon.  Joe  R.  Pool  (chairman  of  the  subcommittee)  presiding. 

(Subcommittee  members:  Representatives  Joe  R.  Pool,  of  Texas, 
chairman;  Charles  L.  Weltner,  of  Georgia;  and  John  H.  Buchanan, 
Jr.,  of  Alabama.) 

Subcommittee  members  present:  Representatives  Weltner  and 
Buchanan. 

Staff  members  present:  Francis  J.  McNamara,  director;  William 
Hitz,  general  counsel;  Alfred  M.  Nittle,  counsel;  Donald  T.  Appell, 
chief  investigator;  and  Philip  R.  Manuel,  investigator. 

Mr.  Weltner  (presiding).  The  subcommittee  will  come  to  order. 

I  wish  to  file  and  make  a  part  of  the  record  a  designation  of  a  sub- 
committee consisting  of  Mr.  Pool  and  myself  and  Mr.  Buchanan  as 
members. 

(The  order  of  appointment  of  the  subcommittee  follows :) 

February  2,  196<3. 
To:  Mr.  Francis  J.  McNamara, 
Direct ar,  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities. 

Pursuant  to  the  provisions  of  the  law  and  the  Rules  of  this  Committee,  I  hereby 
appoint  a  subcommittee  of  the  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  consisting 
of  Honorable  .Joe  R.  Pool  as  Chairman,  and  Honorable  Charles  L.  Weltner  and 
Honorable  John  Buchanan  as  assocaite  members,  to  conduct  hearings  in  Washing- 
ton. D.C.  on  Thursday,  February  t^,  1966,  as  contemplated  by  the  resolution 
adopted  by  the  Committee  on  the  ;iOth  day  of  March,  196.5.  authorizing  hearings 
concerning  the  activities  of  the  various  Ku  Klux  Klan  organizations  in  the  United 
States. 

Please  make  this  action  a  matter  of  Committee  record. 

If  any  member  indicates  his  inability  to  serve,  please  notify  me. 

Given  under  my  hand  this  2nd  day  of  February,  1966. 

/s/  Edwin  E.  Willis 
Edwin  E.  Willis 
Chairman,  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities. 

2993 


2994  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Tlie  committee  now  sitting,  being  a  quorum  of  that 
subcommittee,  will  proceed. 

Mr.  Appell,  will  you  call  the  first  witness? 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Charles  Stewart. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Stand,  please. 

Do  you  solemnly  swear  that  the  testimony  you  shall  give  in  this 
hearing  will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth, 
so  help  you  God  ? 

Mr.  Stewart.  I  do. 

TESTIMONY  OF  CHARLES  MELVIN  STEWART,  ACCOMPANIED  BY 
COUNSEL,  LESTER  V.  CHALMERS,  JR. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Stewart,  state  your  full  name  for  the  record. 

Mr.  Stewart.  Charles  Melvin  Stew^art. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  appearing  here  today  in  accordance  with  a 
subpena  served  upon  you  at  the  offices  of  the  United  Klans  of  America, 
Realm  of  Mississippi,  in  Natchez,  Mississippi,  on  October  30, 1965  ? 

Mr.  Stewart.  I  am, 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  represented  by  counsel  ? 

Mr.  Stewart.  I  am. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  comisel  identify  himself  for  the  record  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Lester  V.  Chalmers,  Jr.,  attorney  at  law.  Room  501, 
First  Federal  Building,  Raleigh,  North  Carolina. 

Mr.  Appell.  Wlien  and  where  were  you  born,  Mr.  Stewart? 

Mr.  Stewart.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
reason  that  I  honestly  feel  my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate  me  in 
the  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments  5,  1,  4, 
and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Stewart,  the  subpena  served  upon  you  contained  an 
attachment,  which  was  made  a  part  of  the  subpena  and  commanded  you 
to  bring  and  produce  documents  listed  in  the  attachment. 

Paragraph  1  reads: 

AH  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  relating  to  the 
organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  business  and  affairs  of  the  Invisible  Empire, 
United  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also  known  as  the 
United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  and  affiliated 
organizations,  namely,  the  Alabama  Rescue  Service,  in  your  possession,  custody 
or  control,  or  maintained  by  you  or  available  to  you  as  Kligrapp  (Secretary)  of 
the  Invisible  Empire,  United  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America, 
Inc.,  also  known  as  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan. 

In  a  representative  capacity  set  forth  in  paragraph  1,  I  ask  you  to 
produce  the  documents  called  for. 

Mr.  Stewart.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee 
any  and  all  documents  as  demanded  by  the  committee  in  a  subpena 
dated  October  6,  1965,  for  the  reason  that  I  honestly  feel  that  to 
do  so  might  tend  to  incriminate  me  in  violation  of  mv  rights  as 
guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments  5,  1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution 
of  the  United  States  of  America. 

I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committe  any  and  all  records 
as  requested  by  his  committee  under  subpena  dated  October  6,  1965, 
for  that  information  is  not  relevant  or  germane  to  the  subject  mider 
investigation  and  the  same  would  not  aid  the  Congress  in  the  con- 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  2995 

sideration  of  any  valid  remedial  legislation,  nor  is  such  inquiry  with- 
in the  scope  of  that  authorized  to  be  investigated  by  Rule  XI  of  the 
rules  adopted  by  the  89  th  Congress,  by  House  Resolution  8,  adopted 
January  4,  1965. 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Mr.  Chairman 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  ask  for  a  direction  of  the  witness. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Chalmers  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir;  the  same  stipulation  that  has  heretofore 
been  entered  into  by  all  the  clients  that  I  have  represented  is  hereby 
stipulated  with  respect  to  the  service  of  the  subpena  in  the  capacity 
as  stated. 

Also,  with  respect  to  the  fact  that  the  witness  has  been  apprised  of 
the  chairman's  opening  statement. 

Mr.  Weltner.  All  right,  thank  you,  Mr.  Chalmers. 

I  advise  the  witness  that  this  committee  does  not  accept  his  rea- 
sons for  refusing  to  produce  the  documents  and,  accordingly,  this 
committee  orders  you  to  produce  the  documents  required  in  that 
subpena. 

Mr.  Stewart.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee 
the  documents  heretofore  ordered  by  the  chairman,  based  upon  the 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Stewart,  paragraph  2  of  the  subpena  calls  for 
you  to  produce : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  in  your  posses- 
sion, custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  or  available  to  you,  in  your  capacity 
as  present  or  past  member  or  Kligrapp  of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.. 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  which  the  "Constitution  and  Laws"  of  said  orga- 
nization authorize  and  require  to  be  maintained  by  you  and  any  other  officer  of 
said  organization,  the  same  being  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control. 

Mr.  Stewart.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee 
the  documents  ordered  by  the  chairman,  based  upon  the  grounds  pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Witness,  the  committee  does  not  accept  your 
claim  of  privilege  in  this  matter,  and  I  take  it  we  have  the  same 
.stipulation  with  regard  to  this  paragraph  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Consequently,  the  committee  directs  you  to  produce 
the  documents  called  for  in  the  subpena. 

Mr.  Stewart.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  the 
documents  heretofore  ordered  by  the  chairman,  based  upon  the  grounds 
previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  paragraph  3  called  for  the  production 
of  corporate  tax  returns  covering  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Realm 
of  Mississippi.  We  have  been  advised  by  the  Internal  Revenue  Service 
that  no  returns  have  been  filed,  and  I  shall  not  ask  for  production  of 
those  returns. 

Mr.  Stewart,  I  hand  you  a  series  of  photographs,  taken  at  a  United 
Klans  of  America  rally,  in  the  Crossroads  community  of  Poplarville, 
Mississippi. 

The  first  photograph  shows  a  Klansman  in  a  red  robe.  I  put  it  to 
you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny  the  fact,  that  that  is 
yourself. 

Mr.  Stewart.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
reason  that  I  honestly  feel  my  rights  might  tend  to  incriminate  me 


2996  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S. 

(sic)  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments  5, 
1,  4,  and  14  to  the  Constitution  of  tlie  United  States  of  America. 

Mr.  Appell.  Photographs  two  and, three  show  Klansmen,  some  with 
black  robes  and  black  hoods,  others  merely  in  black  hoods,  and  at  least 
one  Klansman  in  a  white  robe,  each  with  sidearms,  giinbelt,  holster, 
which  shows  outside  of  the  uniform. 

Can  you  explain  to  the  committee  the  necessity  of  Klansmen  in  this 
type  of  outfit  at  public  rallies  of  the  United  Klans  of  America  ? 

Mr.  Stewart.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer.  I  respectfully  de- 
cline to  answer  that  question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously 
stated. 

(Photographs  previously  marked  "Ernest  Gilbert  Exhibit  No.  2." 
See  pp.  2949,  2950.) 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Stewart,  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to 
affirm  or  deny  the  fact,  that  in  May  of  1965  at  a  State  meeting  of  the 
United  Klans  of  America,  Realm  of  Mississippi,  you  were  elected  to 
the  position  of  kligrapp  or  secretary  ? 

Mr.  Stewart.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Under  the  "Constitution  and  Laws"  of  the  United 
Klans  of  America,  reports  from  subordinate  units  known  as  Klaverns 
are  to  be  forw^arded  to  the  secretary.  The  conunittee  has  obtained 
financial  records  relating  to  Klaverns  within  the  State  of  Mississippi. 

I  shall  read  these  to  you,  and  ask  you  at  the  conclusion  to  identify 
the  position  that  each  holds  in  the  Klavern  in  the  location  represented 
by  financial  records : 

E.  C.  Nutty  III,  Ackerman,  Mississippi ;  ^  [William  C.  Long] ;  Rob- 
ert Hudspeth,  H-u-d-s-p-e-t-h,  Ashland,  Mississippi;  John  Wayne 
Hudson  and  Alton  L.  Stubs,  Beulah,  Mississippi;  George  Ballard, 
B-a-1-l-a-r-d,  Brookliaven,  Mississippi;  E.  B.  Scott  and  Hoyt  Phillips, 
P-h-i-1-l-i-p-s,  Carthage,  Mississippi;  James  Atkins,  A-t-k-i-n-s,  415 
Wilbright,  Cokmibus,  Mississippi ;  Morris  H.  Aust,  A-u-s-t,  DeKalb, 
Mississippi;  Perry  Taylor,  T-a-y-1-o-r,  Box  281,  the  city  is  Desaute, 
Mississippi;  Jolin  W.  Brewer,  Greenville  Unit  736,  Greenville,  Mis- 
sissippi ;  R.  D.  Himt,  H-u-n-t,  508  Erie  Street,  Jackson,  Mississippi ; 
Jimmie  King,  Louise,  Mississippi ;  Bruce  Williamson,  Louisville,  Mis- 
sissippi; Archie  Pinnix,  P-i-n-n-i-x,  Maben,  Mississippi;  Gene  C. 
Deer,  D-e-e-r,  McComb,  Mississippi ;  C.  C.  Warner,  W-a-r-n-e-r,  Mc- 
Comb,  Mississippi ;  F.  J.  Jones,  McNeill,  Mississippi ;  Woodrow  Spiers, 
S-p-i-6-r-s,  McNeill,  Mississippi;  W.  J.  Means,  M-e-a-n-s,  Route  4, 
Morton,  Mississippi;  Adams  County  No.  719,  Natchez,  Mississippi; 
S.  Davidson,  1202  Magnolia,  Natchez,  Mississippi;  J.  H.^ — L-y-e-r  is 
the  spelling  of  the  last  name — Natchez,  Mississippi;  Cecil  Bemiett, 
B-e-n-n-e-t-t,  Picayune,  Mississippi;  T.  V.  Carlisle,  Kon  Klave 
Klub,  K-o-n  K-1-a-v-e  K-l-u-b,  Quitman,  Mississippi ;  W.  L.  Overby, 
0-v-6-r-b-3^,  Raleigh,  Mississippi;  J.  P.  (Billy)  Ambrose,  Ripley, 
Mississippi;  Earl  G.  Cardw^ell,  C-a-r-d-w-e-1-1,  Ripley,  Mississippi; 
Wallace  Turner,  Ripley,  Mississippi ;  Eva  M.  Perkms,  at  Starkville, 
Mississippi;^  [Vernon  Holloway] ;  Charles  Speed,  Stonewall,  Mis- 
sissippi; J.  D.  Pusock,  P-u-s-o-c-k,  Sturgis,  Mississippi;  Dale  O.  Wal- 


1  Bank  official  issuing  money  order.  The  committee  has  no  knowledge  of,  nor  does  It  imply, 
any  Klan  affiliation. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2997 

ton,  Tupelo,  Mississippi ;  D.  A.  Hendry,  H-e-n-d-r-y,  Route  5,  Waynes- 
boro, Mississippi. 

The  names  that  I  have  read  to  you  all  are  makers  of  checks  paying 
money  to  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Alabama  Eescue  Service. 

I  ask  you  what  position  each  of  them  holds  within  the  organization  ? 

Mr.  Weltner.  Well,  put  the  first  name  to  him,  Mr.  Appell,  and  ask 
him  that. 

Mr.  Appell.  E.  C.  Nutty  III.^ 

Mr.  Stewart.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question 
based  upon  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  The  second  name  I  read  to  you  from  Ashland  was  Mr. 
Robert  Hudspeth,  H-u-d-s-p-e-t-h. 

Mr.  Stewart.  Sir,  I  respectfully 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact — — 

Mr.  Weltner.  Wait.     Let  him  respond  to  the  question. 

Mr.  Chalmers.  I  don't  believe  there  was  a  question  asked,  Mr.  Chair- 
man.    No  question  posed, 

Mr.  Appell.  I  just  said,  "The  second  name  was,"  and  I  was  going 
to  continue,  Mr.  Chairman. 

I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact  that  he  is  the  secretary-treasurer  of  a 
Klaveni  which  operates  a  bank  account  at  the  Bank  of  Blue  Momitain, 
Blue  Mountain,  Mississippi,  under  the  name  of  the  Wliite  People's 
March  for  Freedom. 

Mr.  Stewart.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that,  question, 
based  upon  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  that  in  the  Pearl  River  area  or  county  of  Mississippi  there  is 
a  Klavern  which  is  known  by  the  name  of  the  United  Conservatives 
of  Miss.,  Inc.,  #1,  and  I  might  say,  Mr.  Chairman,  that  according  to 
the  records  of  the  secretary  of  state,  this  organization  has  never  filed 
incorporation  papers. 

According  to  the  records  subpenaed  from  the  Washington  Bank  and 
Trust  Company  of  Bogalusa,  Louisiana,  the  officers  of  that  Klavern, 
as  of  October  11,  1965,  were  Charles  J.  Seal,  president;  Pat  Moak, 
M-o-a-k,  vice  president;  J.  L.  Simmons,  treasurer;  B.  L.  Sellers, 
secretaiy;  T.  P.  Wheat,  assistant  treasurer;  Cecil  Bemiett,  assistant 
secretary. 

I  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny  the  fact  that  as  of  the  date  of  October 
11,  1965,  they  were  the  officers  of  that  Klavern,  and  they  were  making 
financial  reports  to  the  secretary  of  the  Realm  of  Mississippi  in  their 
capacity. 

Mr.  Stewart,  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  groimds  previously  stated. 

(Document  previously  marked  "George  Harris  Exhibit  No.  3."  See 
p.  2632.) 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr,  Stewart,  can  you  explain  to  the  committee  the 
workings  of  a  klokann  committee  ? 

Mr.  Stewart.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  that  a  klokann  committee,  on  a  Klavern  level,  on  a  province 
level,  or  on  a  State  level,  is  comprised  of  people  whose  sole  responsi- 

1  See  footnote  1,  p.  2996. 


2998  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S. 

bility  is  to  make  investigations  and  to  carry  out  acts  of  violence  on 
behalf  of  a  Klan  organization  ? 

Mr.  Stewart.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Have  you  ever  served  on  a  klokann  committee  ? 

Mr.  Stewart.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question,  based 
upon  tlie  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  staff  has  no  further  questions  to  ask 
of  this  witness. 

Mr.  Weltner.  The  witness  will  be  excused. 

Call  your  next  witness. 

Mr.  Appell.  Paul  L.  Foster. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Do  you  solemnly  swear  the  testimony  you  shall  give 
in  this  hearing  will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the 
truth,  so  help  you  God? 

Mr.  Foster.  I  do. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Be  seated. 

TESTIMONY   OF   PAUL   LAFAYETTE  FOSTER,    ACCOMPANIED   BY 
COUNSEL,  LESTER  V.  CHALMERS,  JR. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Foster,  will  you  state  your  full  name  for  the 
record  ? 

Mr.  Foster.  Paul  Lafayette  Foster. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Just  a  moment. 

Proceed. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  appearing  here  today  in  accordance  with  a 
subpena  served  upon  you  on  the  30th  day  of  October  1965  at  114  Main 
Street,  Natchez,  Mississippi  ? 

Mr.  Foster.  I  am. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Foster,  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact- 

Mr.  Weltner.  One  moment.  The  witness  is  represented  by  coun- 
sel? 

Mr.  Foster.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Will  counsel  state  his  name? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Lester  V.  Chalmers,  Jr.,  attorney  at  law,  501  First 
Federal  Building,  Ealeigh,  North  Carolina. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Foster,  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact  that  114  Main 
Street,  Natchez,  Mississippi,  the  place  where  you  were  served  by  In- 
vestigator Sullivan,  is  the  office  headquarters  of  the  United  Klans  of 
America,  Realm  of  Mississippi. 

Mr.  Foster.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for 
the  reasons  that  I  honestly  feel  that  my  answer  might  tend  to  incrim- 
inate me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments 
5,  14,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Foster,  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to 
affirm  or  deny  the  fact,  that  you  were  the  first  grand  chaplain  of  the 
White  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Mississippi. 

Mr.  Foster.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Foster,  do  you  know  James  K.  Greer,  G-r-e-e-r  ? 

Mr.  Foster.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  2999 

(At  this  point  Representative  Pool  entered  the  hearing  room.) 
Mr.  Appell.  In  October  1964,  Mr.  Foster,  Mr.  Greer  was  arrested 
for  an  act  of  violence  by  the  Mississippi  Highway  [Safety]  Patrol 
and  in  the  course  of  interrogation  of  Mr.  Greer,  he  made  the  following 
statement  to  the  Mississippi  Highway  Patrol,  referring  to  people  that 
he  knew  in  the  Klan. 
The  report  of  interview^  states : 

Greer  states  that  these  individuals  advocate  violence  and  are  extremely  strong 
segregationists :  Ernest  Finley,  Frank  L.  Gaston,  Charles  L.  James,  Jeff  Luke, 
Cecil  Roberts,  Paul  L.  Foster,  Nelson  Haney,  Tommy  L.  Jones,  Ed  McDaniel, 
Myron  Wayne  Seale. 

Is  the  statement  made  by  Mr.  Greer  to  agents  of  the  Mississippi 
Highway  Patrol  factual  ? 

Mr.  Foster.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Foster,  did  you  join  wdth  the  folloAving  individ- 
uals whose  names  I  just  read  to  you — Charles  James,  Frank  L.  Gaston, 
E.  L.  McDaniel — and  Thomas  Young  in  forming  a  cover  name  for  a 
Klavern  under  the  name  of  the  Adams  County  Civic  &  Betterment 
Association  ? 

Mr.  Foster.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  hand  you  two  documents,  one,  the  minutes  of  orga- 
nization; two,  the  copy  of  filing  of  incorporation  with  the  secretary 
of  state  of  Mississippi,  both  of  which  reflect  that  Paul  L.  Foster  is 
an  officer  of  the  organization ;  and  I  ask  you  if  these  documents  are 
factual? 

Mr.  Foster.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  tliat  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Documents  marked  "Paul  Foster  Exhibits  Nos.  1  and  2,"  respec- 
tively. Exhibit  No.  1  retained  in  committee  files.  Exhibit  No.  2  appears 
in  committee  report.  The  Present-Day  Ku  Klux  Klan  Movement,  pp. 
859-361.) 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Foster,  did  there  appear  in  the  issue  of  the  Natchez 
Democrat^  a  newspaper  published  in  Natchez,  Mississipjoi,  on  Novem- 
ber 1,  1964,  an  article  which  states  that  the  "Adams  County  Civic 
and  Betterment  Association"  protests  action  by  the  Highw^ay  Patrol  ? 

Mr.  Foster.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Document  marked  "Paul  Foster  Exhibit  No.  3"  follows:) 

Paul  Foster  Exhibit  No.  3 

[Natchez  (Miss.)  Democrat,  Nov.  1,.  1964] 

In  This  Area — Protest  Action  Highway  Patrol 

The  Adams  County  Civic  and  Betterment  Association,  which  was  formally  or- 
ganized here  a  short  time  ago  and  which  is  chartered  in  Mississippi,  has  adopted 
a  Resolution  deploring  the  unlawful  arrest  and  search  by  the  State  Highway 
Patrol  in  Natchez  and  Adams  County  and  launching  a  campaign  to  raise  funds 
to  employ  necessary  legal  counsel  for  their  defense. 

The  Resolution  also  requests  the  representatives  from  Natchez  and  Adams 
County  in  the  Legislature  take  the  necessary  aaad  appropriate  action  "guarantee 
our  constitutional  rights  of  freedom  from  unlawful  searches  and  seizures." 

The  Adams  County  Civic  and  Betterment  Association  is  rejwrted  by  its  oficials 
[sic]  as  a  civic  organization  which  does  not  condone  any  type  of  violence  of 
any  nature.     The  general  purpose  of  the  club,  they  said,  is  to  advance  the 


3000  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

educational,  civic  and  social  interests  of  Adams  County.  Mississippi;  to  pro- 
mote integrety  [sic]  and  good  faith  among  the  citizens  of  Adams  County;  to 
acquire,  preserve  and  distribute  educational,  civic  and  social  statistics  and  in- 
formation of  value  to  the  people  of  Adams  County ;  to  develop  an  interest  on 
the  part  of  its  members  and  citizens  in  Adams  County  in  registering  to  vote 
and  voting  in  state,  local  and  national  elections ;  and  to  encourage  and  foster 
the  active  interest  of  members  in  civic,  social  and  moral  welfare  of  this  com- 
munity. 

We  are  taking  this  means  of  presenting  this  petition  to  the  people  with  the 
hope  that  there  are  others  who  feel  as  we  do  about  the  activities  that  are 
taking  place  among  us  today.  If  you  are  concerned  and  want  to  help,  "you 
may  send  your  donation  to  P.  O.  Box  1111,  Natchez,  Miss.,  aiid  be  sure  that  all 
of  your  contribution  will  be  used  for  the  sole  purpose  of  helping  those  who 
need  financial  help,"  Paul  L.  Foster,  President,  said. 

The  Resolution  which  was  adopted  by  the  organization  was  as  follows: 

RESOLUTION   AND    PETITION 

WHEREAS,  during  the  past  several  months,  many  citizens  of  Adams  County 
have  been  arrested  in  connection  with  recent  bombings  and  have  been  illegally 
harassed  and  searched  by  the  Mississippi  Highway  Patrol  (acting  under  recently 
passed  legislation),  and  a  "Police  State"  now  exists  in  this  section  of  the  State 
of  Mississippi,  in  direct  violation  of  our  fundamental  constitutional  rights ;  and 

WHEREAS,  such  action  causes  tension,  turmoil  and  strife  to  the  i)eople  of 
our  state  and  community  and,  if  continued,  will  necessarily  result  in  forceful 
resisitance  to  such  unlawful  action  by  the  state  officials ;  and 

WHEREAS,  the  undersigned  believe  in  constitutional  government,  in  obey- 
ing the  laws  of  our  land,  and,  specifically,  that  a  citizen  is  innocent  until 
proven  guilty  in  a  court  of  law,  regardless  of  his  color,  creed  or  nationality ; 
and 

WHEREAS,  the  unlawful  state  activities,  above,  have  been  brought  about 
through  actions  and  pressures  of  NAACP,  CORE,  COFO,  SNCC  and  the  National 
Council  of  Churches  and  other  oommimist-front  organizations  not  only  pressur- 
ing our  government,  but  in  spending  millions  of  dollars  to  create  strife  within 
the  State  of  Mississippi ;  and 

WHEREAS,  NAACP,  COFO  and  the  other  above  named  organizations  are 
spending  millions  of  dollars  to  create  hatred  between  the  Negro  and  white  races 
in  Mississippi  and  it  is  necessary  that  white  Americans  defend  our  traditions 
and  race; 

NOW,  THEREFORE,  BE  IT  RESOLVED  by  the  undersigned  that  in  sup- 
port of  our  traditional  way  of  life  and  in  support  of  maintining  [sic]  law,  and 
order  and  peaceful  relations  between  the  white  and  Negro  races,  we  do  pledge  our- 
selves to  raise  funds  for  the  support  of  those  persons  who  have  been  unlaA\^illy 
arrested  by  the  State  Highway  Patrol,  and  urge  other  citizens  to  contribute  to- 
ward their  defense, 

BE  IT  FURTHER  RESOLVED  that  the  undersigned  do  hereby  request  our 
local  representatives  in  the  State  Legislature  to  take  appropriate  action  to  guar- 
antee our  constitutional  rights  of  freedom  from  unlawful  searches  and  seizures, 

BE  IT  FURTHER  RESOLVED  that  we  do  seek  from  the  public  funds  foi 
the  defense  of  our  white  citizens  and  for  the  protection  of  our  traditional  way 
of  life,  requesting  that  any  such  funds  be  sent  to  the  undersigned  organization. 

This  money  will  be  used  solely  for  LEGAL  FUNDS  ONLY 
ADAMS  COUNTY  CIVIC 
AND  BETERMENT   [sic] 
ASSOCIATION 
PRESIDENT : 
Paul  L.  Foster 
TREASURER 
C.  E.  James 
John  D.  Druetta 
Mail  any  donations  to 
Adams  County  Civic  and 
Betterment  Club 
P.  O.  Box  111 
Natchez,  Miss. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3001 

Mr.  Appell.  Ill  this  statement  or  according  to  the  article  which 
was  adopted  by  the  Adams  County  Civic  &  Betterment  Association, 
tlie  article  shows  that  it  was  issued  by  Paul  L.  Foster  as  president. 

The  Highway  Patrol  and  other  agencies,  law  enforcement  agencies, 
were  accused  of  illegal  arrest  and  illegal  search  and  seizure. 

Was  this  resolution  adopted  by  the  Adams  County  Civic  &  Better- 
ment Association,  a  cover  of  a  Klan,  in  order  to  protect.  Klansmen 
who  were  being  arrested  for  acts  of  violence  in  wdiich  they  were 
engaged  ? 

Mr.  Foster.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  hand  you  a  registration,  copy  of  the  original  regis- 
tration of  the  Dinkler-Tutwdler  Hotel,  in  Birmingham,  Alabama, 
September  4,  and  the  year  is  1964,  and  ask  you  after  you  revicAv  that 
signature,  whether  or  not  you  attended  the  Imperial  Klonvokation 
held  in  Birmingham  in  September  1964? 

Mr.  Foster.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Document  marked  "Paul  Foster  Exhibit  No.  4--  follows:) 


Paul  Foster  Exhibit  No.  4 

953  FOSTER  PAUL  L     7-54  6565f 

NAT  MISS 
f*4  RS 


H    65659 


PLEASE  CHECK  YOUR  BAGGAGE  OR  SEND  SAME  TO  YOUR  ROOM : OTHERWISE  THE  HOTEL  COMPANY  WILL 
NOT  BE  RESPONSIBLE  FOR  LOSS 


Dinkier  -Tutwiler 

DIRECTION 

DINKLER    HOTEL    CORPORATION 

"DISPENSERS  OF  TRUE  SOUTHERN    HOSPITAUTY" 


BLES.    MONEY. 


Name 


fii-ZJ^/C 


W^ 


Rate 


Street ^^^  ./^UJ^^^J^ State^^g^^^^ 

City  ^Z  /  Stale 


1  U  smTwtfs 


Mr.  Appell.  Wlien  and  where  were  you  bom,  Mr.  Foster? 

Mr.  Foster.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  in  view^  of  the  wntness'  claim  of  privi- 
lege and  his  consistent  refusal  to  answer  my  questions,  I  present  to  the 
committee  the  results  of  our  investigation  as  they  pertain  to  Mr. 
Foster. 

Paul  Lafayette  Foster  was  born  on  July  28,  1923,  at  Newhebron, 
Mississippi.  He  was  educated  at  and  I  don't  know  the  proper  pronun- 
ciation, so  I  will  spell  it,  H-e-u-c-k's  Eetreat,  located  in  Lincoln  Coun- 


3002  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

ty,  Mississippi ;  for  1  year  at  the  Copiah-Lincoln  Junior  College,  Wes- 
son, Mississippi;  3  years  at  Mississippi  College,  Clinton,  Mississippi. 

He  served  in  the  Army  from  December  7,  1942,  to  September  21, 
1945,  with  the  rank  of  Pfc,  and  was  honorably  discharged. 

Since  1952,  he  has  been  employed  as  a  schoolteacher,  a  salesman  of 
stationery  supplies;  and  since  1956,  with  the  International  Paper  Com- 
pany.    He  presently  holds  the  position  of  payroll  control  clerk. 

Foster,  a  member  of  the  White  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Mis- 
sissippi became  the  organization's  first  grand  chaplain  in  February  of 
1964.  In  June  1964,  he  was  the  exalted  cyclops  of  the  combined  Mor- 
gantown  and  Adams  County  Klavern  of  the  Wliite  Knights  of  the  Ku 
Klux  Klan  of  Mississippi. 

In  July  1964,  Paul  Foster  and  other  members  discussed  the  dis- 
affiliation with  the  White  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Mississippi 
and  joining  the  United  Klans  of  America. 

On  August  8,  1964,  Charles  E.  James,  Frank  L.  Gaston,  E.  L.  Mc- 
Daniel,  Paul  Foster,  and  Thomas  Young,  all  former  members  of  the 
"\^niite  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  met  for  the  purpose  of  charter- 
ing a  UKA  Klavern  under  the  cover  name  of  the  Adams  County  Civic 
&  Betterment  Association. 

E.  L.  McDaniel  is  the  present  Grand  Dragon  of  the  United  Klans 
of  America  for  the  Realm  of  Mississippi.  Corporation  papers  were 
filed  with  the  secretary  of  state  by  Charles  E.  James,  Frank  L.  Gaston, 
and  Paul  L.  Foster,  on  Augiist  16, 1964. 

Paul  Foster  thereafter  became  president  of  the  association,  and 
exalted  cyclops  of  the  Klavern.  Charles  E.  James  became  the  kli- 
grapp  or  secretary  of  both  organizations. 

On  November  1,  1964,  there  appeared  in  the  Natchez  Democrat  a 
resolution  passed  by  the  Adams  County  Civic  &  Betterment  Associa- 
tion. This  petition  was  intended  to  give  support  to  fellow  members 
of  the  United  Klans  of  America  who  had  been  arrested  by  the  Missis- 
sippi Highway  Patrol.  The  resolution  accused  the  Mississippi  High- 
way Patrol  of  having  made  illegal  search  and  arrest,  and  declared  a 
"  'Police  State'  now  exists  in  this  section" — referring  to  Adams  Coun- 
ty— "of  the  State  of  Mississippi." 

This  Klavern  of  the  United  Klans  of  America  resolved  in  its  resolu- 
tion, among  one  of  its  resolves,  that— 

in  support  of  our  traditional  way  of  life  and  in  support  of  maintining  [sic] 
law.  and  order  and  peaceful  relations  between  the  white  and  Negro  races,  we  do 
pledge  ourselves  to  raise  funds  for  the  supiiort  of  those  persons  who  have  been 
unlawfully  arrested  by  the  State  Highway  Patrol,  and  urge  other  citizens  to 
contribute  towards  their  defense. 

The  resolution  was  signed  by  Paul  L.  Foster,  president,  C.  E.  James, 
and  John  D.  Druetta.     ( See  Paul  Foster  Exhibit  No.  3. ) 

James  Kenneth  Greer,  in  a  statement  to  the  Mississippi  Highway 
Patrol  on  October  25,  1964,  identified  as  Klansmen  who  advocated 
violence  and  are  extremely  strong  segregationists:  Paul  L.  Foster, 
Ernest  Finley,  Frank  L.  Gaston,  Charles  E.  James,  Jeff  Luke,  Cecil 
Roberts,  Nelson  Haney,  Thomas  L.  Jones,  Ed  McDaniel,  and  Myron 
Wayne  (Jack)  Seale. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Is  that  Ed  McDaniel,  E.  L.  McDaniel? 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  sir. 

In  May  of  1965,  Paul  L.  Foster  was  elected  the  Grand  Klaliff  or 
vice  president  of  the  Realm  of  Mississippi.     This  information,  Mr. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 


3003 


Chairman,  indicates  that  Mr.  Foster  possesses  additional  information 
which  is  both  pertinent  and  relevant  to  this  inquiry  and  would  ma- 
terially aid  the  Congress  in  enacting  remedial  legislation. 

Mr.  Pool  (presiding).  Does  that  finish  your  statement? 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Witness,  you  have  heard  the  sworn  statement  of  the 
committee's  investigator. 

You  now  have  the  opportunity  to  reply  to  any  portion  of  that  state- 
ment, to  affirm,  deny,  or  admit  the  truth  of  any  allegation,  and  to 
explain  or  modify  any  part  of  that  statement.  In  addition,  you  may, 
if  you  desire,  offer  any  other  matters  which  the  committee  may  deem 
relevant  to  this  inquiry. 

Mr.  Foster.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Foster,  I  must  inform  you  that,  absent  your  rebuttal 
or  other  facts  that  may  come  to  the  attention  of  this  committee,  this 
committee  will  reply  upon  the  accuracy  of  its  investigation,  and  bear- 
ing this  in  mind,  have  you  anything  to  say  ? 

Mr.  Foster.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Pool.  Go  ahead,  Mr.  counsel. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Foster,  I  hand  you  a  sheet  of  paper  upon  which 
there  is  typed  the  names  of  nearly  50  employees  of  the  International 
Paper  Company,  Natchez,  Mississippi. 

I  ask  you  to  review  this  list  and  to  advise  the  committee  as  to  which 
individuals  appearing  on  that  list  you  knew  to  be  members  of  eit^her 
the  White  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Mississippi  or  the  United 
Klans  of  America. 

(Document  handed  to  witness.) 

Mr.  Foster.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Document  marked  "Paul  Foster  Exhibit  No.  5.*'  The  list  follows :) 
Paul  Foster  Exhibit  No.  5 


Aldridge,  J.  C. 
Aldridge,  Virgil  G. 
AUen,  William  T. 
Anderson,  Robert  M. 
Ashley,  Buford  W. 
Avants,  James  A. 
Avants,  Ernest  H. 
Bruitt,  Harvey,  .Jr. 
Buckles,  Billy  D. 
Burchfield,  Jasper  W. 
Burgess,  Lavon 
Chisholm,  Vernon  E. 
Clanton,  Oscar  R. 
Cloy,  Ware  Thomas 
Cothern,  Alfred  M. 
Covvart,  Walter  R. 
Davidson,  Charles  O. 
Dawson,  John 
Dillon,  William  M. 
Druetta,  John  D. 
Duncan,  Ben  G.,  Jr. 
Dungan,  Frank  P. 
Edwards,  Charles  E. 


Edwards,  Charlesi  M. 
Elledge,  Clinton  H. 
Elveston,  James 
Elveston,  James  F. 
Felter,  William  TTiomas 
Foster,  Paul  L. 
Freeman,  Frankie  Gene 
Freeman,  Joel  Ray 
Fuller,  Claude  W. 
Gardner,  A.  J. 
Germany,  Otis  K..  Jr. 
Greer,  James  K.,  Jr. 
Griffin,  Claude  A. 
Griffin,  David  C. 
Hardy,  Joe  Lee 
Hinson,  Leslie  AV. 
House,  Marion  L. 
Howington,  Charles  A. 
Howington,  iYed  W. 
Jones,  Tommy  L. 
Kepper,  Dudley  E. 
Klar,  F.  C. 
McManus,  L.  E. 


Nail,  Louis  C. 
Nash,  David  C. 
Pickering,  R.  A. 
Roberts,  Alton  I. 
Scarborough,  J.  L. 
Spring,  Claude  D. 
Spring,  James  W. 
Spring,  Warren  E. 
Story,  E.  R. 
Sturgis,  James  W. 
Sutton,  C.  L. 
Thurmon,  F.  H. 
Torgersen.  Thore  L. 
Trevillion,  S.  R. 
Tynes,  Charles  R. 
Tyson,  Oliver  L.,  Jr. 
AVheeler,  Earl 
Wheeler,  Herman  R. 
White,  Charles,  Jr. 
Wilkinson,  Donald  H. 
Wright,  Raymond  S. 
Young,  Joseph  Lloyd 
Young,  Lloyd  C. 


3004  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  reason  the  list  was  submitted  to  Mr. 
Foster  was  in  hopes  that  he  could  confirm  the  results  of  tlie  commit- 
tee's investigation  that  the  persons  listed  thereon  have  held  member- 
ship in  either  the  Wliite  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Mississippi 
or  the  United  Klans  of  America. 

Mr.  Pool.  That  is  the  results  of  your  investigation  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  That  is  the  results  of  the  staff's  investigation;  yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Pool.  Do  you  want  to  include  this  list  in  the  record  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  would  like  to  ask  that  that  list  and 
the  other  documents  referred  to  of  this  witness  be  introduced  at  the 
place  referred  to. 

Mr.  Pool.  No  objection  ? 

So  ordered. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Let  me  ask  the  witness  if  any  of  the  persons  whose 
names  appear  on  that  list  is  a  member  of  either  the  White  Knights  or 
the  United  Klans  of  America. 

Mr.  Foster.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Pool.  Are  any  of  the  employees  on  this  list  not  members,  to 
your  knowledge,  of  the  Klan  organization  ? 

Mr.  Foster.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Pool.  Thfe  reason  I  ask  you  that,  in  all  fairness,  if  you  know 
for  a  fact  they  are  not  members,  you  should  speak  up  now. 

Mr.  Foster.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question,  leased 
upon  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  staff  has  no  further  questions  to 
ask  of  this  witness. 

Mr.  Buchanan.  Mr.  Foster,  I  understand  you  were  the  first  grand 
chaplain  of  the  White  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  in  Mississippi, 
or  at  least  our  investigation  so  indicates. 

Now  according  to  Article  II,  Section  18  of  the  constitution  of  the 
White  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  (Gordon  Lackey  Exhibit  No. 
2) ,  the  grand  chaplain,  and  I  quote : 

The  Grand  Chaplain  shall  serve  in  the  capacity  of  Christian  advisor  on  all 
questions  of  morals  and  idealistic  Klavern  conduct. 

A.  In  eases  of  extreme  penalties  the  advise  [sic]  of  the  Grand  Chaplain  shall 
be  sought  and  considered. 

As  grand  chaplain,  was  your  advice  sought  and  considered  in  ex- 
treme penalties? 

Mr.  Foster.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question,  based 
upon  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Buchanan.  What  are  those  extreme  penalties  ? 

Mr.  Foster.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question,  based 
upon  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Buchanan.  Our  investigation  has  revealed  there  are  four  kinds 
of  projects  carried  out  by  the  Wliite  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan, 
and  Project  No.  4  is  extermination.    Is  this  an  extreme  penalty? 

Mr,  Foster.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Buchanan.  You  have  been  a  high-ranking  officer  of  first, 
Wliite  Knights,  and  then  the  United  Klans  in  Mississippi,  from  our 
evidence.     I  note  that  you  are  a  graduate  of  a  Christian  college,  a 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3005 

former  school  teacher.  What  good  things  can  you  tell  us  about 
either  of  these  Klan  organizations  that  would  make  them  worthwhile 
for  people  to  join  and  support? 

Mr.  Foster.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Buchanan.  Well,  I  wish  you  would  tell  us  something  good. 
We  haven't  heard  anything  in  all  our  weeks  of  investigation  to  date. 

Thank  you,  Mr.  Chairman. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Well,  we  heard  about  that  "needy  committee"  yes- 
terday, which  was  a  faint  light  on  an  otherwise  dark  horizon. 

Mr.  Buchanan.  Well,  w^e  also  heard  that  the  White  Knights  Avere 
instructed  by  their  Imperial  Wizard  not  to  associate  with  the  United 
Klans  people.  I  suppose  one  might  consider  that  a  stroke  for  one 
organization  or  the  other ;  I  am  not  sure. 

Mr.  Weltner.  No  questions. 

Mr.  Pool.  The  witness  is  excused  permanently. 

Call  your  next  witness. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Ernest  Parker. 

Mr.  Pool.  Do  you  solemnly  swear  the  testimon}^  you  are  about  to 
give  will  be  the  truth,  the  w^hole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth, 
so  help  you  God  ? 

Mr.  Parker.  I  do. 

TESTIMONY  OF  ERNEST  BUCHANAN  PARKER,  ACCOMPANIED  BY 
COUNSEL,  LESTER  V.  CHALMERS,  JR. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Parker,  will  you  state  your  full  name  for  the 
record  ? 

Mr.  Parker.  Ernest  Buchanan  Parker. 

Mr.  Appell.  We  have  no  microphone  in  this  room,  Mr.  Parker, 
so  that  you  will  have  to  speak  up  so  that  the  committee  and  others 
can  hear  you. 

Are  you  appearing  here  today  in  accordance  with  a  subpena  served 
upon  you  on  October  30,  1965,  at  the  United  Klans  headquarters  in 
Natchez,  Mississippi,  114  Main  Street  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Mr.  Chairman,  may  I  state,  sir,  that  the  witness 
here  that  I  represent,  Ernest  Buchanan  Parker,  is  here  as  a  result  of 
a  subpena  served  upon  him,  dated  the  6th  day  of  October  1965. 

Mr.  Pool.  Have  you  identified  yourself,  counsel  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  No,  sir;  I  will.  T  am  Lester  V.  Chalmers,  Jr.. 
attorney  at  law.  Room  501,  First  Federal  Building,  Raleigh,  North 
Carolina. 

Mr.  Pool.  And  you  are  representing  the  witness? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir;  I  do. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  ask  that  the  witness  be  directed  to 
answer  as  to  whether  or  not  he  was  served  by  Investigator  Sullivan 
of  this  office,  as  the  return  reflects  at  114  Main  Street,  Natchez,  Mis- 
sissippi. 

Mr.  Pool.  I  direct  you  to  answer  the  question. 

Mr.  Parker.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Pool.  What  was  the  answer? 

Mr.  Parker.  Yes,  sir. 


3006  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Pool.  Now  the  Chair  wislies  to  make  this  statement,  and  the 
Chair  wishes  to  state  to  the  witness  and  ask  the  witness,  have  you 
been  furnished  a  copy  of  the  chairman's"  opening  statement  of  Oc- 
tober 19, 1965,  and  are  you  familiar  with  its  contents? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Mr.  Chairman,  so  stipulated. 

Mr.  Pool.  In  other  words,  the  stipulation  in  the  directions  of  the 
subpena  to  produce  the  documents  called  for  made 

Mr.  Chalmers.  I  don't  think  that  has  been  asked  yet. 

Mr.  Pool.  That  has  not  been  asked  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  Pool,  All  right,  that  is  not  stipulated  up  to  this  point. 

All  right,  go  ahead. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Parker,  when  and  where  were  you  bom  ? 

Mr.  Parker.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for 
the  reason  that  I  honestly  feel  my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate 
me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  under  the  amend- 
ments 5,  1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of 
America. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Parker,  do  you  know  Myron  Wayne 

Mr.  Pool.  Just  a  moment,  please. 

Go  ahead. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Parker,  do  you  know  Myron  Wayne — who  is 
popularly  known  as  "Jack" — Seale  ? 

Mr.  Parker.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Parker,  Mr.  Seale  was  arrested  by  the  Mississippi 
Highway  Patrol  in  connection  with  an  assault  upon  a  white  male, 
Bruce  Lloyd  Payne.  In  the  course  of  an  interrogation  by  the  Mis- 
sissippi Highway  Patrol,  I  will  read  from  a  report  of  statements  made 
by  Mr.  Seale : 

Seale  stated  that  his  closest  associate  in  Natchez  is  Ernest  Parker.  He  stated 
that  he  considered  Ernest  Parker  to  be  his  best  friend  and  that  they  hunt  and 
fish  together  frequently.  He  further  stated  that  he  often  soes  with  Parker  in 
Parker's  airplane.  He  stated  Parker  has  a  four-seater  plane  which  is  white 
with  red  stripes.  He  stated  Parker  is  a  very  cautious  pilot.  Parker  and  Seale 
usually  fly  from  Natchez  up  to  "Palmyra"  [P-a-1-m-y-r-a],  which  Seale  de- 
scribed as  an  island  on  the  Mississippi  River.  He  stated  that  this  is  a  35,000- 
acre  island  and  that  Parker  owns  25,000  acres  of  the  island.  Parker  has  at  least 
500  head  of  cattle  on  this  island  and  Seale  and  Parker  often  fly  up  to  the  island 
to  take  care  of  these  cattle.  He  stated  that  sometimes  they  drive  up  to  the 
island  or  to  Tallulah,  Mississippi,  where  they  visit  friends.  He  stated  that 
Ernest  Parker  and  his  brother  Lee  Parker  own  a  large  barge  which  they  can 
take  out  to  the  island.  He  stated  that  last  summer  while  bringing  a  truck 
with  26  head  of  cattle  from  the  island  to  the  mainland,  the  barge  tilted,  causing 
the  cattle  and  truck  to  go  overboard.  *  *  * 

Do  you  own  25,000  acres  on  an  island  called  Palmyra  Island  ? 

Mr.  Parker.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Parker,  according  to  the  McComb,  Mississippi, 
Enterprise- J ournal^  two  bodies  were  found  in  what  is  known  as  the 
Old  River,  Charles  Moore  and  Henry  Dee. 

Do  you  possess  any  knowledge  of  how  those  bodies  got  into  the 
Old  River? 

Mr.  Parker.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  grounds  previously  stated. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  3007 

Mr.  Appell.  In  puttino;  the  case  together,  Mr.  Parker,  it  was  re- 
constructed that,  in  order  to  get  two  bodies  tied  by  chains  and  tied  to 
an  engine  block  of  a  jeep,  there  was  only  a  certain  type  of  boat  that 
could  be  possibly  used,  and  the  only  type  of  boat  on  the  river  which 
could  be  used  for  this  was  a  barge  similar  to  the  one  that  you  own. 

Was  your  barge  used  for  this,  with  or  without  your  knowledge  ? 

Mr.  Parker.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Investigation  found  several  old  Willys  jeep  chassis  on 
your  property,  and  the  bodies  were  weighted  down  with  a  motor  block 
from  a  jeep.  Was  the  motor  block  from  any  jeep  chassis  that  was  on 
your  property  ? 

Mr.  Parker.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Parker,  according  to  your  Federal  income  tax 
returns,  in  April  of  1964,  as  reflected  by  your  1964  tax  return,  you 
purchased  mobile  radios  costing  $783.97.  Were  those  radios  used  to 
carry  out  projects  of  Klan  organizations,  either  the  White  Knights 
or  presently  the  United  Klans  of  America? 

Mi\  Parker.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  gi'ounds  previously  stated. 

(Document  marked  "Ernest  Parker  Exhibit  No.  1"  and  retained 
in  committee  files.) 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Appell,  is  that  two-way  radios?    Citizens  band? 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  we  have  not  located  an  application  for 
a  citizens  band  radio  at  this  time,  which  does  not  infer  that  there  is 
not  one.  However,  the  only  knowledge  that  we  at  this  moment  possess 
is  the  deduction  on  $783.97  on  Mr.  Parker's  tax  returns  for  the  pur- 
chase of  mobile  radios. 

Mr.  Pool.  It  is  possible  to  use  these  radios  without  having  a  license. 
Is  that  correct  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  I  don't  think  that  they  can  be  used  witliout  a  license, 
sir. 

Mr.  Pool.  Well,  as  a  practical  matter,  though,  they  could  use  them. 

Mr.  Appell.  Illegally. 

Mr.  Pool.  Illegally,  but  they  could  be  used. 

Mr.  Appell.  Oh,  yes,  sir.  One  of  the  problems  that  tlie  Federal 
Communications  Commission  has  is  attempting  to  monitor  the  citizens 
band  radios  for  any  illegal  use.     There  are  too  many  in  existence. 

Mr,  Pool.  They  are  supposed  to  call  out  the  call  letters,  l>efore  and 
after  a  conversation,  I  believe.    Is  that  correct  ? 

Mr,  Appell.  I  am  not  that  familiar  with  the  requirements,  sir, 

Mr.  Pool.  I  think  it  is. 

Just  a  minute. 

Under  the  rules  of  the  House,  this  hearing  shall  not  l3e  recorded 
on  a  tape  machine.  I  understand  that  one  of  the  people  in  the  audi- 
ence has  a  recording  machine  and  has  the  microphone  out. 

Will  you  officers  check  that  to  see  if  that  is  true? 

Mr.  Scoggin?  Under  the  rules  of  the  House,  you  are  violating  the 
rules  by  having  the  machine  in  operation  while  these  hearings  are 
going  on,  and  the  Chair  will  not  give  you  another  warning  on  it. 
Don't  do  it  any  more. 

Will  you  come  here  to  the  Chair?  Mr.  Scoggin?  Come  up  here 
to  the  Chair  and  bring  your  machine  up  here. 

59-222  O— 67— pt.  4 8 


3008  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Chalmers,  will  you  come  up  with  him  ? 

(Discussion  off  the  record.) 

Mr.  Pool.  Will  the  reporter  show  on  the  record  that  Mr.  Scoggin 
says  that  he  has  not  been  playing  the  tape  recorder  and  that  there  is 
nothing  on  the  tape  at  this  time? 

All  right,  go  ahead. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Parker,  in  March  of  1964,  were  you  the  exalted 
Cyclops  of  a  Klavern  of  the  ^^^lite  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  in 
Mississippi  known  as  the  Morgantown  Klavern  ? 

Mr.  Parker.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Have  you  used  your  airplane  for  the  purpose,  either 
you  as  the  pilot  or  authorized  the  use  for  the  purpose  of  dropping 
Klan  literature  in  various  sections  of  Mississippi  ? 

Mr.  Parker.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  in  view  of  the  witness'  claims  of  priv- 
ilege and  his  refusal  to  answer  questions,  I  present  to  the  committee 
the  results  of  its  investigation  on  Mr.  Parker. 

Ernest  Buchanan  Parker  was  born  on  May  4,  1930,  at  Natchez, 
Mississippi. 

He  served  in  the  U.S.  Navy  Reserve  from  1947  to  1952,  when  he  was 
honorably  discharged. 

He  is  a  self-employed  farmer  and  cattleman,  with  financial  interests 
in  oil  and  timber.     He  owns  a  four-seater  airplane,  make  unknown. 

In  March  1964,  he  was  the  exalted  cyclops  of  the  Morgantow^n 
Klavern  of  the  White  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Mississippi. 

In  April  1964,  he  purchased  mobile  radios  costing  $783.97. 

In  August  1964,  he  withdrew  from  the  "Wliite  Knights  of  the  Ku 
Klux  Klan  of  Mississippi  and  affiliated  with  the  United  Klans  of 
America,  Realm  of  Mississippi.  He  is  a  member  of  the  Klavern  known 
as  the  Adams  County  Civic  &  Betterment  Association. 

With  regard  to  the  Adams  County  Civic  &  Betterment  Association, 
Parker  is  known  to  have  stated  that  at  public  UKA  rallies,  nothing  is 
discussed,  but  at  meetings  of  the  new  "civic"  club,  the  Klan  is  able 
to  make  plans  and  carry  on  any  "real  business." 

Parker's  plane  was  flown  by  himself  or  with  a  pilot  having  permis- 
sion from  Mr.  Parker,  and  was  used  to  drop  Klan  leaflets  over  Brook- 
haven,  Mississippi,  over  Philadelphia,  Mississippi,  in  August  1964, 
and  in  the  Neshoba  County  Fair  in  1965. 

Parker  is  presently  holding  a  position  in  the  Realm  of  Mississippi, 
United  Klans  of  America. 

This  information,  Mr.  Chairman,  indicates  that  Mr.  Parker  possesses 
additional  information  which  is  both  pertinent  and  relevant  to  this 
inquiry  and  would  materially  aid  the  Congress  in  enacting  remedial 
legislation. 

Mr.  Pool.  Does  that  complete  your  statement? 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Witness,  you  have  heard  the  sworn  statement  of  the 
committee's  investigator. 

You  now  have  an  opportunity  to  reply  to  any  portion  of  that  state- 
ment to  confirm,  admit,  or  deny  the  truth  of  any  allegation,  and  to 
explain  or  modify  any  part  of  that  statement. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3009 

In  addition,  you  may,  if  you  desire,  offer  any  other  matter  that  the 
committee  may  deem  relevant  to  tliis  inquiry. 

Mr.  Parker.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  (grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Pool.  I  must  inform  "you  that,  absent  your  rebuttal  or  other 
facts  that  may  come  to  the  attention  of  the  committee,  this  committee 
will  rely  uf)on  the  accuracy  of  its  investigation. 

Bearing  this  in  mind,  have  you  anything  to  say  ? 

Mr.  Parker.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Pool.  Go  ahead. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Parker,  what  is  the  "real  business''  that  can  be  dis- 
cussed within  the  Klavern  which  is  known  as  the  Adams  County  Civic 
&  Betterment  Association  which  can't  be  discussed  at  public  Klan 
rallies? 

Mr.  Parker.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  The  staff  has'no  further  questions  to  ask  of  this  wit- 
ness, Mr.  Chairman. 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.Weltner? 

Mr.  Buchanan  ? 

The  witness  is  excused  permanently. 

Mr.  Appell.  Myron  Wayne  Seale. 

Mr.  Pool.  Do  you  solemnly  swear  the  testimony  you  are  about  to 
give  will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth,  so 
lielp  you  God  ? 

Mr.  Seale.  Yes,  sir. 

TESTIMONY  OF  MYRON  WAYNE  (JACK)  SEALE,  ACCOMPANIED  BY 
COUNSEL,  LESTER  V.  CHALMERS,  JR. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Seale,  will  you  state  your  full  name  for  the  record? 

Mr.  Seale.  Myron  Wayne  Seale. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  popularly  known  by  the  nickname  of  Jack? 

Mr.  Seale.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  appearing  here  today  in  accordance  with  a 
subpena  served  upon  you  at  114  Main  Street,  Natchez,  Mississippi,  on 
October  30,  1965,  by  John  D.  Sullivan,  an  investigator  of  this  com- 
mittee? 

Mr.  Seale.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  represented  by  counsel  ? 

Mr.  Seale.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Would  counsel  identify  himself  for  the  record  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Lester  V.  Chalmers,  Jr.,  Room  501,  First  Federal 
Building,  Raleigh,  North  Carolina. 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Chalmers,  is  it  so  stipulated  the  witness  has  been 
furnished  a  copy  of  the  chairman's  opening  statement  of  October  19, 
19G5,  and  that  he  is  familiar  with  its  contents  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir;  he  is. 

Mr.  Appell.  Wlien  and  where  were  you  born,  Mr.  Seale  ? 

Mr.  Seale.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question,  for 
the  reasons  that  I  honestly  feel  that  my  answ^ers  might  tend  to  incrnni- 
nate  me  in  violations  of  my  rights,  and  guaranteed  by  me  by  amend- 


3010 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 


merits  5,  1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of 
America. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Seale,  the  name  Seale  in  Mississippi  is  a  name 
used  by  many  families.     Some  spell  it  S-e-a-1-e,  some  S-e-a-1,  some 
S-e-a-1-s.     It  is  the  correct  spelling  of  your  last  name  S-e-a-1-e? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir;  Mr.  Chairman,  It  is  stipulated  that  his 
last  name  is  S-e-a-1-e,  as  stated  in  the  subpena. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Seale,  do  you  hold  a  position  within  the  Klan  of 
Mississippi,  the  United  Klans  of  America,  within  their  security  guard 
and  the  rank  of  major  ? 

Mr.  Seale.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Do  you  know  John  D.  Sullivan,  who  sits  across  from 
me,  the  investigator  of  the  committee  ? 

Mr.  Seale.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr,  Appell,  I  hand  you  a  photograph  taken  on  October  30,  1965, 
in  Natchez,  Mississippi,  show^ing  yourself,  dressed  in  a  military-type 
uniform,  major's  rank,  holding  a  walkie-talkie  radio,  and  I  ask  you 
if  the  person  photographed  next  to  you  is  John  D.  Sullivan,  investiga- 
tor of  this  committee  ? 

Mr.  Seale.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Photograph  marked  "Myron  Seale  Exhibit  No.  1"  follows:) 

Myron  Seale  Exhibit  No.  1 


Photograph  taken  October  30,  1965,  in  Natchez,  Miss.  Person  at  left  in  military-typt 
uniform  with  walkie-talkie  radio  is  Myron  Wayne  (Jack)  Seale;  the  other  is  John  D 
Sullivan,  HCUA  investigator. 


ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S. 


3011 


Mr.  Pool.  How  could  that  incriminate  you,  to  make  a  statement  like 
that? 

Mr.  Seale.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  ^Nlr.  Seale,  clo  you  laiow  L.  C.  Murray,  who  is  the  field 
secretary  to  Mr.  McDaniel  of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Realm 
of  Mississippi? 

Mr.  Seale.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  hand  you  a  reproduction  of  a  photograph  that  ap- 
peared in  the  Clarion-Ledger  of  Jackson,  Mississippi,  Monday,  July 
19,  1965,  which  contains  two  individuals  in  Klan  robes,  and  according 
to  the  caption  these  two  Klansmen  were  in  Bogalusa,  Louisiana,  drum- 
ming up  business  or  interest  for  a  United  Klans  rally  to  be  held  in 
Crossroads,  Mississippi,  July  19  or  21  of  1965. 

In  handing^ you  this  photograph,  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask 
you  to  affirm  or  deny  the  fact,  that  the  two  Klansmen  shown  are  your- 
self, Jack  Seale,  and  L.  C.  Murray  ? 

Mr.  Seale.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Photograph  marked  "Myron  Seale  Exhibit  No.  2"  follow^s:) 

Myron  Seale  Exhibit  No.  2 
Jackson,  Miss.,  C larion- Ledger,  ]u\y  19,  1965] 


KLAN  PARADES  IN  BOGALUSA— Two  hooded  white  men 
who  identified  themselves  as  members  of  the  Knights  of 
the  Ku  Klan  of  Natchez,  Miss,  pass  Louisiana  state 
troopers,  one  of  which  gives  a  big  grin  to  the  Klansmen. 
The  Klansmen  walked  the  streets  of  Bogalusa  recently  to  re- 
mind Bogalusa  residents  of  a  KKK  rally  at  Crossroads, 
Miss.— AP  Wirephoto. 

[No.  1  Myron  Wayne  (Jack)  Seale;  No.  2  is  L.  C.  Murray.] 


3012 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 


Mr.  Appell.  I  hand  you  another  photograph  which  appeared  in 
many  newspapers  throughout  the  United  States,  this  one  from  the 
Emporia,  Kansas,  Gazette^  which  has  a  caption  to  the  photograph 
which  reads  "Klan  Guard  Eyes  Marchers*' : 

Jack  Seale,  who  identified  liimself  as  a  major  in  the  security  guard  of  the 
Mississippi  chapter  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  at  Natchez,  watches  as  nearly  1,000 
civil  rights  marchers  pass  in  downtown  Natchez.  Seale  said  that  he  and  14  othei 
KKK  security  guards  were  on  hand  "to  keep  the  peace"  during  the  demonstration. 

I  hand  you  that  photograph  and  ask  you :  Why  is  it  necessary  for 
the  security  guard  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  organization  to  be  around  in 
order  to  keep  the  peace  ? 

Mr,  Seale.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  on  the 
basis  previously  stated. 

(Photograph  marked  "Myron  Seale  Exhibit  No.  3"  follow^s:) 

Myron  Seale  Exhibit  No.  3 

[Emporia,  Kansas,  Ga~elte,  November  1,  1965] 


KLAN   GUARD   EYES   MARCHERS   —   Jnck  1,000  civil  rights  marchers  pass  in  downtown 

Seale,  who  identified  himself  as  a  major  in  the  Natchez.    Seale  said  that  he  and  14  other  KKK 

security  guard  of  the  Mississippi  chapter  of  the  security   guards   were   on   hand   'to   keep   the 

Ku  Jilux  Klan  at  Natchez,  watches  as  nearly  peace"  during  the  demonstration.     (AP) 


Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Seale,  were  you  arrested  in  connection  with  an 
assault  on  a  boy  by  the  name  of  Payne  and  another  by  the  name  of 
Green  ? 

Mr.  Seale.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  hand  you  a  reproduction  of  a  photograph  which 
appeared  in  the  Natchez  (Mississippi)  Democrat,  of  October  24,  1964, 
and  the  caption  to  the  photograph  reads : 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3013 

Collection  of  weapons — Federal  Bureau  of  Investigation  and  State  Highway 
Patrol  officials  stationed  in  Natchez  yesterday  uncovered  this  collection  of 
weapons  and  ammunition  in  connection  with  their  investigations  here.  All  the 
weapons  and  ammnnition  with  the  exception  of  the  two  pistols,  came  from 
the  home  of  M.  W.  "Jack"  Scale,  arrested  here  early  yesterday  morning  and 
charged  with  assault  and  battery  with  intent  to  kill  in  connection  with  an  assault 
on  two  civil  rights  workers  near  Port  Gibson  on  Oct.  31.  Scale  was  the  fifth 
Natchez  man  charged  in  the  assault. 

In  looking  at  that  photograph,  explain  to  the  committee  why  any- 
one needs  such  an  arsenal  ? 

Mr.  Seale.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Photograph  marked  "Myron  Seale  Exhibit  No.  4."  See  committee 
report.  The  Present-Day  Ku  Klux  Klan  Movement^  p.  109.) 

Mr.  Appell.  Were  any  of  the  w^eapons  shown  in  the  photograph, 
which  includes  a  carbine,  used  for  any  illegal  purpose  by  you  ? 

Mr.  Seale.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Seale,  you  were  in  the  room  when  I  read  to  Mr. 
Parker  the  portion  of  a  statement  which  according  to  the  Mississippi 
Highway  Patrol  you  made  to  them  on  October  26, 1964.  Is  that  which 
I  read  to  Mr.  Parker  factual  ? 

Mr.  Seale.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Now"  Mr.  Seale,  it  is  the  committee's  understanding  and 
knowledge  that  James  Seale,  arrested  in  the  connection  with  the  dis- 
appearance of  Charles  Edward  Moore  and  Henry  Ezekiel  Dee,  is  your 
brother 

Mr.  Seale.  Sir,  I  respectfully 

Mr.  Appell.  — and  that  Charles  Marcus  Edwards,  also  arrested,  is 
your  cousin. 

Do  you  possess  any  knowledge  of  the  picking  up  of  Moore  and  Dee 
and  of  any  subsequent  actions  taken  by  the  12  to  15  Klansmen  who 
Charles  Marcus  Edwards  said  participated  in  the  beating,  which  re- 
sulted in  their  bodies  winding  up  in  the  Old  River  near  Palmyra 
Island? 

Mr.  Seale.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  participate  in  the  acts  against  Henry  Dee  and 
Charles  Moore  ? 

Mr.  Seale.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Do  you  possess  any  kno^vled^e  as  to  the  type  of  trans- 
portation used  to  take  these  bodies  to  the  river  or  the  location  from 
where  the  jeep  motor  block  was  obtained  ? 

Mr.  Seale.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Seale,  Bruce  Lloyd  Payne  and  George  Green  were 
beaten  in  October  1963,  and  a  car  driven  by  them  was  shot  at  in  No- 
vember of  1963. 

Did  you  participate  in  either  the  beating  or  the  firing  into  their 
vehicle  ? 

Mr.  Seale.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 


3014  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  in  view  of  the  witness'  claim  of  privi- 
lege and  his  consistent  refusal  to  answer  questions,  I  present  to  the 
committee  the  results  of  our  investigation  as  they  pertain  to  Mr.  Seale. 

Myron  Wayne  "Jack"  Seale  was  bom  September  4,  1926,  at  Brook- 
haven,  Mississippi. 

He  completed  11  years  of  formal  education.  He  served  in  the  United 
States  Navy  from  October  1944  to  December  of  1947. 

He  operates  a  garbage  collection  business  in  Natchez,  Mississippi. 
He  is  the  son  of  Clyde  and  the  brother  of  James  Ford  Seale,  both  of 
whom  have  been  witnesses  during  the  current  investigation. 

He  joined  the  TVliite  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  in  1964  and 
transferred  to  the  United  Klans  of  America.  He  is  a  member  of  the 
Adams  County  Klavern,  known  as  the  Adams  County  Civic  &  Better- 
ment Association. 

In  May  of  1965,  he  was  elected  to  the  office  of  grand  night-hawk 
for  the  Realm  of  Mississippi. 

The  Natchez  Democrat^  issue  of  October  24,  1964,  reported  that 
Myron  Wayne  "Jack"  Seale  was  arrested  in  comiection  witli  an  alleged 
attack  on  two  civil  rights  workers  in  Clarion  County,  Mississippi,  on 
October  31,  1963. 

At  the  time  of  his  arrest,  rifles,  ammunition,  and  knives  were  seized. 
Arrested  along  with  Mr.  Seale  on  the  same  charge  were  Ernest  Henry 
Avants,  Frank  Hyman  Thunnan,  John  William  Barber,  and  James 
Kenneth  Greer.  Charges  were  dropped  when  the  civil  rights  workers 
refused  to  return  to  Mississippi  for  the  trial. 

At  the  time  of  arrest,  Seale  denied  membership  in  the  Klan.  He 
acknowledged  knowing  the  following  all  identifiable  Klansmen: 
Ernest  Parker,  Charles  Edwards,  Douglas  Byrd,  James  L.  McKinney, 
Ernest  Avants,  and  Alton  Roberts. 

James  Kenneth  Greer,  arrested  for  the  same  offense,  identified  Myron 
Wayne  Seale  as  a  Klansman  who  advocated  violence. 

On  October  18, 1964,  he  purchased  a  greenish-blue  Chevrolet,  which 
was  observ^ed  on  November  2,  1963,  pursuing  a  car  bearing  the  same 
two  civil  rights  workers  assaulted  in  October  1963.  Three  shots  were 
fired  into  the  rear  of  the  civil  rights  workers'  car  after  they  sped  away 
from  their  pursuers.  Seale's  car  is  equipped  with  a  radio  receiver 
capable  of  monitoring  police  calls.  Seale  is  a  major  in  the  United 
Klans  of  America  security  guard. 

This  information,  Mr.  Chairman,  indicates  that  Mr.  Seale  possesses 
additional  information  which  is  both  pertinent  and  relevant  to  this 
inquiry  and  would  materially  aid  the  Congress  in  enacting  remedial 
legislation. 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Seale,  you  have  heard  the  sworn  statement  of  the 
committee's  investigator. 

You  now  have  the  opportunity  to  reply  to  any  portion  of  that  state- 
ment, to  confirm,  admit,  or  deny  the  truth  of  any  allegation,  and  to 
explain  or  modify  any  part  of  the  statement. 

In  addition,  you  may,  if  you  desire,  offer  any  other  matter  the  com- 
mittee may  deem  relevant  to  this  inquiry. 

Mr.  Seale.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 


ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  3015 

Mr,  Pool.  I  must  inform  you  that,  absent  your  rebuttal  or  other 
facts  that  may  come  to  the  attention  of  the  committee,  this  committee 
will  rely  upon  the  accuracy  of  its  investigation. 

Bearing  this  in  mind,  have  you  anything  to  say  ? 

Mr.  Seale.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  this  question,  based 
upon  the  grounds  j)reviously  stated. 

Mr.  Pool.  Go  ahead. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Seale,  w^iat  use  do  you  make  of  the  radio  which 
is  located  in  your  car  ? 

Mr.  Seale.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question,  based 
upon  the  gi'ounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  "Wliat  use  is  made  of  the  walkie-talkie  radios  which 
are  very  popular  among  Klansmen  ? 

Mr.  Seale.  Sir,  I  refuse — I  respectfully  refuse  to  answer  that  ques- 
tion, based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Investigation  establishes,  Mr.  Seale,  that  under  the 
night-hawk,  there  is  appointed  a  klokann  committee ;  that  this  klokann 
committee  is  responsible  for  investigations  on,  in  your  case,  the  State 
level,  and  for  the  selecting  of  men  who  might  carry  out  acts  of  violence 
or  acts  of  intimidation. 

Can  you  explain  to  the  committee  how  the  klokann  committee  works 
in  the  State  of  Mississippi  ? 

Mr.  Seale.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  As  grand  night-hawk,  have  you  ever  commissioned  a 
fellow  Klansman  to  engage  in  an  act  of  intimidation  or  violence? 

Mr.  Seale.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Was  it  under  your  orders  as  grand  night-hawk  or  under 
the  orders  of  the  Grand  Dragon  for  the  State  of  Mississippi,  Mr. 
McDaniel,  that  according  to  the  State  Highway  Patrol,  some  70  crosses 
were  burned  throughout  Mississippi  in  protest  of  the  renewal  of  hear- 
ings of  this  committee  ? 

Mr.  Seale.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  staff  has  no  further  questions  to 
ask  of  this  witness. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  have  a  question. 

Mr.  Seale,  on  this  photograph  that  was  exhibited  to  you  a  few  mo- 
ments ago,  I  note  you  have  what  appears  to  be  a  five-cell  flashlight 
in  a  holster,  strapped  to  a  webb  belt. 

Now  the  photograph  clearly  shows  this  was  a  daytime  rally.  I 
wonder  if  you  will  tell  me  why  you  had  a  flashlight  such  as  this  for 
a  daytime  rally  ? 

( Photograph  handed  to  witness. ) 

Mr.  Seale.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  AVeltner.  Well,  is  that  flashlight  ever  used  as  a  w^eapon,  as  a 
club? 

Will  you  answer  that  ? 

Mr.  Seale.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 


3016  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Weltner.  I  have  been  advised  that,  on  occasion,  those  long 
flashlights,  which  are  about  20  inches  long,  do  not  have  batteries  in 
them,  but  that  the  cartridge  is  filled  with  a  lead  pipe.  Is  that  tnie? 
Have  you  ever  carried  a  flashlight  filled  with  a  lead  pipe  ? 

Mr.  Seale.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  No  further  questions. 

Mr.  Pool.  The  witness  is  permanently  excused. 

The  committee  will  stand  in  recess  until  1 :15. 

(Whereupon,  at  11 :45  a.m.,  Thursday,  February  3,  1966,  the  sub- 
committee recessed,  to  reconvene  at  1:15  p.m.,  the  same  day.) 

AFTERNOON  SESSION— THURSDAY,  FEBRUARY  3,  1966 

(The  subcommittee  reconvened  at  1 :45  p.m.,  Hon.  Joe  R.  Pool,  chair- 
man, presiding. ) 

(Subcommittee  members  present:  Representatives  Pool,  Weltner, 
and  Buchanan.) 

Mr.  Pool.  The  committee  will  come  to  order. 

Call  your  next  witness. 

Mr.  Appell.  Ernest  Henry  Avants. 

Mr.  Pool.  Hold  up  your  right  hand. 

Do  you  solemnely  swear  the  testimony  you  are  about  to  give  will  be 
the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth,  so  help  you  God  ? 

Mr.  Avants.  I  do. 

TESTIMONY  OF  ERNEST  HENRY  AVANTS,  ACCOMPANIED  BY 
COUNSEL,  TRAVIS  BUCKLEY  AND  CHARLES  J.  MAY  III 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  you  state  your  full  name  for  the  record  ? 

Mr.  Avants.  Ernest  Henry  Avants. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  appearing  here  today  in  accordance  with  the 
subpena  served  upon  you  on  the  3d  day  of  November  1965  at  the 
International  Paper  Comany,  Natchez,  Mississippi  ? 

Mr.  Avants.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  represented  by  counsel  ? 

Mr.  Avants.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  counsel  identify  themselves  for  the  record,  please? 

Mr.  Buckley.  Travis  Buckley,  attorney  at  law.  Bay  Springs,  Mis- 
sissippi. 

Mr.  Pool.  Will  you  stipulate  that  the  witness  has  been  furnished 
a  copy  of  the  chairman's  opening  statement  of  October  19,  1965,  and 
is  familiar  with  its  contents? 

Mr.  Buckley.  Yes,  sir,  we  do  so  stipulate. 

Mr.  May.  My  name  is  Charles  J.  May  III,  attorney  at  law,  Laurel, 
Mississippi. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Avants,  when  and  where  Avere  you  born  ? 

Mr.  Avants.  It  has  changed  its  name  from  the  time  I  was  born. 
It  has  changed  names.  Now  it  is — it  was  Pine  Grove.  Now,  you  say 
Bogue  Chitto,  Mississippi. 

Mr.  Appell.  The  month,  day,  and  year. 

Mr.  Avants.  The  23d  of  January  1931. 

Mr.  Appell.  What  is  your  educational  background  ? 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3017 

Mr.  AvANTs.  High  school. 

Mr.  Appell.  a  graduate  ? 

Mr.  AvANTs.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Since  1960,  Mr.  Avants,  will  you  give  the  committee 
the  benefit  of  your  occupational  background  ? 

Mr.  Avants.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  and 
invoke  as  a  defense  the  privilege  guaranteed  to  me  by  the  5th,  4th,  1st, 
and  14th  amendments  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of 
America. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  presently  an  employee  of  the  International 
Paper  Company  in  Natchez,  Mississippi  ? 

Mr.  Avants.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Pool.  The  fact  that  you  are  employed  at  the  paper  company 
would  incriminate  you  ? 

Mr.  Avants.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Pool.  I  wonder  what  that  paper  company  is  going  to  think 
about  that. 

Mr.  Avants.  For  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully  de- 
cline to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Pool.  You  are  saying  that  your  answering  that  question  would 
incriminate  you  ? 

Mr.  Avants.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  would  like  the  record  to  show  that 
Mr.  Avants  has  been  employed  by  the  International  Paper  Company 
since  1950  except  for  a  period  of  military  service  and  that  he  present- 
ly holds  the  position  of  a  bleach  washman. 

Mr.  Pool.  Bleach  washer? 

Mr.  Appell.  Washman. 

Are  you  acquainted  with  James  K.  Greer? 

Mr.  Avants.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  James  K.  Greer  and  yourself  were  arrested  for  assault 
upon  Lloyd — Bruce  Lloyd  Payne  and  George  Green  in  October  1964? 

Mr.  Avants.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  On  October  22,  1964,  did  you  make  a  statement  to 
agents  of  the  Mississippi  Highway  Patrol  following  an  arrest? 

Mr.  Avants.  Sir,  for  the  reason  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Avants,  I  have  in  front  of  me  a  copy  of  a  state- 
ment obtained  from  the  Mississippi  Highway  Patrol  which  statement 
contains  the  substance  of  an  interview  given  by  you  on  October  22, 
1964.  In  the  course  of  the  interview  the  report  states  that  you  ad- 
vised that  you  did  not  desire  to  furnish  the  names  of  any  individuals 
who  were  involved  in  any  of  the  various  bombings.  You  stated  that 
this  group  of  individuals  involved  was  a  small  militant  group  of  the 
United  Klan  in  this  area : 

He  said  that  he  knows  the  identities  of  these  individuals  but  refused  to  fur- 
nish their  identities.  He  stated  that  he  feels  it  would  be  difficult  to  obtain  ex- 
plosives or  dynamite  in  Adams  County ;  however,  he  stated  that  there  is  avail- 


3018  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S. 

able  in  Pike  County  all  types  of  explosives  which  would  be  readily  available  to 
anybody  known  in  the  area.  He  stated  that  he  has  no  personal  knowledge  of 
anyone  in  Adams  County  in  possession  of  dynamite  or  other  explosives  other 
than  himself. 

Who  are  the  individuals  about  whom -you  possess  knowledge  as  to 
their  involvement  in  various  bombings  in  the  Adams  County  area  of 
Mississippi  ? 

Mr.  AvANTS.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  The  report  continues :  "During  the  course  of  this  inter- 
view he,"  referring  to  Avants — 

voluntarily  expressed  an  opinion  that  a  small  militant  group  of  members  of  the 
Klan  were  responsible  for  the  bombings  of  the  residence  of  Mayor  John  Nosser 
and  the  Willie  Washington  residence  at  Natchez,  Mississippi. 

Who  were  involved  in  these  bombings,  Mr.  Avants  ? 

Mr.  Avants.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully  de- 
cline to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Were  you  one  of  those  involved  ? 

Mr.  Avants.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Will  counsel  identify  the  incidents  a  little  more 
closely  ? 

Mr.  Appell,  Yes,  the  residence  of  the  mayor  of  Natchez,  Mayor 
Nosser. 

Mr.  Weltner.  The  date  of  that  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  I  do  not  have  the  date  in  this  record. 

And  the  residence  of  a  resident  of  Natchez  by  the  name  of  Willie 
Washington. 

Continuing  the  quote  from  the  interview : 

He  said  he  has  never  resorted  to  the  use  of  any  type  of  explosives  for  any  pur- 
pose and  possessed  no  knowledge  of  the  existence  of  dynamite  in  this  area. 
However,  he  added  a  large  quantity  of  explosives  had  been  entrusted  into  his 
custody  and  care.  He  pointed  out  that  he  was  not  a  member  of  the  organization 
who  furnished  these  explosives  to  him  and  refuse  to  identify  this  particular 
organization.  He  stated  that  no  weapons  were  included  in  this  armament  and 
consisted  entirely  of  ammunition,  hand  grenades  and  a  quantity  of  C-3  explosives. 

What  are  C-3  explosives,  Mr.  Avants? 

Mr.  Avants.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully  de- 
cline to  answer  that  question. 
Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Appell,  what  are  C-3  explosives? 
Mr.  Appell.  I  have  no  knowledge. 
Mr.  Pool.  All  right. 
Mr.  Appell.  [Continues  reading:] 

According  to  Avants,  this  quantity  of  ammunition  and  armaments  would  be 
utilized  only  upon  the  instructions  and  command  of  the  Governor  of  the  State  of 
Mississippi  or  the  Sheriff  of  Adams  County.  At  that  time  he  indicated  he  would 
also  receive  instructions  as  to  the  ultimate  disposition  of  these  explosives.  He 
described  these  explosives  as  being  contained  in  metal  containers  of  unknown 
sizes  and  power  of  detonation.  Upon  receipt  of  this  ammunition  and  explosives 
he  stated  he  personally  concealed  it  in  numerous  locations  in  this  area.  He 
claimed  he  acquired  knowledge  of  the  use  of  explosives  through  his  military 
service  and  National  Guard  association.  He  identified  his  wife  as  the  only  other 
person  who  is  in  the  possession  of  information  as  to  the  specific  location  of  the 
explosives  and  ammunition  originally  concealed  by  him.  He  said  he  was  unaware 
of  the  fact  that  this  ammunition  consisted  of  stolen  U.S.  Government  propert.v 
but  indicated  that  the  mark  "U.S."  appeared  on  a  large  quantity  of  this  ammuni- 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  3019 

tion.  He  said  that  he  believed  that  there  are  other  caches  throughout  the 
country  which  contain  the  weapons  to  fire  the  amnuxnition  in  his  possession,  and 
that  in  case  of  an  emergency  these  caches  would  be  joined  together  for  use. 

Will  you  give  to  the  committee  the  benefit  of  the  knowledge  as 
expressed  in  the  paragraph  which  I  read  to  you,  Mr.  Avants? 

Mr.  Avants.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Let  me  ask  a  question :  Is  there  such  a  cache  of  am- 
munition or  explosives? 

Mr.  Avants.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Pool.  In  other  words,  you  are  going  to  let  this  statement  stand 
that  there  evidently  is  such  a  cache  of  explosives. 

Mr.  Avants.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfull}' 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Pool.  Go  ahead. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Avants,  James  K.  Greer,  who  was  arrested  at  the 
same  time,  identified  you  as  a  member  of  a  Klavem  of  the  Wliite 
Knights  which  you  shot  up  after  getting  drunk  because  you  were  dis- 
turbed over  the  fact  that  members  were  not  paying  their  dues.  Is 
the  statement  of  James  K.  Greer  given  to  the  Mississippi  Highway 
Patrol  factual  ? 

Mr.  Avants.  Sir,  for  the  reasons  previously  stated,  I  respectfully 
decline  to  answer  that  question. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  staff  has  no  further  questions  to 
ask  the  witness. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Appell,  does  the  committee  investigation  indi- 
cate that  to  date  there  is  presently  in  existence  in  this  area  a  supply 
of  hidden  ammunition  or  explosives  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  I  would  assume  that  if  knowledge  were  available  as  to 
the  contents  of  any  caches  that  they  would  be  seized  by  the  Mississippi 
enforcement  authorities. 

Mr.  Weltner.  I  have  no  further  questions. 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Buchanan. 

Mr.  Buchanan.  No  questions. 

Mr.  Pool.  Do  you  have  any  other  questions,  Mr.  Appell? 

Mr.  Appell.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  Pool.  The  witness  is  excused  permanently. 

Call  your  next  vdtness. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Paul  Wilson. 

Mr.  Pool.  Will  you  raise  your  right  hand,  please  ? 

Do  you  solemnly  swear  the  testimony  you  are  about  to  give  is  the 
whole  truth  and  nothing  but  the  truth,  so  help  you  God  ? 

Mr.  Wilson.  I  do. 

TESTIMONY  OF  PAUL  DEWEY  WILSON 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  you  state  your  full  name  for  the  record  ? 

Mr.  Paul  Wilson.  Paul  Dewey  Wilson. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Wilson,  'I  note  you  are  not  accompanied  by  coun- 
sel.   Do  you  desire  counsel  ? 

Mr.  Paul  Wilson.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Have  you  been  advised  as  to  the  fact  that  you  have 
the  right  before  this  committee  in  answering  any  questions  that  might 


3020  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

be  incriminating  to  yon  to  invoke  the  constitutional  privilege  of  the 
fifth  amendment? 

Mr.  Paul  Wilson.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Have  you  received  a  copy  and  acquainted  yourself 
with  the  contents  of  the  opening  statement  of  the  chairman  on  October 
19,1965? 

Mr.  Paul  Wilson.  I  have,  sir. 

Mr.  Pool.  Do  you  desire  counsel  at  this  time? 

Mr.  Paul  Wilson.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Chairman,  so  that  there  be  no  question  about 
it,  I  suggest  that  the  Chair  advise  the  witness  that  at  any  time  he 
feels  he  might  desire  counsel  he  will  have  an  opportunity  to  obtain  it? 

Mr.  Pool.  You  are  so  advised.  If  you  cannot  afford  counsel,  the 
committee  will  recommend  to  the  bar  association  and  people  like  that 
to  furnish  counsel. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  ask  you,  Mr.  Wilson,  have  you  sought  legal  advise 
prior  to  coming  to  Washington  ? 

Mr.  Paul  Wilson.  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amendment, 
sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  appearing  today  in  accordance  with  the 
subpena  served  upon  you  on  the  29th  day  of  October  1965  by  John  D. 
Sullivan,  investigator  for  this  committee  ? 

Mr.  Paul  Wilson.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  When  and  where  were  you  bom,  Mr.  Wilson  ? 

Mr.  Paul  Wilson.  Sir,  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amend- 
ment. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Wilson,  I  hand  you  a  photograph  of  two  different 
exposures  containing  four  Russian  surplus  rifles  and  other  para- 
phernalia. I  ask  you  if  these  weapons  and  other  items  displayed  in 
the  photographs  were  seized  from  you  at  the  time  of  arrest  by  officers 
of  the  Mississippi  State  Highway  Patrol. 

Mr.  Paul  Wilson.  Sir,  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amend- 
ment. 

(Photographs  marked  "Paul  Wilson  Exhibit  No.  1."  One  retained 
in  committee  files;  for  other  see  committee  rej)ort.  The  Present-Bay 
Ku  Klux  Klan  Movement^  p.  106.) 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  in  view  of  Mr.  Wilson's  refusal  to 
answer  committee  questions,  invoking  his  constitutional  privileges,  I 
would  like  to  present  a  resume  of  the  committee's  investigation  as  it 
relates  to  Mr.  Wilson. 

Paul  Dewey  Wilson  was  bom  on  December  14,  1938,  at  Jayess, 
Mississippi,  His  educational  background  is  unknown.  Prior  to  his 
arrest  in  October  1964,  he  was  employed  as  a  carman  apprentice  with 
the  Illinois  Central  Railroad,  McComb,  Mississippi.  Wilson,  follow- 
ing his  arrest  in  October  1964,  was  interviewed  by  agents  of  the  Adams 
County  Sheriff's  Depa,rtment,  Mississippi  Highway  Patrol,  and  Fed- 
eral Bureau  of  Investigation. 

During  the  interview,  Wilson  advised  that  he  joined  the  United 
Klans  of  America  in  McComb,  Mississippi,  after  being  approached  by 
Ray  Smith,  an  officer  of  the  Klavern,  to  join.  He  attended  his  first 
meeting  at  the  Legion  Hut  in  McComb,  where  50  men  were  present, 
all  wearing  white  robes.  He  was  sworn  into  the  United  Klans  of 
America  by  Eddie  McDaniel,  whom  he  described  as  an  individual 
whom  he  knew  in  McComb  but  who  he  stated  was  some  kind  of  officer 


ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3021 

in  Natchez,  Mississippi.  He  was  issued  a  membership  card,  which  he 
tore  up. 

In  the  course  of  his  first  meeting  he  paid  $10  initiation  fee,  $10  for 
a  robe,  and  was  told  that  his  dues  would  be  $1  per  month.  Paul 
Wilson  stated  he  attended  meetings  on  Tuesday  nights,  with  discussion 
generally  relating  to  the  movement  and  operations  of  the  Federal 
Bureau  of  Investigation,  communism,  and  integration. 

In  declining  to  elaborate  on  his  statement  about  the  FBI,  he  stated 
that  there  were  occasions  when  there  were  discussions  about  the  neces- 
sity for  obtaining  more  members  who  could  be  trusted.  After  a  month 
the  meeting  place  of  the  Klavern  was  changed  to  the  second  floor  of 
the  Hinton  Building. 

He  identified  from  personal  knowledge  the  folloAving  individuals  as 
members  who  belonged  or  attended  meetings  of  his  Klavern : 

Ray  Smith,  employed  by  the  Southern  Bell  Telephone  Company, 
who  was  the  EC  of  the  Klavern. 

M.  J.  Duncan,  an  employee  of  the  Firestone  Store,  who  held  the 
position  at  one  time  as  outer  guard. 

J.  E.  Thornhill,  a  wealthy  oil  man  in  McComb  and  Summit. 

With  respect  to  his  participation  in  acts  of  violence,  he  told  the 
agents  the  following : 

Wilson  advised  that  about  three  weeks  to  a  month  ago  he  received  a  telephone 
call  from  an  individual  who  stated  only  that  "I  am  a  member  of  the  K[lan]. 
You  know  me  well."  The  voice,  which  was  a  man's,  continued  by  stating  he 
believed  that  if  someone  put  a  bomb  in  front  of  the  house  of  a  Negro  preacher — 
name  Wilson  could  not  at  this  time  recall — it  would  scare  COFO  and  the  other 
integrationists  off  and  into  leaving  other  people's  business  alone.  Wilson 
advised  that  from  conversation  with  this  person  he  was  able  to  Identify  the 
Negro  preacher  referred  to  as  a  preacher  whom  he  knows  as  an  employee  at 
Denny's  Readi-Mix,  a  concrete  mixing  concern  at  McComb,  Mississippi.  The 
caller  told  him  to  go  out  past  Quinn's  Bridge,  past  the  Booker  T.  Washington 
Negro  School,  and  turn  to  the  right  on  the  second  hill  past  the  school.  The 
caller  stated  that  dynamite  would  be  hidden  on  this  road  in  some  bushes  about 
60  or  70  yards  down  the  road  on  the  left-hand  side  of  the  road. 

Wilson  advised  that  he  went  alone  that  night,  about  midnight,  in  his  1961 
black  Ford  to  the  location  described,  where  he  found  three  sticks  of  dynamite 
hidden  in  the  bushes,  already  fused  and  capped.  Wilson  stated  he  thereafter 
drove  to  the  Negro  preacher's  house  and  sped  away  after  throwing  lighted  dyna- 
mite package  into  the  preacher's  front  yard.  As  he  drove  towards  McComb.  he 
heard  the  explosion.  Wilson  was  questioned  closely  concerning  this  bombing 
and  he  insisted  that  it  took  place  under  the  circum.stances  described  and  that  as 
far  as  he  knew  no  other  member  of  the  Klan  knew  who  did  it.  He  insisted  he 
was  unable  to  identify  the  mysterious  caller  and  would  not  answer  when  asked 
whether  he  was  thus  agreeable  to  bombing  something  just  on  an  unidentified 
party  advising  him  he  was  a  Klan  member. 

Wilson  initially  stated  emphatically  this  was  the  only  bombing  concerning 
which  he  had  any  knowledge  whatsoever.  On  further  interrogation  he  admitted 
that  on  the  night  of  September  20,  1964,  he  was  with  Ernest  Frederick  Zeeck 
and  .Jimmy  Wilson  (the  latter  no  relation)  when  the  three  of  them  in  Paul 
Wilson's  1961  Ford  bombed  the  Alyene  Quinn's  residence  in  McComb.  Missis- 
sippi. He  stated  this  bomb  was  composed  of  dynamite  and  it  was  actually 
lighted  and  thrown  onto  the  porch  by  Ernest  Zeeck.  He  recalled  that  an  un- 
identified Negro  man  was  observed  by  them  on  the  street  in  the  vicinity  of  the 
Quinn  residence  but  claimed  this  man  was  about  a  block  away  and  could  not  have 
identified  them. 


3022  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Wilson,  did  you  make  the  statement  read  to  you  to  agents  of 
the  sheriff's  department  and  the  agents  of  the  Mississippi  Highway 
Patrol  ? 

Mr.  Paul  Wilson.  Sir,  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth 
amendment. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Wilson,  I  hand  you  a  listing  by  dates  of  the  types 
of  violence,  bombing,  flogging,  arson,  the  place,  location  of  where 
these  things  took  place,  happening  in  the  McComb,  Mississippi,  area 
during  the  year  1964,  and  I  ask  you  which  of  these  acts  you  participated 
in  as  a  memlDer  of  the  United  Klans  of  America. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Will  you  rephrase  the  question?  Ask  whether  he 
participated  in  any  of  these  acts. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  participate  in  any  of  those  acts? 

Mr.  Paul  Wilson.  Sir,  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth 
amendment. 

(Document  marked  "Paul  Wilson  Exhibit  No.  2"  follows:) 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 
Paul  Wilson  Exhibit  No.  2 


3023 


Violence  -  lyiMt 
McComb,   '!iss. 


2A/6U  -  Killing 


I.ouis  Allen,  ^  ibf>rty,  Miss,  ('lien  was  a  witness  tothe  shooting  of 
•lerhert  Lee,  9/2'y/Hx,  by  State  Repre. 
E.H.    ihirst) 


ii/li/'Mi  -  Bombing  Restaurant,    I'ude,   Miss. 

li/f-'/Hi   -  Bombing  Pestaurant,  Mc^i  ir.  Miss. 

U/28/6U  -  Bombing         "Curtis  Bryant,   "JAArr"  leafier,    Hirb»rsh  p,    Haertowri,   tliss. 


6/19/^J. 
6/22/^M. 

7/8/6i  . 

7/17/^^ 
7/1 M/^ 
7/21/^Ii 
7/22/^Ji 


•  Bombing  'legro  'lotel,   Jackson,   I'iss. 

-  Flogging       '.•Jilbert  Lewis,   f'Vonb,  Miss. 

-  Hombings       1.  ^rwlfiie  Bates   none 

2.  forrine  Andrews  hnme 

3.  i^rtis  Bryant  hone 


.  Utte'n'^toii 

Roibinr 

-  iirson 

-  Arson 

-  Burning 

-  Arson 


r.egro  do  1  iceman, 
'^.y  Tot  t  on 


-'".T;-iTunr"^ers   '^or 


Zion   '11II  Free  '.'■•■'ist    '^:r--,     v-'^o'^.b,     iiss. 
Swpft   Hone  Church,      -"o  i;  ,      ^s-i. 

:'t.   Vernon  tiisslonary  tiaj^tist  ^hurch,    i'c'onb,      iss. 
rose  Bower  Missiongry  Br.Mtint  nhnrcb,   ''c'^c.-r^     'Iss. 


:  lib  in?: 


..'at   I'l.L.)   KcGehee,   ?  1- 
Charle.s   3rya."it,  Morga^.  * 


:ro   ■O'i 


7/30/^  -  Shooting       J.?.   Leggett  ho-ne,   ''c'"onb,   "is*^. 

f/5/^L   -  Arson  ft.   Canaan  Missionary     t'is*     'biro'.-.,    S-'dth^ 

^f\S/'%  -  Killinc         Charles  Fuscl'.ens,   I  onti.-el )  0,   i'dss. 

f/\S/(ii  -  ''ombing         -urt  limd  Super  ?'arket,   Fureka  ''.ar.onir  Lodj^e, 

H/lP/'ii   -  Arson  attempt       Vema  Brown  hone,    'ur^.'iund,  "iss. 


\'/V}l(-h   -  Cross  burnings   O) 
^tink  bombing 


V2V^i 


.Hie  J.  "^illon,   br- 


9/3/-!i  - 

9/7/«4    - 


'\ssault 
"ombings 


3  Cjiril  Pif;ht?i   •.  i-kers. 


■;onb 


1.  Pogue  chit'.o,  Miss   -  ■■..-ml    hall 

2.  Auburn,  f'.ias.    -     "frrp  cbu-ch 

3.  Sumnit,  "iss.  -  Hugh  '..a?:'  1 
\x.  "  "  -  Booker  T. 
'^.    ".agnolia,   --133.    -  Allen   "■  , 


3h/^   -  "onbing  ^ev.    .'a:-^;,      r     r   br.^e. 

9''20/6t!   -  Bombings       1.   "ociety  'lill  ilissionary  Chirch, 
2.   .Myene  ..luin   home,  llcConb,   Kis.-^. 


horl,    home. 


3024  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU   KLUX   KLAN   IN   THE    TJ.S. 

Paul  Wilson  Exhibit  No.  2— Continued 


y/23/^  -  ''ombinpa  •      1.   "atthew  .Tackson  ho?ie,   ".c'Zo'rU,   fHss, 
2.   .\rtis   Tamor  iionr-,  fio^n  :i  ,   ;;is3. 


ll/l"/^J<  -  ^catinp;       Otis  Matthews,   a  ur.ion   n'"'"ioial,    !'»iten  by  "laskwl  "■en. 


n+hor  acts   of  vlolf--n-;n 


1955  -  Killing  La-nar  ■>.   'J-nif-   wA 

■  rnokha^'f". ,    '  1 


-  Killir.g  "mrtift  Til' 


195!> 


1-5  r.u 


«i«^ 


li/62      -   Ki.i]ipi-  ^;  '  .    '•'nran  "urio.ior*'  r' 

}/fii      -  '.L    liriK  "n.ft  i.n  VMl<''-r,    'i    '■■:.",    .  las. 

2/61i  '  oy   J.    ''"eson 

(At  this  point  Mr.  Pool  left  the  hearing  room.) 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Wilson,  Billy  Earl  Wilson  testified  before  this 
committee  on  January  18,  1966.  In  the  course  of  his  testimony,  he 
identified  you  as  the  person  who  indoctrinated  him  in  Klan  principles. 
He  testified  that  he  was  a  member  of  the  Klavern  of  which  Ray  Smith 
was  the  exalted  cyclops,  that  you  are  his  first  cousin,  that  you  read 
off  a  list  of  names  of  members  of  the  Klavern  which  was  to  leave  that 
Klavern  and  form  a  new  Klavern  and  when  the  new  temporary 
Klavern  was  formed  that  you  were  elected  the  exalted  cyclops.  Did 
Billy  Earl  Wilson  testify  truthfully  ? 

Mr.  Paul  Wilson.  Sir,  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth 
amendment. 

Mr.  Appell.  Billy  Earl  Wilson  testified  that  on  July  27,  1964,  he 
participated  in  the  bombing  of  the  residence  of  Charles  Bryan.  He 
stated  that  Paul  Wilson  phoned  him  re  the  job,  that  you  picked  him  up 
at  his  home  about  midnight  and  then  picked  up  Hilton  Dunaway,  and 
that  the  three  of  you  drove  to  a  wooded  area  where  you  transferred 
into  a  '49  Plymouth  and  that  you  rode  in  the  rear  seat  of  the  car,  that 
Hilton  Dunaway  threw  the  bomb,  and  that  while  in  the  act  of  throwing 
the  bomb  someone  fired  upon  you  and  that  you  returned  the  fire  with 
a  16-gauge  over  and  under  shotgim.     Is  this  testimony  true? 

Mr.  Paul  Wilson.  Sir,  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amend- 
ment. 

Mr.  Appell.  Billy  Earl  Wilson  testified  that,  at  a  meeting  of  the 
Klavern  of  wliich  you  were  the  EC,  on  two  occasions,  one  on  Septem- 
ber 1  and  the  second  time  on  September  15,  that  you  put  a  hat  on 
the  table  and  instructed  the  members  to  come  and  draw  their  jobs. 
Did  you  do  such  a  thing  ? 

Mr.  Paul  Wilson.  Sir,  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amend- 
ment. 

Mr.  Appell.  He  testified  that  at  the  first  drawing  of  slips  on  Sep- 
tember 1  he  drew  a  slip  containing  the  name  of  Alyene  Quinn,  however 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3025 

lie  could  not  go  through  with  the  job  because  his  grandfather  was 
visiting  and  he  said  that  at  a  Klavern  meeting  on  September  9  that 
you  told  him  that  you  still  had  a  bomb  and  wanted  to  unload  it,  so 
that  you  and  he  drove  to  the  home  of  the  Reverend  James  Baker  at 
your  suggestion,  that  you  lit  the  fuse,  and  that  he  hurled  it. 

Is  this  testimony  true? 

Mr.  Paul  Wilson.  Sir,  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fiftli  amend- 
ment. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Wilson,  I  hand  you  a  photograph  of  Louis  An- 
thony DiSalvo  and  I  ask  you  if  you  ever  had  any  business  relations 
with  him. 

Mr.  Paul  Wilson.  Sir,  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amend- 
ment. 

(Photograph  marked  "Paul  Wilson  Exhibit  No.  3"  and  retained  in 
committee  files.) 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Wilson,  can  you  explain  to  the  committee  why 
you  had  in  your  possession  at  the  time  of  your  arrest  a  cardboard 
carton  which  was  mailed  by  Hunters  Lodge  in  Alexandria,  Virginia, 
which  contained  the  name  of  Louis  DiSalvo,  and,  of  the  rifles  that 
I  showed  you,  that  four  of  those  rifles'  serial  numbers  appeared  on 
the  invoice  of  shipment  of  arms  by  Hunters  Lodge  to  Louis  Anthony 
DiSalvo. 

Mr.  Paul  Wilson.  Sir,  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amend- 
ment. 

Mr.  Weltner  (presiding).  One  moment.  Is  the  substance  of  that 
question  that  Hunters  Lodge  in  Virginia  filled  an  order  of  rifles  for 
Louis  Anthony  DiSalvo  and  these  rifles  subsequently  were  found  in 
this  witness'  possession? 

Mr.  Appell.  That  is  right. 

Mr.  Weltner.  And  Mr.  DiSalvo  appeared  here  as  a  witness  2  or 
3  weeks  ago  and,  I  believe,  was  the  party  who  was  involved  in  a  dis- 
cussion concerning  the  bombing  of  the  Lady  Bird  Special;  is  that 
correct  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  That  is  correct,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Proceed. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  would  like  to  have  entered  into  the 
record  at  this  point  the  listing  of  some  43  items,  including  the  rifles, 
which  were  obtained  in  a  search  of  Paul  Wilson's  residence  and  his 
automobile  at  the  time  of  his  arrest,  these  in  addition  to  the  rifles, 
pistols,  billy  clubs,  unfinished  table  legs,  ammunition,  hypodermic 
syringe,  and  numerous  items. 

I  might  point  out,  Mr.  Chairman,  for  the  record,  that  one  item 
recovered  was  one  deputy  sheriff  badge.  The  committee  investigation 
has  established  that,  time  and  time  again,  in  the  arrest  of  Klansmen 
and  the  seizing  of  either  that  which  is  on  their  possession  or  that 
which  is  in  their  home  as  a  result  of  search  warrant  there  is  invariably 
recovered  one  toy  tin  deputy  sheriff  badge. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Will  you  show  that  list  to  the  witness. 

Mr.  Witness,  will  you  examine  that,  please,  and  tell  the  committee 
whether  or  not  that  is  an  exact  list  of  articles  found  in  your  possession  ? 

Mr.  PAUii  Wilson.  Sir,  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amend- 
ment. 


3026  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Without  objection  the  list  will  be  entered  into  the 
record  at  this  point. 

(Document  marked  "Paul  Wilson  Exhibit  No.  4."  The  list 
follows:) 

Paul  Wilson  Exhibit  No.  4 

1.  1  rifle,  make  unknown,  serial  number  Inverted  "U"B7866,  with  clip, 
part  number  XT356.1 

2.  1  rifle,  make  unknown,  serial  number  KT841,  with  clip,  part  num- 
ber CB89.1 

3.  1  rifle,  make  unknown,  serial  number  907  Inverted  "N"C25  with 
initials  SA  imprinted  over  serial  nvunber,  with  clip,  part  number 
BH260.2 

4.  1  rifle,  make  unknown,  serial  number  799EK.5533,  with  clip,  part 
number  YE331.1 

5.  1  black  leatherette  hood  or  cap 

6.  1  black  leatherette  apron  with  green  neck  and  belt  straps 

7.  4  identification  cards  of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights 
of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  bearing  the  Confederate  flag,  the  flag  of  the 
United  States,  outline  of  State  of  Mississippi  enclosing  "Miss.  700" 
with  serial  numbers  002,  025,  065,  and  067. 

8.  2  pieces  of  black  leatherette  material 

9.  1  gavel 

10.  1  pistol,  automatic,  Fabrique  Nationale  de  Guerre  Herstal  Belgique, 
Browning's  Patent  Depose,  serial  number  193452  and  also  number 
79002,  .32  caliber  with  loaded  clip  number  193452  and  loaded  clip, 
no  serial  number 

11.  2  boxes  .32  caliber  automatic  .71  grain  cartridges,  50  to  a  box  Win- 
chester, noting  there  were  12  .32  calibers  in  one  box  and  a  .38  caliber 
unspent  shell  therein,  with  the  second  box  full 

12.  1  pair  of  goggles 

13.  2  unfinished  table  legs 

14.  1  Ideal  Luerlock  Syringe,  5  C.C.,  manufactured  by  Ideal  Instrument 
and  Manufacturing  Company,  Chicago 

15.  1  Hypodermic  Syringe,  PerfeKium,  manufactured  by  Pepper  &  Sons, 
Inc.,  New  York  10 

16.  1  black  leather  pistol  holster 

17.  1  brown  leatherette  holster  fleece-lined,  manufactured  by  Graver 
Brothers  Manufacturing  Co.,,  St.  Louis 

18.  1  deputy  sheriff  tin  badge 

19.  1  pair  cotton  solid  white  gloves  with  partial  black  polka  dots  on 
in.side  of  hands 

20.  1  pair  brown  cotton  gloves 

21.  1  pair  used  black  gloves,  lined  with  rabbit  fur 

22.  1  pair  large  black  leather  gloves,  cloth  lined 

23.  1  Customer's  Copy  of  check,  McComb,  Miss.,  dated  June  2,  1964  on 
Mechanics  State  Bank  No.  22660,  pay  to  the  order  of  Gov.  George 
Wallace,  $66.25  signed  Paul  D.  Wilson,  811  New  York  Ave.,  McComb, 
Miss. 

24.  2  blank  Appeals  Bonds,  State  of  Mississippi,  Pike  County 

■:=  *  *  *  * 

Mr.  Appeijl.  Mr.  Wilson,  Paul  Wilson  advised  that,  after  he  was 
given  a  suspended  sentence  and  fined,  he  obtained  money  from  the 
Reverend  J.  C.  Brown. 

Mr.  Weltner,  One  moment,  please.    Which  Wilson  advised  that? 

Mr.  ArrELL.  Billy  Earl  Wilson. 

Did  you,  Paul  Wilson,  receive  any  funds  from  the  Reverend  J,  C. 
Brown  ? 

Mr.  Wilson.  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amendment. 

Mr.  Appell.  Is  it  a  fact  that  you  pleaded  guilty  for  the  role  that 
you  played  in  the  illegal  use  of  explosives  and  received  a  suspended 
sentence  ? 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  3027 

Mr.  Paul  Wilson.  Sir,  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amend- 
ment. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  Mr.  Eobert  Shelton  know  you  to  be  a  member 
of  the  United  Klans  of  America  ? 

Mr.  Paul  Wilsox.  Sir,  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amend- 
ment. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Shelton  gave  an  interview  to  Playboy  magazine. 
He  was  asked  by  the  reporter,  after  an  explanation : 

Then  how  do  you  explain  the  case  of  Paul  Dewey  Wilson,  who  was  arrested 
last  year  in  McComb,  Mississippi,  while  wearing  a  deputy  sheriff's  badge  and 
hauling  four  rifles,  a  pistol,  eight  wooden  clubs,  a  blackjack,  brass  knuckles 
and  a  hypodermic  syringe  in  his  car — and  carrying  a  membership  card  in  the 
United  Klan  signed  by  you? 

Shelton  :  We  don't  have  membership  cards.  The  card  he  had  was  the  card 
I  described — just  a  business  card. 

Was  the  statement  that  you  made  that  you  were  issued  a  member- 
ship card  which  you  destroyed  factual  or  was  Mr.  Shelton's  statement 
truthful  that  no  membership  cards  are  issued  to  members  of  the  United 
Klans  of  America? 

Mr.  Paul  Wilson.  Sir,  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amend- 
ment. 

(Document  marked  "Paul  Wilson  Exhibit  No.  5''  and  retained  in 
committee  files.) 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  staff  has  no  further  questions  to  ask 
this  witness. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Wilson,  you  have  an  opportunity  at  this  point 
to  make  any  statement  you  desire  that  is  relevant.  There  has  been 
substantial  narration  of  the  prior  testimony  of  other  persons  con- 
necting you  with  serious  incidents  and  events. 

You  have  the  opportunity  to  qualify  that  or  deny  that  as  you  see 
fit.  I  might  point  out  that  this  circumstance  is  somewhat  different 
than  some  of  the  prior  testimony.  On  two  occasions  it  appears  from 
our  investigation  to  date  that  you  as  the  exalted  cyclops  of  a  Klavem 
of  the  United  Klans  of  America  distributed  by  the  draw  from  a  hat 
assignments  for  acts  of  violence.  In  all  fairness  to  you,  we  wish  to 
give  you  the  opportunity  to  deny  that  or  to  explain  that,  as  you  see 
fit.  You  have  that  opportunity  at  this  point  if  you  desire  to  offer 
anything  which  the  committee  should  consider. 

Mr.  Paul  Wilson.  Sir,  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amend- 
ment. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Failing  that,  or  failing  other  evidence  to  come  before 
the  committee,  the  committee  will  of  necessity  rely  upon  the  accuracy 
of  the  investigation. 

Do  you  have  any  questions? 

Mr.  Buchanan.  No  questions. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Are  there  any  further  questions  by  the  staff'?  If  not, 
you  are  excused. 

Call  your  next  witness. 

Mr.  Appell.  Jimmy  Prinston  Wilson. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Will  you  raise  your  right  hand,  please? 

Will  you  solemnly  swear  the  testimony  you  give  in  this  liearing  will 
be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth,  so  lielp 
you  God? 

Mr.  Jimmy  Wilson.  I  do. 


3028  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

TESTIMONY  OF  JIMMY  PRINSTON  WILSON 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Wilson,  will  you  state  your  full  name  for  the 
record  ? 

Mr.  Jimmy  Wilson.  Jimmy  Prinston  Wilson. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  appearing  here  in  accordance  with  the  sub- 
pena  served  upon  you  on  October  29,  1965,  by  John  D.  Sullivan,  an 
investigator  of  this  committee? 

Mr.  Jimmy  Wilson.  Yes,  sir, 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Wilson,  I  note  you  don't  have  counsel.  Are  you 
aware  of  your  right  to  have  counsel  during  this  hearing? 

Mr.  Jimmy  Wilson.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Do  you  desire  to  have  counsel? 

Mr.  Jimmy  Wilson.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Are  you  aware  of  your  rights  under  the  Constitu- 
tion to  refuse  to  answer  any  questions  which  you  feel  might  incrimi- 
nate you  under  any  State  or  Federal  statute? 

Mr.  Jimmy  Wilson.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Are  you  aware  that  if  you  so  desire  at  any  time 
during  the  course  of  this  proceeding  you  may  request  counsel  and  this 
committee  will  undertake  to  make  arrangements  to  furnish  counsel 
to  you?     Do  you  wish  to  proceed  without  counsel  at  this  point? 

Mr.  Jimmy  Wilson.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  You  may  proceed,  Mr.  Appell. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Wilson,  the  Washington  Post  and  Times  Herald 
in  an  article  dated  October  6,  1964,  story  captioned,  "7  More  Held  In 
McComb  Terrorism,"  identified  that  there  have  been  arrested  in  a 
series  of  arsons  and  bombings  in  the  McComb  area.  Sterling  L.  Gillis, 
who  is  popularly  known  as  Bubba,  Hilton  Dunaway,  "John"  Paul 
Westbrook,  Charles  Avery  Womack,  W-o-m-a-c-k,  Gerald  Lawrence, 
Murphy  J.  Duncan,  Paul  Wilson,  Billy  Earl  Wilson,  Jimmy  Wilson, 
Ernest  Zeeck,  all  of  McComb,  Mississippi. 

Are  you  the  Jimmy  Wilson  referred  to  in  the  article  ? 

Mr.  Jimmy  Wilson.  Sir,  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amend- 
ment. 

(Document  marked  "Jimmy  Wilson  Exhibit  No.  1"  and  retained  in 
committee  files.) 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Wilson,  on  October  3,  1964,  while  in  custody  did 
you  make  two  statements  to  the  sheriff  of  Pike  County  and  to  agents 
of  the  Mississippi  Highway  Patrol  and  the  Federal  Bureau  of  In- 
vestigation ? 

Mr.  Jimmy  Wilson.  Sir,  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth 
amendment. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  read  to  you  from  the  first  statement  which  quotes 
Jimmy  Prinston  Wilson  as  stating : 

I  joined  the  United  Klans  of  America  some  time  after  the  first  of  1964  and 
sometime  in  August  1964  several  of  us  split  off  from  Ray  Smith's  Klan  and 
organized  a  Klan  of  our  own  with  Paul  Wilson  being  appointed  as  E.C.  and 
Allen  Lee  as  being  appointed  Treasurer. 

Is  that  information  correct? 

Mr.  Jimmy  Wilson.  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amendment. 

Mr.  Appell.  The  statement  continues  that  you  were  contacted  on 
Sunday,  September  20,  1964,  by  Paul  Wilson,  and  this  is  an  exact 
quote — "he  told  me  he  had  a  mission  that  he  wanted  me  to  go  on." 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  3029 

I  continue  in  the  exact  quote : 

We  were  supposed  to  go  fishing  about  6:00  P.M.  which  we  had  planned.  I 
was  at  home  that  evening,  and  I  decided  to  go  on  to  the  river  myself  earlier. 
and  I  went  on  out  to  the  river  fishing,  and  Paul  Wilson,  Billy  Wilson  and 
Ernest  Zeeck  came  out  roughly  about  6:00  or  6:30  P.M.  and  we  went  out  and 
set  out  hooks  and  fished  about  10:00  and  all  four  of  us  drove  into  town  in 
Paul  Wilson's  car.  I  drove,  Billy  Wilson  was  in  front  with  me  and  Paul 
Wilson  and  Ernest  Zeeck  was  in  the  back.  The  bomb  was  in  the  back  seat  be- 
tween Paul  Wilson  and  Ernest  Zeeck. 

We  drove  around  the  block  where  Alyene  Quinn  lives  several  times,  which  is 
on  the  old  Summit  Road,  and  the  lights  were  on,  and  we  could  see  that  there 
wasn't  anybody  in  the  house  aromid  and  on  about  the  fourth  round,  I  stopped  the 
car  in  front  of  Alyene  Quinn's  house.  Paul  Wilson  lit  the  fuses  and  handed 
it  to  Ernest  Zeeck  who  opened  the  car  door,  got  out  and  threw  the  bomb  towards 
the  house.  He  got  back  in  the  ear,  and  we  drove  back  to  the  river.  We  drove 
north  to  Summit  and  back  to  the  Bogue  Chitto  River  Hoover  Bridge.  We  fi.shed 
awhile  and  took  up  the  hooks  and  Billy  Wilson  and  me  came  back  in  my  station 
wagon  which  is  a  19.j5  Mercury,  black  and  white,  to  my  home.  Paul  Wilson  and 
Ernest  Zeeck  were  behind  us  and  Billy  Wilson  got  out  of  my  car  and  help  me 
unload  some  fishing  gear,  and  I  went  in  the  house.  He  got  in  the  car  with  them 
and  went  on  with  them.  It  was  midnight  or  after  when  I  got  home.  I  went 
home,  got  undressed  for  bed,  got  in  bed  and  went  to  sleep. 

Is  that  a  factual  recitation  of  the  statement  that  you  made  to  the 
agents  that  I  have  described  to  you  ? 

Mr.  Jimmy  Wilson.  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amendment. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  hand  you  a  list  of  acts  of  violence  conducted  in  the 
McComb,  Mississippi,  area  in  1964  and  in  addition  to  Alyene  Quinn, 
which  is  shown  on  liere  on  September  20,  1964,  I  ask  you  if  you  en- 
gaged in  any  acts  listed  on  the  sheet  being  handed  you. 

Mr.  Jimmy  Wilson.  Sir,  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amend- 
ment. 

(Document  previously  marked  "Paul  Wilson  Exhibit  No.  2."  See 
pp.  3023,  3024.) 

Mr.  Weltner.  Specifically,  Mr,  Wilson,  did  you  have  any  connec- 
tion with  the  incident  of  September  20,  1964,  in  regard  to  the  bombing 
of  the  home  of  Alyene  Quinn,  McComb,  Mississippi,  previously  testi- 
fied to  by  Ernest  Zeeck  and  by  Billy  Wilson  ? 

Mr.  Jimmy  Wilson.  Sir,  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amend- 
ment. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Proceed. 

Mr.  Appell.  On  the  list  that  I  showed  you,  Mr.  Wilson,  is  listed  the 
date  of  July  18,  1964,  attempted  arson,  "Sweet  Home  Church,"  Mc- 
Comb, Mississippi.  Were  you  involved  in  attempted  arson  on  that 
church  ? 

Mr.  Jimmy  Wilson.  Sir,  I  invoke  my  rights. 

Mr,  Appell,  I  read  to  you  a  second  statement  signed  Jimmy  P,  Wil- 
son, notarized  by  a  sheriff,  a  representative  of  the  Mississippi  Highway 
Safety  Patrol,  and  agents  of  the  Federal  Bureau  of  Investigation. 

Mr,  Weltner,  One  moment.  Is  this  purporting  to  be  the  statement 
of  this  witness,  Mr,  Appell  ? 

Mr,  Appell.  It  is,  sir,  signed  by  him  and  Avitncssed. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Wilson,  is  that  your  signature  or  facsimile  there- 
of, and  did  you  sign  the  original  of  that  statement? 

Mr.  Jimmy  Wilson.  Sir,  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amend- 
ment. 

Mr.  Appell.  Tlie  pertinent  portion  of  this  statement  reads  as  fol- 
lows, Mr.  AVilson,  and  the  date  is  October  3,  1964  : 


3030  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

About  three  or  four  months  ago  I  was  picked  up  at  my  home  by  Paul  Wilson 
and  later  we  met  a  man  named  Duncan,  first  name  unknown  to  me,  who  is 
Manager  of  the  Firestone  Store  at  McComb,  Mississippi.  It  had  been  planned 
previously  that  we  were  to  burn  the  Sweethome  Missionary  Baptist  Church, 
located  on  the  Old  Homesville  Road  in  the  Whitestown  area  near  McComb, 
Mississippi.  The  three  of  us  traveled  to  this  church  by  car  late  that  night.  I 
believe  we  went  in  Paul  Wilson's  car  but  I  cannot  recall  the  description  of  this 
car.  Uiwn  arriving  to  the  Church  we  entered  this  church,  which  is  a  brick 
building,  through  a  side  door,  which  w^as  unlocked,  and  as  I  recall,  all  three  of 
us  went  into  the  church.  We  carried  a  tin,  one  gallon  can  filled  with  gasoline, 
several  feet  of  fuse,  and  a  small  metal  jar  lid  containing  black  powder  into  the 
church  with  us.  We  poured  this  gasoline  onto  the  floor  of  the  church  at  the 
rear  of  the  pulpit  and  placed  the  jar  lid  containing  black  powder  in  the  gasoline. 
We  placed  one  end  of  the  fuse  in  the  powder  and  the  other  end  of  the  fuse 
through  a  doorway.  I  had  previously  heard  that  a  fuse  soaked  in  gasoline  would 
not  burn  so  I  intentionally  soaked  this  fuse  in  such  a  way  that  it  would  go  out 
after  it  was  lit  and  before  it  burned  to  the  iwwder.  Wilson  and  Duncan  did  not 
know  that  I  had  soaked  this  fuse  so  that  the  powder  would  not  ignite.  Paul 
Wilson  then  lit  this  fuse  and  the  three  of  us  then  left  the  church  by  the  same 
door  and  got  into  the  car  and  immediately  drove  away  from  that  area.  We  did 
not  return  to  this  church  and  Wilson  and  Duncan  did  not  learn  until  the  follow- 
ing day  that  the  church  had  not  been  burned.  *  *  * 

Is  that  statement  given  over  your  signature  on  October  8,  1964, 
factual  ? 

Mr.  Jimmy  Wilson.  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amendment. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  deliberately  soak  the  fuse  in  gasoline  so  that  it 
would  not  burn  because  to  burn  a  church  was  revolting  to  you 
personally  ? 

Mr.  Jimmy  Wilson.  Sir,  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amend- 
ment. 

Mr,  Weltner.  Mr.  Wilson,  here  is  an  opportunity  for  you  to  testify 
that  you  prevented  the  destruction  of  property  of  someone  else.  At  this 
point  I  would  advise  you  that  you  are  given  the  opportunity  to  offer  to 
this  committee  any  matter  that  the  committee  determines  to  be  relevant 
to  deny  or  confirm  or  to  qualify  any  statement  that  is  presented  to  you. 

Here  is  an  opportimity.  Absent  your  testimony  or  other  informa- 
tion which  properly  comes  before  the  committee,  we  will,  of  necessity, 
have  to  rely  on  the  accuracy  of  the  investigation.  Here's  a  statement 
that  appears  to  be  a  copy  of  a  notarized  statement  by  yourself  showing 
how  you  prevented  the  burning  of  a  church.  I  would  like  to  know 
whether  or  not  that  is  true. 

Mr.  Jimmy  Wilson.  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amendment. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Wilson,  isn't  it  a  fact  that  you,  like  the  others, 
were  convicted  for  these  acts,  received  a  suspended  sentence,  and  did 
you  receive  a  fine  in  addition  to  the  suspended  sentence  ? 

Mr.  Jimmy  Wilson.  Sir,  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amend- 
ment. 

Mr.  Appell.  Billy  Earl  Wilson  testified  that  money  was  received 
on  two  different  occasions  from  the  Reverend  J.  C.  Brown,  whom  he 
identified  to  be  the  kludd  of  the  Klavern  of  which  Ray  Smith  was 
the  exalted  cyclops.  Did  you  receive  any  funds  from  the  Reverend 
J.  C.  Brown  ? 

Mr.  Jimmy  WiLsojf.  Sir,  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amend- 
ment. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  think  that  the  record  should  note  that 
the  planning  of  the  arson  of  the  Sweethome  Church,  McComb,  Missis- 
sippi, which  was  planned  prior  to  July  18,  1964,  was  on  a  date  prior 


ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  3031 

to  the  time  that  the  group  broke  away  from  the  original  Klavern  and 
formed  the  new  Klavern. 

Mr.  Weltner.  That  is  when  Ray  Smith  was  exalted  cyclops  of  all 
flie  members  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Wilson,  within  the  organizational  structure  of  the  United 
Klans  of  America  there  is  a  klokann.  As  established  by  committee 
investigation,  it  is  the  responsibility  of  the  klokann  committee  to  carry 
out  acts  such  as  carried  out  in  this  instance.  Were  you  and  Paul  Wil- 
son and  Murphy  J.  Duncan  at  the  time  of  the  attempted  arson  of  the 
Sweethome  Church,  members  of  a  klokann  committee '? 

Mr.  Jimmy  Wilson.  Sir,  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amend- 
ment. 

Mr.  Appell.  Following  your  plea  of  guilty  and  conviction,  was 
your  membership  in  the  United  Klans  of  America  suspended  ?  Were 
you  sworn  out  or  were  you  banished  ? 

Mr.  Jimmy  Wilson.  Sir,  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amend- 
ment. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Has  any  action  of  a  disciplinary  nature  been  taken 
against  you  as  a  member  of  the  Klan  by  the  Klan  for  your  involve- 
ment in  any  acts  of  violence  ? 

Mr.  Jimmy  Wilson.  Sir,  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amend- 
ment. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  have  no  further  questions,  Mr.  Chairman. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Are  there  any  questions? 

Mr.  Buchanan.  No. 

Mr.  Weltner.  The  witness  will  be  excused. 

Call  the  next  witness,  please. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Murphy  John  Duncan. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Stand  and  raise  your  right  hand,  please. 

Do  you  solemnly  swear  the  testimony  you  will  give  in  this  hearing 
will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the  tiTitli,  so  help 
you  God  ? 

Mr.  Duncan.  I  do. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Be  seated,  please. 

TESTIMONY  OF  MURPHY  JOHN  DUNCAN,  JR. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  you  state  your  full  name  for  the  record? 

Mr.  Duncan.  Murphy  J.  Duncan. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Duncan,  you  are  appearing  here  without  coun- 
sel. The  committee  would  advise  you  that  you  have  a  right  to  coun- 
sel at  any  time  during  the  course  of  your  testimony ;  that  if  you  are 
unable  to  obtain  counsel,  we  will  undertake  to  make  arrangements 
for  you  to  have  counsel.  You  have  the  further  right  under  the  Con- 
stitution not  to  answer  any  question  if  you  feel  that  your  answer  to 
that  question  might  tend  to  incriminate  you  imder  any  law  of  the 
United  States  or  the  State. 

I  ask  you  whether  or  not  you  desire  counsel  for  this  hearing  ? 

Mr.  Duncan.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Do  you  understand  your  rights  under  the  fifth  amend- 
ment ? 

Mr.  Duncan.  Yes,  sir. 


3032  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Duncan,  yon  are  appearing  here  today  in  accord- 
ance with  a  subpena  served  upon  you  on  October  29,  1965,  at  McComb, 
Mississippi,  by  John  D.  Sullivan,  an  investigator  of  this  committee? 

Mr.  Duncan.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appeijl,.  Mr.  Duncan,  ^yhen  and  where  were  you  born  ? 

Mr.  Duncan.  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amendment. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Duncan,  did  you  hold  the  position  of  grand  kla- 
bee,  or  treasurer,  of  the  Realm  of  Mississippi,  United  Klans  of 
America  ? 

Mr.  Duncan.  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amendment. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  Murphj^  John  Duncan  was  born  on 
April  8,  1920,  in  McComb,  Mississippi.  He  served  in  the  United 
States  Army  Air  Force  from  February  1939  to  February  1945.  He 
resides  at  Route  2,  McComb,  Mississippi. 

Following  a  series  of  arsons  and  bombings  in  the  McComb,  Mis- 
sissippi, area.  Murphy  John  Duncan  was  arrested  and  on  October  5, 
1964,  he  gave  permission  to  Inspector  G-w-i-n  Cole  of  the  Mississippi 
Highway  Patrol  to  search  his  residence,  which  search  produced  the 
following  documents.  It  will  be  noticed  that  these  documents  estab- 
lished him  to  be  tlie  grand  klabee,  or  treasurer,  of  the  United  Klans 
of  America,  Realm  of  Mississippi,  as  well  as  the  official  delegate  to  the 
Imperial  Klonvokation  held  in  Alabama  on  September  5,  1964. 

The  documents  recovered  in  this  search  are  the  following :  A  book 
containing  on  the  inside  cover  the  name  "E.  L,  McDaniel  (Eddie)," 
Grand  Dragon,  2156  Second  Street,  P.  O.  Box  14,  Natchez,  Mississippi, 
business  phone  442-0267,  home  phone  445-5340 ;  the  name  Harry  A. 
Sibley,  305  Jackson  Street,  McComb,  Mississippi ;  United  Klans,  'Post 
Office  Box  303;  Mississippi  Rescue  Service  706,  which  number,  Mr. 
Chairman,  is  believed  might  refer  to  a  Klavern. 

First  page  contains  notation :  "Mississippi  Rescue  Service  dues, 
#700  September  $22.75." 

The  pages  are  there  numbered  and  show  income,  September  19, 1964, 
public  speaking,  Natchez,  $21.32,  which  appears  to  be  a  pro  rata  share 
of  expense  by  Klaverns  713, 710, 715, 714  at  $5.33. 

Dues  700,704, 710, 713, 715, 7l7, 719,  $69.25. 

September  22,  711  dues  $7.50,  public  speaking  Natchez  711,  $5.33. 

The  pages  continue  to  enumerate  the  receipt  and  expenditures  of 
funds  and  the  rough  notes  include  that  there  was  paid  on  Septem- 
ber 22,  1964,  the  amount  of  $17.46,  E.  L.  McDaniel,  Grand  Dragon 
expense. 

There  was  included  application  for  membership.  United  Klans  of 
America,  application  for  reinstatement  [U.S.  Klans,  KKKK].  The 
official  delegate  card  for  September  5  and  6;  position  stated,  grand 
klabee.  State,  Mississippi,  national  klonvokation,  United  Klans  of 
America,  UKA. 

Were  these  documents  which  were  obtained  in  the  search  of  your 
residence  in  accordance  with  the  authority  given  by  you  to  Inspector 
Gwin  Cole,  your  documents  ? 

Mr.  Duncan.  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amendment. 

Mr.  Appell.  On  October'lO,  Mr.  Chairman,  Mr.  Duncan  made  the 
following  admissions  to  agents  of  the  sheriff's  department,  the 
Mississippi  Highway  Patrol,  and  Federal  Bureau  of  Investigation, 
"Duncan  advised  he  has  been  a  member  of  the  [UKA]   Klavern 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3033 

700  for  about  eight  (8)  months."  He  held  the  position  in  this  Klavern 
as  klabee  or  treasurer.  He,  like  other  members,  was  known  in  the 
Klavern  by  number  rather  than  name  and  his  number  was  6,  Because 
Klavern  700  was  becoming  too  large,  he  stated,  around  August  1, 1964, 
Paul  Wilson  read  a  list  of  names  during  a  meeting  of  Klavern  No,  700 
and  announced  that  he  and  those  names  were  forming  a  new  Klavern. 

According  to  Duncan,  Wilson  read  the  names  of  Jon  Paul  West- 
brook, Wilson,  whom  he  described  merely  as  a  very  yomig  boy — 

public  testimony,  Mr.  Chairman,  establishes  him  to  be  Billy  Earl 
Wilson — Bubba  Gillis,  whose  real  name  is  Sterling  Gillis,  Hilton 
Dmiaway,  Charles  Womack,  [Emery]  Allen  Lee,  and  himself.  Murphy 
Dmican.  He  stated  that  this  Klavern  was  formed  and  was  known  as  a 
rifle  club.    He  identified  Paul  Wilson  as  the  exalted  cyclops. 

He  further  stated  that  at  about  the  time  the  new  Klavern  was  formed 
he  was  elected  State  treasurer  and  maintained  an  account  in  the  name 
of  the  Mississippi  Rescue  Service  at  the  Mechanics  State  Bank,  Mc- 
Comb,  Mississippi.  Through  subpena  duces  tecum,  Mr,  Chairman,  we 
have  subpenaed  the  records  maintained  and  this  has  been  verified. 

With  respect  to  jobs  of  violence  carried  out  by  members  of  the 
Klavern,  Duncan  stated  that  he  attended  a  Klavern  meeting  at  which 
names  were  drawn  from  a  hat  with  Paul  Wilson  stating,  "Come,  boys, 
draw  your  job." 

With  respect  to  his  attendance  at  the  Imperial  Klonvokation,  com- 
mittee investigation  establishes  that  Duncan  and  Ernest  Zeeck  flew 
to  Birmingham  in  a  chartered  aircraft,  paid  for  by  Ed  Wilkins  in 
the  amount  of  $96.  Billy  Earl  Wilson  identified  Wilkins  as  a  person 
Duncan  recruited  into  the  Klavern  which  met  at  Bubba  Gillis'  up- 
holstery shop  in  McComb,  Mississippi, 

Mr,  Duncan,  do  you  care  to  make  any  statements  w^ith  respect  to  the 
results  of  the  committee's  investigation  as  read  to  you? 

Mr,  Duncan.  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amendment. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Duncan,  the  Chair  wishes  to  advise  you  that 
you  have  the  right  at  this  point  to  offer  any  matter  that  the  committee 
w411  deem  relevant,  to  explain  or  deny  any  part  of  this  information; 
that  absent  that  or  other  facts  which  may  come  to  the  attention  of  this 
committee,  the  committee  will  rely  upon  the  accuracy  of  its  inves- 
tigation. 

Do  you  care  to  avail  yourself  of  that  opportunity? 

Mr,  Duncan.  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amendment, 

(At  this  point  Mr.  Pool  returned  to  the  hearing  room.) 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Duncan,  is  it  a  fact  that  you  received  a  suspended 
sentence,  as  did  the  others;  that,  because  you  miscalculated  as  to  the 
date  when  your  period  of  probation  expired,  you  called  up  and  threat- 
ened agents  of  the  FBI;  and  that  your  probation  was  revoked  and 
you  were  sentenced  to  serve  6  months? 

Mr.  Duncan.  I  invoke  the  fifth  amendment. 

Mr,  Weltner,  Let  us  go  through  that  again,  will  you,  please,  Mr. 
Appell?  State  the  findings  of  the  investigation  with  regard  to  any 
such  matter,  and  then  we  will  pose  that  to  the  witness, 

Mr,  Appell,  Prior  to  the  expiration  of  the  probation,  that  Murphy 
J.  Duncan  by  use  of  the  telephone  threatened  an  agent  and  an  agent's 
wife  in  the  McComb  area,  as  a  result  of  which  the  probation  wa'^i 
revoked  and  he  was  sentenced  to  6  months  in  the  local  jail. 


3034  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Duncan,  is  that  factual,  that  your  probation 
was  revoked  and  that  you  were  thereupon  sentenced  to  serve  6  months 
in  the  penitentiai-y  ? 

Mr.  Duncan.  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amendment. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Duncan,  with  respect  to  the  documents  recovered 
from  your  home,  one  Post  Office  Box  14,  Natchez,  Mississippi,  the 
other  Post  Office  Box  706,  McComb,  Mississippi,  I  hand  you  the  one 
covering  Post  Office  Box  14,  Natchez,  which  shows  the  applicant  to  be 
Ernest  Finley.  I  ask  you  if  you  knew  him  to  be  a  member  of  the 
United  Klans  of  America. 

Mr.  Duncan.  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amendment. 

Mr.  Appell.  Post  Office  Box  706,  McComb,  in  the  name  of  the 
Mississippi  Rescue  Service,  which  states  under  "kind  of  business,-' 
that  it  is  "civil  defense  radio  service.'' 

Will  you  explain  to  the  committee  what  type  of  civil  defense  radio 
service  the  Mississippi  Rescue  Service  was  involved  in  ? 

Mr.  Duncan.  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amendment,  sir. 

(Documents  marked  "Murphy  Duncan  Exhibit  No.  1"  follow:) 


ACTIVITIES    OF   KU   KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3035 

Murphy  Duncan  Exhibit  No.  1 


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Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Duncan,  did  you  advise  Billy  Earl  Wilson  with 
respect  to  Ed  Wilkins,  who  he  identified  you  recruited  into  the 
Klavern  that  met  at  Bubba  Gillis'  upholstery  shop,  that  Wilkins 
worked  for  an  oil  company  and  used  explosives  and  knew  where  to 
get  them? 


3036  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Duncan.  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amendment,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  Ed  Wilkins  ever  obtain  for  your  group  any  of  the 
explosives  or  dynamite  which  was  used  for  any  of  the  bombings  in  the 
McComb,  Mississippi,  area  ? 

Mr.  Duncan.  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amendment. 

Mr.  Appell.  Would  you  know  Howard  M.  Lee,  a  Klansman  in 
Bogalusa,  Louisiana  ? 

Mr.  Duncan.  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amendment. 

Mr.  Pool  (presiding).  I  can't  hear  you,  speak  up  a  little  louder. 
Do  you  invoke  the  fifth  amendment  ? 

Mr.  Duncan.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Howard  M.  Lee  was  arrested  by  agents  of  the  Alco- 
holic Tax  Unit  of  the  Treasury  Department,  which  agency  has  the 
responsibility  of  enforcing  the  regulations  relating  to  the  sale  of  guns 
and  ammunition.  The  records  maintained  by  Howard  Lee  reflect  on 
September  20,  1964,  he  sold  a  rifle  to  Murphy  Duncan,  although  the 
address  here  is  listed  as  Denham  Springs.  I  ask  you  to  examine  this 
document  and  to  advise  the  committee  whether  you  purchased  a  rifle 
from  Howard  M.  Lee. 

Mr.  Duncan.  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amendment. 

(Excerpt  from  Howard  Lee's  records  marked  "Murphy  Duncan 
Exhibit  No.  2"  follows:) 


Murphy  Duncan  Exhibit  No.  2 


^^J-.  >c>-L^ 


Mr.  Pool.  You  said  what  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  He  invokes  his  rights  under  the  fifth  amendment. 

Billy  Earl  Wilson  testified  that  he  received  sums  of  money  from 
the  Reverend  J.  C.  Brown  following  his  conviction.  Did  you  likewise 
receive  money  from  the  Reverend  J.  C.  Brown  and,  if  so,  wiiat 
amounts  ? 

Mr.  Duncan.  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amendment. 

Mr.  Appell.  The  account  in  the  name  of  the  Mississippi  Rescue 
Service,  Mechanics  State  Bank,  McComb,  Mississippi,  contains  as  the 
authorized  signature,  John  K.  Duncan.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and 
ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny  the  fact,  that  in  opening  tliis  account  you 
used  the  name  John  K.  Duncan. 

Mr.  Duncan.  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amendment. 

(Document  marked  "Murphy  Duncan  Exhibit  No.  3"  follows:) 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3037 

Murphy  Duncan  Exhibit  No.  3 

NAME      Missiasippi  Rescue  Servic* 

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oaizcD  TO  wW«nnWt>y<^^<lwl^BWE»  executed  ■■low   im  payment  of   fjnd*  on   dekosit    or 

IN     THE     TXANIACTION     Of     OTHER     BUOlNitS     WITH     THE     UNOERllONED       SUBJECT     TO     THE     TCMMB     AND 
CONDITIONS    OF    THE    CONTRACT    ON     THE     REVERSE    SIDE     MERI    -)F 


QMn/T-^--:- 


>^gt> 


Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  staff  has  no  further  questions  to  ask 
this  witness. 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Weltner. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Duncan,  have  you  discussed  your  appearance 
here  today  with  Mr.  Robert  M.  Shelton,  the  Imperial  Wizard  of  the 
United  Klans? 

Mr.  Duncan.  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amendment. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Do  you  know  Mr.  Shelton  ? 

Mr.  Duncan.  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amendment. 

(At  this  point  Mr.  Buchanan  left  the  hearing  room.) 

Mr.  Weltner.  No  further  questions. 

Mr.  Pool.  Do  you  have  anything  else,  Mr.  Appell  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  No  further  questions. 

Mr.  Pool.  The  witness  is  excused  permanently. 

Mr.  Appell.  Emery  Allen  Lee. 

Mr.  Pool.  Raise  your  right  hand. 

Do  you  solemnly  swear  the  testimony  you  are  about  to  give  will  be 
the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth,  so  help  you  God  ? 

Mr.  Lee.  I  do. 

TESTIMONY  OF  EMERY  ALLEN  LEE 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  you  state  your  full  name  for  the  record,  Mr.  Lee? 

Mr.  Lee.  Emery  Allen  Lee. 

Mr.  Appell.  You  are  appearing  here  today  in  accordance  with  a 
subpena  served  upon  you  at  1110  Avenue  L,  McComb,  Mississippi,  on 
October  29, 1965,  by  John  D.  Sullivan,  investigator  of  this  committee  ? 

Mr.  Lee.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  note  that  you  are  not  represented  by  counsel.  Do  you 
desire  counsel? 

Mr.  Lee.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Have  you  received  legal  advice  as  to  the  rights  which 
you  have  to  invoke  constitutional  privileges,  the  fifth  amendment,  in 
respect  to  all  questions  which  might  tend  to  incriminate  you  ? 


3038  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Lee.  I  invoke  my  rights  on  the  fifth  amendment. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Do  you  miderstand  your  right  under  the  Constitution 
to  refuse  to  answer  any  questions  on  the  ground  that  it  may  tend  to 
incriminate  you  ? 

Mr.  Lee.  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amendment. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Do  you  desire  coimsel  to  represent  you  ? 

Mr.  Lee.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  You  do  not  desire  counsel  ? 

Mr.  Lee.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Do  you  understand  that  you  might  have  comisel  at 
any  time  during  the  course  of  this  hearing  if  you  make  that  desire 
known  to  the  committee  ? 

Mr.  Lee.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  I  am  not  trying  to  trip  you  up  with  a  question,  but 
this  committee  wishes  to  advise  you  that  you  have  the  right  at  any  time 
in  response  to  any  questions  to  refuse  to  answer  on  the  gromids  that  the 
answer  may  tend  to  incriminate  you  under  any  State  or  Federal  statute. 
I  am  simply  asking  you  whether  or  not  you  understand  you  have  that 
right. 

Mr.  Lee.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  You  do  understand  that? 

Mr.  Lee.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Pool.  Go  ahead. 

Mr.  Appell.  Wlien  and  where  were  you  born,  Mr.  Lee? 

Mr,  Lee.  Sir,  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amendment. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  investigation  reflects  that  Emery 
Allen  Lee  was  born  on  October  6,  1928,  at  Hammond,  Louisiana.  He 
completed  7  years  of  grammar  school.  He  enlisted  in  the  regular  army 
on  August  2,  1946,  and  was  discharged  for  reasons  of  dependency  on 
February  25,  1947. 

He  is  self-employed  as  a  painter.  He  resides  at  1110  Avenue  L,  Mc- 
Comb,  Mississippi. 

Mr.  Lee,  Billy  Earl  Wilson  in  testifying  before  this  committee  under 
oath  on  January  18,  1966,  identified  you  as  a  person  whom  he  knew  to 
be  a  member  of  the  United  Klans  of  America.  Was  Mr.  Billy  Earl 
Wilson  telling  the  truth  when  he  so  testified  under  oath  ? 

Mr.  Lee.  Sir,  I  invoke  my  rights  under  tlie  fifth  amendment. 

Mr.  Appell.  Jimmy  Prinston  Wilson,  Murphy  J.  Duncan,  in  state- 
ments given  to  the  agents  of  the  Mississippi  State  Highway  Patrol, 
sheriff's  department,  and  the  Federal  Bureau  of  Investigation,  iden- 
tified you  to  be  a  person  they  knew  to  be  a  member  of  the  United  Klans 
of  America.     Were  the  statements  tliat  they  gave  truthful  ? 

Mr.  Lee.  Sir,  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amendment. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  hand  you  a  list  of  acts  of  violence  which  took  place 
in  McComb,  Mississippi,  area  in  1964.  I  ask  you  if  you  committed 
any  of  the  acts  individually  or  in  partnership  with  others  and  I  invite 
your  attention  specificallv  to  the  date  of  September  20,  1964,  and  the 
bombing  of  the  Society  Hill  Missionary  Church,  McComb,  Mississippi. 

Mr.  Lee.  Sir,  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amendment. 

(Document  previously  marked  "Paul  Wilson  Exhibit  No.  2."  See 
pp.  3023,  3024.) 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S.  3039 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Lee,  I  hand  you  a  series  of  photographs.  These 
photographs  were  made  by  the  Mississippi  Highway  Patrol  on  the  3cl 
day  of  October  1964.     I  ask  you  to  hokl  them  as  I  read  them  to  you. 

Report  of  the  Mississippi  Highway  Safety  Patrol  reflects  that  there 
was  found  in  two  sacks  at  the  rear  of  the  residence  of  Emery  Allen 
Lee  contents  described  as  homemade  bombs  and  a  can  of  black  powder 
with  65  feet  of  fuse.  These  items  are  described  as  lengths  of  gal- 
vanized pipe  capped  at  both  ends  with  a  quarter  inch  hole  drilled  in 
them,  filled  with  black  powder,  fused  with  the  fuse  bonded. 

Mr.  Lee,  did  you  manufacture  those  homemade  bombs? 

Mr.  Lee.  Sir,  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amendment. 

(Photographs  marked  "Emery  Lee  Exhibit  No.  1."  For  one  of  said 
photographs,  see  committee  report.  The  Present-Day  Ku  Klux  Klan 
Movement,  p.  108;  balance  retained  in  committee  files.) 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Lee,  Billy  Earl  Wilson  stated  that  when  they  were 
preparing  to  bomb  the  residence  of  Alyene  Quinn  that  they  stopped 
by  your  house  and  from  a  sort  of  corner  cabinet  there  was  obtained 
by  you  from  a  false  bottom  in  that  cabinet  the  dynamite  which  they 
used.     Was  Billy  Earl  Wilson's  testimony  truthful  ? 

Mr.  Lee,  Sir,  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amendment. 

Mr.  Appell.  While  stationed  at  Aberdeen  Proving  Ground  as  a 
member  of  the  United  States  Army  did  you  receive  instruction  in 
detonation  ? 

Mr.  Lee.  Sir,  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amendment. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Lee,  did  you  and  Bubba  Gillis  bomb  the  Society 
Hill  Missionary  Church,  McComb,  Mississippi,  on  the  night  of  Sep- 
tember 20, 1964? 

Mr.  Lee.  Sir,  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amendment. 

Mr.  Appell.  At  a  meeting  of  the  Klavern  which  met  at  Bubba 
Gillis'  upholstery  shop,  wdiere  a  hat  was  placed  on  the  table,  did  you 
draw  a  slip  of  paper  which  contained  the  name  of  the  Society  Hill 
Missionary  Church  ? 

Mr.  Lee.  Sir,  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amendment. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  acquainted  with  Curtis  O'Neil  Doles,  a  Klans- 
man  with  the  Bessemer,  Alabama,  Klavern  ? 

Mr.  Lee.  Sir,  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amendment. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Lee,  can  you  advise  the  committee  as  to  the  purpose 
w^iich  you  and  other  members  of  the  United  Klans  in  the  State  of 
Mississippi  hope  to  accomplish  through  the  acts  of  arson  and  bombings 
which  you  men  carried  out  in  that  State  ? 

Mr.  Lee.  Sir,  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amendment. 

Mr.  Appell.  Where  did  you  obtain  the  powder  that  was  in  that 
can? 

Mr.  Lee.  Sir,  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amendment. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  staff  has  no  further  questions  to 
ask  this  witness. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Do  you  know  Robert  M.  Shelton  ? 

Mr.  Lee.  Sir,  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amendment. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Have  you  discussed  your  appearance  here  today  with 
Robert  M.  Shelton? 

Mr.  Lee.  Sir,  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amendment. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Have  you  discussed  your  appearance  wnth  any  per- 
son known  to  you  to  be  a  member  of  the  Taiited  Klans  of  America ? 

Mr.  Lee.  Sir,  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amendment. 

59-222  O— 67— pt.  4 10 


3040  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Weltner.  No  further  questions. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  have  one  that  I  overlooked  which  is 
veiy  important. 

Mr.  Lee,  on  November  12,  1964,  did  you  write  the  following  letter 
to  a  Miss  or  Mrs.  Joyce  L-a-d-n-e-r,  and  I  Avill  quote  the  contents  of 
the  letter  to  you: 

I  read  your  article  in  the  Jackson  Daily  News  about  the  McCoiub  Bombers. 
It  makes  a  man  feel  good  to  know  that  someone  in  these  United  States  outside 
of  good  old  Mississippi  will  go  to  bat  for  them.  My  name  is  Emery  Allen  Lee. 
I  am  the  one  who  is  the  Demolision  [sic]  Expert  who  made  all  the  bombs  and 
told  the  others  where  to  go  with  them.  I  am  proud  of  my  part.  They  have 
accused  me  of  and  am  sorry  that  one  man  had  to  spill  his  guts  and  tell  every- 
thing he  knew  about  me  and  my  property  but  he  has  to  live  with  it  the  rest  of 
hi.q  life.  I  would  have  trusted  him  with  my  life.  It  just  goes  to  show  that  a 
man  doesn't  know  who  he  can  trust  any  more.  I  am  branded  an  exbomber  of 
Pike  Co.  but  I  will  hold  my  head  up  even  higher  than  ever  and  spit  in  the  eye 
of  any  one  who  tries  to  ever  integrate  me  and  will  fight  it  one  way  or  another 
till  I  die  and  will  lay  down  my  life  tomorrow  for  what  I  believe.  I  am  a  Rebel 
and  I  am  proud  to  be  one  and  from  your  article  in  the  paper  in  my  book  you 
rate  first  class.  And  I  would  be  prowd  [sic]  to  call  you  a  true  friend  because  it 
took  lots  of  guts  to  put  that  in  the  paper  nowadays.  Speaking  of  faith  it  is  going 
to  take  a  lot  of  Faith  and  men  and  women  like  yourself  to  stand  together  and 
fight  for  the  things  we  hold  so  dear.  We  have  a  police  State  here  now  and  a 
white  man  gets  treated  like  an  animal  if  he  doesn't  go  along  with  COFO  and 
NAACP  so  just  call  me  an  animal.  I  was  handcuffed  so  long  and  so  tight  with 
my  hands  behind  my  back  that  when  they  finally  took  them  off  I  could  lay  my 
thumb  and  finger  in  the  groove  of  my  wrist  and  all  but  hide  them.  It  took  almost 
three  weeks  for  the  feeling  to  come  back  to  my  right  hand.  Well,  I  didn't  intend 
to  talk  so  much.  I  really  wanted  to  thank  you  for  your  lift  in  the  paper.  It 
meant  a  lot  to  me  and  any  of  the  others  who  might  have  read  it. 

Sincerely 

Signed  "Al  Lee." 

Mr.  Lee.  Sir,  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amendment. 

(Document  marked  "Emery  Lee  Exhibit  No.  2-A"  and  retained  in 
committee  files.) 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Appell,  do  you  have  a  date  on  that  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  sir.     That  was  dated  November  12,  1964. 

Mr,  Pool.  Did  he  sign  the  letter? 

Mr.  Appell.  The  letter  was  handwritten.  It  was  signed  "Al  Lee" 
and  it  has  been — I  might  preface  what  I  am  going  to  answer  you 
with,  Mr.  Lee  misinterpreted  what  the  letter  of  Miss  Ladner  was 
intended  to  convey  when  he  wrote  her  this  letter.  Upon  receipt  of 
it  she  forwarded  it  to  the  Attorney  General  of  the  United  States, 
who  had  a  handwriting  analysis  made  which  confirmed  it  to  be  writ- 
ten by  the  witness  Emery  Allen  Lee. 

Mr.  Pool.  And  signed  by  the  witness? 

Mr.  Appell.  And  signed  by  the  witness. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Just  a  minute.  What  was  the  letter  that  Miss  Ladner 
wrote  ?  I  find  it  incredible  to  believe  that  this  letter  was  signed  and 
dispatched  under  those  circumstances.  Will  you  give  us  some  more 
background?     Wliat  was  the  nature  of  Miss  Ladner's  letter? 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  we  made  a  search,  but  because  of  the 
amount  of  time  we  would  have  to  consume  to  research  the  paper  we 
did  not  obtain  it. 

Mr.  Pool.  You  don't  have  Miss  Ladner's  letter? 

Mr.  Appell.  No,'  sir,  we  are  still  in  search  of  it.  It  will  be  made 
part  of  the  record. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3041 

(Miss   Ladner's   letter   marked   "Emei*y   Lee   Exhibit   No.   2-B" 
follows:) 

Emery  Lee  Exhibit  No.  2-B 

[Jackson  (Miss.)  Daily  News,  October  30,  1964] 

Courage    And  Hats  off  to  the  fine  Southern 

Infa^riK/   ^U«w«?  gentlemanly   judge    who   gave 

,V'l!®9'^'O^J>nO^"-  them  all  suspended   sentences 


Editor,  Daily  News  --  I  re- 
,c«itly  learned  that  my  Mc- 
Comb,  Mississippi,  brethren  | 
pleaded  guilty  to  the  bombings 
ttf  the  colored  folks  homes  and 
churches.  I  must  say  that  this 
^ust  have  taken  a  great 
amount  of  courage  and  in- 
tegrity. 


because  of  the  faith  he  had  in 
their  upbringing,  as  evidenced 
by  the  Christian  deed  they  did. 
This  is  but  another  fine  ex- 
ample ol  the  courageous  acts 
that  can  only  be  carried  out 
by  a  true  Southern  gentleman. 

Joyce  Ladner 

8793  Kingsbury  Place 

St.  Louis  12,  Mo. 


Mr.  Weltner.  This  was  a  letter  published  in  a  newspaper? 

Mr.  Appell.  In  the  editor's  column. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Is  it  your  statement  that  the  witness  misinterpreted 
the  letter  as  sympathetic  to  the  bombing? 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  And  in  response  to  what  he  interpreted  to  be  an  ex- 
pression of  sympathy  he  sent  to  the  author  of  the  newspaper  letter, 
this  letter? 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  You  have  also  stated  now  that  that  was  forwarded 
to  the  Federal  Bureau  of  Investigation  and  that  a  handwriting 
analysis  was  made  of  it ;  that  the  result  of  that  analysis  is  that  it  was 
written  by  this  witness. 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Appell,  I  wish  to  ask  this:  Did  he  answer  the 
question? 

Mr.  Appell.  He  invoked  the  constitutional  privilege  before  I  even 
asked  him  whether  or  not  he  was  the  author. 

Mr.  Pool.  In  view  of  this  letter  and  the  fact  that  the  handwriting 
has  been  identified,  I  will  say  that  I  think  it  needs  explanation  on  his 
part  or  the  committee  will  have  to  accept  it  in  the  tone  in  which 
it  was  sent  and  the  philosophy  behind  it  in  this  man's  mind,  which 
is  not  a  very  admirable  philosophy  and  the  general  public  resents  that 
type  of  attitude  by  those  people. 

I  can't  think  of  anything  incriminating  in  this  letter.  I  would 
straighten  it  out  if  I  were  on  the  witness  stand. 

Go  ahead. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  would  like  to  ask  the  witness  as  to  whether  or  not 
the  statement  about  the  condition  of  his  wrist  after  being  handcuifed. 
or  put  it  to  him  as  a  fact  that  that  statement  is  false? 

Mr.  Lee.  I  invoke  my  rights  under  the  fifth  amendment. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  have  no  further  questions  to  ask  the  witness. 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Senner,  as  a  member  of  the  full  committee,  would 
you  care  to  ask  any  questions  ? 


3042  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Sentster.  I  have  no  (questions,  thank  you. 

Mr.  Pool.  The  witness  is  excused. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  have  an  observation  which  I  should 
like  to  make  a  part  of  the  record. 

A  witness  before  this  committee  has  a  right  to  counsel  and  he  has 
a  right  not  to  have  counsel,  too.  Now  the  witnesses  who  have  been 
subpenaed  here  who  are  implicated  in  the  McComb  bombings  each 
appeared  without  counsel.  And  each,  after  bein^  queried  as  to 
whether  they  desired  counsel,  stated  they  did  not  wish  comisel. 

Now  that  occurred  to  me  to  be  a  rather  unusual  circumstance  inas- 
much as  just  about  every  otlier  witness  who  has  appeared  and  has  taken 
the  fifth  amendment  consistently  has  appeared  with  counsel. 

It  occurs  to  me  that  there  is  a  logical  explanation  for  that.  The 
interview  that  was  printed  in  Playhoy  magazine  with  Mr.  Kobert 
Shelton  disclosed  Mr.  Shelton's  statements  to  the  effect  that  the  United 
Klans  did  not  permit  violence  and  was  opposed  to  violence  and  it  also 
contained  the  question,  "Then  how  do  you  explain  the  case  of  Paul 
Dewey  Wilson,  who  was  arrested  last  year  in  McComb,  Mississippi, 
while  wearing  a  deputy  sheriff's  badge"  et  cetera? 

The  answer  to  that  by  Mr.  Shelton  was :  "We  don't  have  member- 
ship cards.  The  card  he  had  was  the  card  I  described — just  a  busi- 
ness card." 

Now  if  these  witnesses  appeared  with  counsel  furnished  them  by 
the  United  Klans  of  America,  there  would  be  a  serious  doubt  cast  on 
the  statement  made  by  the  Imperial  Wizard  that  anyone  convicted 
of  an  act  of  violence  would  be  summarily  discharged  from  the  United 
Klans  of  America.  Hence  their  appearance  without  counsel  is  under- 
standable in  that  light. 

Now  as  I  say,  Mr.  Chairman,  a  man  has  a  right  to  counsel  and  a 
man  has  a  right  to  appear  without  counsel  and  from  the  appearance 
of  these  five  or  six  witnesses  I  will  have  to  say  that  their  rights  were 
protected  by  their  own  refusals  in  the  claim  of  the  fifth  amendment. 
Possibly  this  Playboy  interview  and  the  statements  by  the  Imperial 
Wizard  are  the  explanation  for  the  rather  unusual  nature  of  these 
appearances. 

Mr.  Pool.  Call  your  next  witness. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  would  like  to  call  L.  C.  Murray. 

Mr.  Pool.  Raise  your  right  hand. 

Do  you  solemnly  swear  that  the  testimony  you  are  about  to  give 
will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth,  so  help 
you  God? 

Mr.  Murray.  Yes,  sir. 

TESTIMONY  OP  L.  C.  MURRAY,  ACCOMPANIED  BY  COUNSEL, 
LESTER  V.  CHALMERS,  JR. 

Mr  Appell.  State  your  full  name  for  the  record. 

Mr.  Murray.  L.  C.  Murray. 

Mr.  Appell.  Wliat  do  the  initials  "L."  and  "C."  stand  for? 

Mr.  Murray.  Initials  only. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  appearing  here  today  in  accordance  with  sub- 
pena  served  upon  you  on  November  22,  1965,  at  114  Main  Street, 
Natchez,  Mississippi  ? 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  3043 

Mr.  Murray.  I  am. 

Mr.  Appell.  When  and  where  were  you  born,  Mr.  Murray  ? 

Mr.  Murray.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
reason  that  I  honestly  feel  my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate  me 
in  violation  of  my  rights  as  granted  to  me  by  amendments  5,  1,  4,  and 
14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  represented  by  counsel  ? 

Mr.  Murray.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  counsel  identify  himself  for  the  record? 

iMr.  Chalmers.  Lester  V.  Chalmers,  attorney  at  law,  501  First 
Federal  Building,  Raleigh,  North  Carolina. 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Chalmers,  is  it  your  understanding  that  the  wit- 
ness has  been  furnished  a  copy  of  the  chairman's  opening  statement 
of  October  19,  1965,  and  that  he  is  familiar  with  the  contents? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir;  it  is  so  stipulated,  Mr.  Chairman. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Murray,  I  hand  you  a  rather  poor  reproduction  of 
a  signature  card  on  the  Britton  &  Koontz  [National]  Bank,  Natchez, 
Mississippi,  which  shows  the  signature  of  Edward  McDaniel,  Grand 
Dragon ;  John  Dawson ;  and  L.  C.  Murray,  field — abbreviation  for  sec- 
retary. I  ask  you  if  you  are  the  L.  C.  Murray — I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact, 
and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny  the  fact,  that  you  are  the  L.  C.  Mur- 
ray listed  as  field  secretary. 

Mr.  Murray.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
reason  that  I  honestly  feel  that  my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate 
me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments  5, 
1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

(Document  previously  marked  "Jolin  Dawson  Exhibit  No.  1."  See 
p.  2984.) 

Mr.  Appell.  I  hand  you  two  checks,  one  dated  September  24,  1965, 
the  other  October  8,  1965,  and  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact  that  they  estab- 
lish you  as  a  paid  employee  of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Realm 
of  Mississippi. 

Mr.  Murray.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  hand  you  two  checks,  one  dated  October  2,  1965, 
payee  cash,  amount  $2,766,  endorsers  John  Dawson  and  L.  C.  Murray, 
and  check  dated  October  15,  1965,  payable  to  cash,  in  the  amount  of 
$2,000,  endorser  Edward  L.  McDaniel. 

After  you  examine  them  I  will  ask  you  for  what  purpose  did  you 
endorse  the  check  for  $2,766.  The  second  check  I  ask  you  for  what 
purpose  did  you  make  a  check  for  Edward  L.  McDaniel  in  the  amount 
of  $2,000? 

Mr.  Murray.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Checks  previously  marked  "John  Dawson  Exhibit  No.  4."  See 
pp.  2988-2991.) 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Murray,  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact  that  your  formal 
title  within  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Realm  of  Mississippi,  is 
that  of  field  secretary  to  the  Grand  Dragon  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or 
deny  the  fact. 

Mr.  Murray.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 


3044  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  as  to  whether  or  not  the  following  individuals  are  the  exalted 
Cyclops  of  the  follow^ing  Klaverns : 

,700,  Ray  Smith,  McComb;  701,  J.  M.  Foster,  Brookhaven ;  702,  C.  J. 
Seal,  Pearl  River  County ;  704,  John  Brumfield,  McComb,  Mississippi ; 
711,  H.  H.  Mathews,  McComb,  Mississippi, 

Incidentally,  Mr.  Chairman,  this  is  the  Klavem  in  which  Mr. 
Emmett  Thornhill  held  membership. 

712,  Hewitt  Wilkinson,  Pricedale,  Mississippi;  713,  George  Wm- 
borne,  Bogue  Chitto;  715,  J.  R.  Morgan,  Brookhaven;  716,  Harold 
Casey,  Goodman,  Mississippi ;  718,  J.  W.  Reeves,  Bogue  Chitto,  Mis- 
sissippi; 719,  Paul  Foster,  Natchez,  Mississippi;  726,  Bill  Sullivan, 
Jackson,  Mississippi;  727,  T.  M.  Jackson,  Yazoo  City,  Mississippi; 
728,  M.  E.  Bell,  Mathiston,  Mississippi;  729,  W.  H.  Aswalt,  Louis- 
ville, Mississippi;  730,  James  R.  Simpson,  Starkville;  732,  Jerry  M. 
Graham,  Oxford;  735,  L.  C.  Bracken,  luka;  736,  Houston  Evans, 
kleagle  for  Greenville;  737,  Glen  Owen,  the  temporary  EC,  Columbus, 
Mississippi ;  Harry  Oippens,  the  EC  in  the  Wayne  County  unit. 

I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact  that  they  are,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact. 

Mr.  Murray.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr,  Appell.  Mr.  Murray,  as  the  field  secretary  of  the  United  Klans, 
Mississippi,  have  you  conducted  any  investigation  which  has  resulted 
in  the  suspension  or  banishment  from  the  United  Klans  of  America  of 
any  member  who  has  engaged  in  an  act  of  intimidation  or  violence 
against  a  citizen  of  Mississippi  ? 

Mr.  Murray.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated, 

Mr.  Appell.  I  have  no  further  questions  to  ask  this  witness,  Mr. 
Chairman. 

Mr,  Pool.  Mr.  Weltner. 

Mr.  Weltner.  I  have  no  questions. 

Mr,  Pool.  The  witness  is  excused  permanently. 

Mr.  Appell.  Edward  Lenox  McDaniel. 

Mr.  Pool.  Will  you  raise  your  right  hand. 

Do  you  solemnly  swear  the  testimony  you  are  about  to  give  will  be 
the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth,  so  help  you  God  ? 

Mr.  McDaniel.  I  do. 

TESTIMONY  OF  EDWARD  LENOX  McDANIEL,  ACCOMPANIED  BY 
COUNSEL,  LESTER  V.  CHALMERS,  JR. 

Mr,  Appell,  State  your  full  name  for  the  record,  Mr.  McDaniel. 

Mr.  McDaniel.  Edward  L,  McDaniel, 

Mr,  Appell,  Middle  name  Lenox  ? 

Mr,  McDaniel,  Right. 

Mr.  Appell.  You  are  appearing  here  today  in  accordance  with  sub- 
pena  served  upon  you  on  October  30, 1965,  at  114  Main  Street,  Natchez, 
Mississippi,  by  John  D.  Sullivan,  an  investigator  of  this  committee? 

Mr.  McDaniel.  I  am. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  represented  by  counsel  ? 

Mr. McDaniel.  lam. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3045 

Mr,  Appell.  Will  counsel  please  identify  himself  for  the  record? 

(Mr.  Chalmers.  Lester  V.  Chalmers,  attorney  at  law,  501  First  Fed- 
eral Buildino:,  Kalei^^h. 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Chalmers,  is  it  so  stipulated  that  the  witness  has 
been  furnished  a  copy  of  the  chairman's  opening  statement  on  Oc- 
tober 19,  1965,  and  is  familiar  with  its  contents? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  McDaniel,  under  the  terms  of  the  subpena  served 
upon  you  and  attachment  thereto  which  is  made  a  part  of  the  sub- 
pena, you  are  commanded  to  bring  with  you  and  to  produce  before  the 
committee  documents  set  forth  in  paragraph  1 : 

All  books,  i-ecords,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  relating  to 
the  organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  business  and  affairs  of  the  Invisible  Em- 
pire, United  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also  known 
as  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  and  aflSliated 
organizations,  namely,  the  Alabama  Rescue  Service,  the  White  Knights  of  the 
Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Mississippi,  The  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  in 
your  possession,  custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  you  or  available  to  you 
as  Grand  Dragon  of  the  Mississippi  Realm  of  the  Invisible  Empire,  United 
Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also  known  as  the  United 
Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  also  as  a  member  of  the 
White  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Mississippi  and  as  a  member  of  the 
Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan. 

I  ask  you  to  produce  the  documents  called  for  in  paragraph  1. 

Mr.  McDaxiel.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee 
any  and  all  documents  as  demanded  by  the  committee  in  a  subpena 
dated  October  6,  1965,  for  the  reason  that  I  honestly  feel  that  to  do  so 
might  tend  to  incriminate  me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed 
to  me  by  amendments  5,  1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United 
States  of  America. 

I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any  and  all  records 
as  requested  by  this  committee  under  subpena  dated  October  6,  1965, 
since  that  information  is  not  relevant  or  germane  to  the  subject  under 
investigation  and  the  same  would  not  aid  the  Congress  in  the  considera- 
tion of  any  valid  remedial  legislation,  nor  is  such  inquiry  within  the 
scope  of  that  authorized  to  be  investigated  by  Rule  XI  of  the  rules 
adopted  by  the  89th  Congress,  by  House  Resolution  8,  adopted  January 
4, 1965. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  McDaniel,  paragraph  2  called  for  you  to  produce: 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  in  your  pos- 
session custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  or  available  to  you,  in  your  capacity 
as  Grand  Dragon  of  the  Mississippi  Realm  of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc., 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan.  which  the  "Constitution  and  Laws"  of  said  orga- 
nization authorize  and  require  to  be  maintained  by  you  and  any  other  oflScer 
of  said  organization,  the  same  being  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control. 

Mr.  McDaniel.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee 
the  documents  heretofore  requested  upon  the  grounds  previously 
stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  ask  that  the  witness  be  directed  to 
produce  those  documents  called  for  in  part  2. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  McDaniel,  the  committee  does  not  accept  your 
reasons  for  refusing  to  produce  these  documents. 

Accordingly,  the  chairman  of  the  subcommittee  directs  you  to  do  so. 

(At  this  point  Mr.  Buchanan  returned  to  the  hearing  room.) 


3046  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    tJ.S. 

Mr.  McDaniel.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  com- 
mittee the  documents  heretofore  ordered  by  the  chairman,  based  on  the 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Chalmers,  may  we  have  a  stipulation  that  these 
documents  called  for  are  in  the  custody  of  this  witness? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  As  stated  in  the  subpena,  Mr.  Chairman ;  yes. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Thank  you. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  McDaniel,  when  and  where  were  you  bom? 

Mr.  McDaniel.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question 
for  the  reason  that  I  honestly  feel  my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate 
me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments  5, 
1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  McDaniel,  were  you  banished  by  Imperial  Dragon 
Roy  V.  Young  from  the  Original  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan, 
Realm  of  Mississippi  ? 

Mr.  McDaniel.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated, 

Mr.  Appell.  And  former  Imperial  Dragon  Young  testified  under 
oath  that  you  were  banished  because  you  were  guilty  of  slandering 
and  threatening  the  head  or  leaders  of  his  Klan  and  also  committing 
treason  by  exciting  and  recommending  of  revolt  against  the  principles 
of  the  old  original  rules  and  regulations.     Is  his  testimony  truthful  ? 

Mr.  McDaniel.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  in  view  of  the  witness'  claim  of  privi- 
lege, consisting  of  refusal  to  answer  my  questions,  I  present  to  the 
committee  the  results  of  our  investigation  as  they  pertain  to  Mr. 
McDaniel. 

Edward  Lenox  McDaniel  was  born  on  December  12,  1934,  at 
Natchez,  Mississippi.  He  has  a  10th  grade  education.  He  has  been 
employed  by  Jolins-Manville,  Natchez,  Mississippi,  1953  to  1955;  by 
General  Motors  in  California  from  September  1955  to  January  1957; 
by  Los  Angeles  Transit  Lines  from  Februaiy  1957  to  July  1957;  by 
Jolins-Manville  again  from  July  30,  1957,  to  October  12,  1959;  by 
Acme  Steel  Company  in  California  in  1960  to  1962 ;  by  the  Red  Ball 
Motor  Freight  Company,  Natchez,  Mississippi,  1962  until  he  began 
devoting  full  time  to  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Realm  of  Missis- 
sippi. 

McDaniel,  while  in  California,  filed  a  petition  of  bankruptcy  on 
October  28,  1961,  at  Lynwood,  California,  listing  debts  of  $4,522.36 
and  assets  of  $200.     On  March  7, 1962,  he  was  discharged  as  bankrupt. 

McDaniel's  employment  with  Johns-Manville  was  terminated  in 
1959  under  the  technical  charge  of  abuse  of  plant  rules  and  regulations. 
Investigation  established  that  his  dismissal  resulted  from  his  illegally 
opening  a  milk  vending  machine  and  removing  therefrom  the  coin 
content. 

E.  L.  McDaniel  was  banished  from  the  Original  Knights  of  the 
Ku  Klux  Klan  in  December  1963  by  Roy  V.  Youn^,  Imperial  Dragon. 
He  was  thereafter  the  leader  of  the  Original  Knights  which  formed 
the  White  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  Mississippi  and  was  elected 
to  the  position  of  province  KBI. 

While  holding  an  office  within  the  White  Knights,  he  joined  the 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 


3047 


United  Klans  of  America,  where  after  he  received  the  appointment  of 
Grand  Dragon,  to  wliich  office  lie  was  hxter  elected. 

In  September  1964,  a  series  of  bombings  was  carried  out  in  Adams 
County,  Mississippi.  These  bombings  resulted  from  actions  taken 
within  a  UKA  Klavern  in  McComb,  Mississippi.  One  of  the  Klans- 
men  involved  was  a  State  officer  of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Mur- 
phy J.  Duncan,  who  held  the  position  of  grand  klabee,  or  treasurer. 
In  spite  of  this,  the  September  28,  196-4,  issue  of  the  Natchez  Democrat 
carried  a  statement  over  the  signature  of  Grand  Dragon  McDaniel 
addressed  to  the  citizens  of  Adams  County  and  read  in  part  as  follows : 

I  would  like  to  take  this  opportunity  to  inform  the  citizens  of  Adams  County 
and  all  parties  concerned  that  the  United  Klan  of  America  does  not  condone 
nor  advocate  the  bombings  which  took  place  last  night,  nor  any  of  the  previous 
acts  which  have  created  strife  and  turmoil  in  our  city  although  the  Klan  has 
been  accused  of  them.     The  Klan  has  nothing  to  gain  by  such  acts. 

(Document  marked  "Edward  McDaniel  Exhibit  No.  1"  follows:) 

Edward  McDaniel  Exhibit  No.  1 

{Natchez  (Miss.)  Democrat,  September  28,  1964] 


Klan  Denies 
Any  Part  In 
Bombings 


E.  L.  McDaniel.  Grand  Drag- 
on me  uimeu  ivian  of  America, 
Realm  oi  Mississippi.,  yester- 
day issued  a  signed  statement 
in  which  he  denied  that  the 
Klan  ill  Aciams  County  atid  Nat- 
chez; have  had  any  part  in 
bombings  or  other  acts  which 
have  created  slriie  and  turmoil 
in  Natchez. 

He  stated  further  that  "The 
United  Kl.iii  of  AineriC)  dr)rs  iirit 
condone  nor  arivocatr  <he  bomb- 
iiig.s    which    took    })'  '^ 

daj-  night,   nor  aii% 

JfiU:^       ;.i   t?       'Ahit  il 


strife   and   turmoil   in  Oiir  city." 
The  complete  statement  of  Mr. 
McDaniel  is  as  follows; 

September  26,   1964 
To    the    Citizens    of    .\dams 
County: 

I  would  like  to  take  this  op- 
portunity to  inform  tlie  citizens 
of  Adams  County  and  all  part- 
ies conccrnied  that  the  United 
Klan  of  America  does  not  con- 
done nor  advocate  the  bombings 
which  took  place  la.st  night'  nor 
any  of  the  previous  acts  which 
have  created  strife  and  turmoil 
in  our  city,  although  the  Klan 
has  been  accused  of  them.  Ttie 
Klan     hri<     nnthmg     lo    gain    by 


l)rag(jn, 


Mr.  Appell.  Following  arrest  by  the  Mississippi  Highway  Safety 
Patrol  of  the  UKA  Klansmen,  the  Natchez  Klavem,  which  had  be^n 
incorporated  under  the  Adams  County  Civic  &  Betterment  Associa- 
tion, passed  a  resolution  deploring  what  the  resolution  described  as 
"unlawful  arrest  and  search  by  the  State  Highway  Patrol,"  and  an- 
nounced the  launching  of  a  campaign  to  raise  funds.  ( See  Paul  Foster 
Exhibit  No.  3,  pp.  2999, 3000.) 

The  president  of  the  Klavern  front  organization  was  Paul  Foster, 
the  first  chaplain  of  the  White  Knights,  then  the  exalted  cyclops  of 
the  Klavern,  and  now  Grand  Klaliff  of  the  United  Klans  of  America, 
Realm  office. 


3048  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S. 

McDaniel  in  January  1965  criticized  other  State  units  of  the  United 
Klans  of  America  for  not  sending  financial  support  to  defend  Klans- 
men  arrested  in  Mississippi.  He  said  only  $300  had  been  sent  to 
Mississippi  from  other  States  and  $162  from  the  imperial  office. 
McDaniel  stated  that  about  $3,000  had  been  collected  for  the  defense 
of  some  40  Klansmen  arrested  in  Mississippi.  In  spite  of  this,  he 
issued  a  statement  which  appeared  in  the  CJarlon-Ledger,  Jackson, 
Mississippi,  April  1,  1965,  in  which  after  welcoming  the  investigation 
by  the  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  he  was  quoted  as  saying, 
"I  have  always  advocated  nonviolence  and  will  continue  to  do  so." 

(Document  marked  "Edward  McDaniel  Exhibit  No.  2"  follows:) 

Edward  McDaniel  Exhibit  No.  2 

Jackson,  Miss.,  Clarion-Ledger ,  April  1,  1965] 

Grand  Draeon         ""  '"^^  v\\xsid%  existed,  i 

c5  would  know  about  them." 

To  Welcome  \.^^''^%\  "^^  ^^"'?  '^'l^ 

I  that  the  Klan  was  not  in  the 

Investigation  l^^t  tradition  of  Americanisin. 

c9  "I  would  hope  that  Mr.  Willu 

NATCHEZ  (fl  —  The  Grand  [  has  not  formed  an  opinion  be- 
Dragon  of  the  Mis.sissip^i '  fore  investigation  of  the  truth. 
Realm  of  the  United  Klans  of  i  "I  hope  that  at  the  conclu- 
America  said  here  he  "wel-  j  sion  of  the  investigation,  the 
corned  an  investigation  of  the  I  Klan  can  continue  to  hold  his 
KKK."  i  committee  in  high  esteem  as  a 

E.  L.  McDaniel  of  Natchez '  great  committee  for  Ameri- 
made  the  conmient  after  Rep.  I  canism." 
Edwon  Willis,  D  -  La.,  chair-  McDaniel  said  he  urged  all 
man  of  the  house  UnAmerican  \  Mississippians  to  ignore  the  ag- 
Activities  committee  announc-  !  itatorg  who  are  plaguing  the 
ed  his  group  would  look  intc  state.  He  called  for  calm, 
activities    of     the     Klan.     the  :      "I    have    always    advocated 


Black  Muslims  and  others. 
I      McDaniel   said    he    had    no 
knowledge  of  tfie  so  -  eaiiea 
f'squads"    that    WiUia    talked 
about  In  announcing  Hm  probe. 


nonviolence    and   will   continue 
to  do  so." 

McDaniel  heads  an  organiza- 
tion which  has  an  estimated 
membership  of  400. 


In  May  1965,  an  election  of  State  officers  was  held  at  the  Eola 
Hotel,  Natchez,  Mississippi,  under  the  cover  name  of  Mississippi 
Kescue  Service.  A  caucus  of  imperial  officers  and  Grand  Dragons 
from  many  realms  was  also  held. 

Mississippi  officers  elected  were  E.  L.  McDaniel,  Grand  Dragon; 
P.  L.  Foster,  Grand  KlalifF;  Charles  Dickson,  klokard ;  W.  W.  Gwinn, 
G-w-i-n-n,  grand  kludd;  Charles  Stewart,  grand  kligrapp;  John 
Dawson,  grand  klabee;  F.  B.  Brown,  grand  kladd;  B.  W.  Waldrup, 
outer  guard;  Henry  Neese,  inner  guard,  and  Myron  Wayne  "Jack" 
Seale,  grand  night-hawk. 

Henry  Neese  was  replaced  by  Doyle  Murray  and  L.  C.  Murray  was 
appointed  to  the  position  of  field  secretary  to  the  Grand  Dragon. 
Appointed  to  the  offices  of  great  titan  were  Dexter  Lamar  Torrance, 
of  Meridian,  and  Charles  James  Seal  of  Crossroads,  Mississippi. 

On  July  10,  1965,  a  public  rally  was  held  at  S-u-q-u-o-l-e-n-a  Race 
Track  near  Meridian.     McDaniel  introduced  the  Neshoba  County 


ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3049 

Sheriff  Lawrence  Rainey,  who  had  been  arrested  following  the  murder 
of  the  three  civil  rights  workers  in  Philadelphia. 

On  July  22, 1965,  Sheriff  Rainey  w\as  again  introduced  by  McDaniel, 
this  time  at  a  public  rally  near  Greenville,  Mississippi.  Imperial 
Wizard  Shelton  shared  the  platform  w^ith  Sheriff  Rainey  on  this 
meeting  and  the  one  on  July  10. 

This  information,  Mr.  Chairman,  indicates  that  Mr.  McDaniel  pos- 
sesses additional  information  which  is  both  pertinent  and  relevant  to 
this  inquiry  and  would  materially  aid  the  Congress  in  enacting  reme- 
dial legislation. 

Mr.  Wfxtner.  Mr.  McDaniel,  you  have  heard  the  statement  of  the 
committee's  investigator.  I  give  you  an  opportunity  to  reply  to  that 
statement,  to  confirm  or  challenge  the  accuracy  of  the  information,_or 
explain  part  of  it.  You  may  offer,  if  you  desire,  any  additional  in- 
formation you  deem  relevant. 

Do  you  have  any  matter  you  wish  to  present  to  the  committee  at 
this  time  ? 

Mr.  McDaniel.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question, 
based  on  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  I  am  advising,  Mr.  McDaniel,  absent  your  rebuttal  or 
absent  any  information  which  may  come  to  this  committee  we  will  have 
to  rely  on  the  accuracy  of  this  investigation. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  McDaniel,  I  hold  in  my  hand  a  bulletin  to  units 
of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Post  Office  Box  10753,  Atlanta, 
Georgia,  dated  October  13,  1964,  addressed  "Esteemed  Klanspeople." 
In  part,  it  reads : 

Due  to  the  arrest  of  several  white  Mississippians  who  have  been  charged  in 
connection  with  the  recent  bombings  in  McComb,  Miss.  The  Grand  Dragon  of 
Miss,  advises  me  that  it  is  necessary  to  go  to  the  assistance  of  these  men  who 
have  been  implicated  by  the  press  that  they  are  Klansmen.  However,  the  only 
thing  they  had  concerning  the  Klan  was  a  complimentary  card  of  some  sort. 
As  you  know  we  do  not  condone  nor  advocate  such  acts  of  violence,  but  we 
believe  these  men  are  victims  of  circumstances.  Miss,  needs  your  help  send 
your  donations  to 

E.  L.  McDaniel  G.D.  Miss. 
P.O.  BOX  1341,  NATCHEZ,  MISS. 

This  was  sent  out  by  the  Grand  Dragon,  Calvin  F.  Craig,  of  Georgia. 

Mr.  McDaniel,  did  you  advise  the  Grand  Dragon  that  these  men, 
who  by  their  own  statements  and  by  sworn  testimony  are  members  of 
the  United  Klans  of  America,  that  they  were  not  members  of  the 
United  Klans  of  America  ? 

Mr.  McDaniel.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  on  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Document  marked  "Edward  McDaniel  Exhibit  No.  3"  follows:) 


3050  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Edward  McDaniel  Exhibit  No.  3 

Bulletin   to  Units   of  United   Klans    of  America.    Inc.    asking   for   funds. 

UNITED  KLANS 
OF  A^ERICA     INC . 
P.O.BOX  l'^753 
ATLiNU.GA. 
CCT.13,196U 

Esteemed  KLanspeople; 

Less  than  one  mcnth  new  remains  belpore  the  general  election 
Novenber  3.  The  American  people  by  the  millions  will- go  to  the  polls  and  cast  th 
elr  vote  for  the  onb  they  think  will  be  be  best  f cr  ^ur  beloved  country.  It  is  a 
must  that  you  a  merrfber  of  the  KLan  and  as  a  Patrcric  American  enc:;urge  voters  to 
exeeodsa  their  right  and  go  to  the  polls  and  V^TE.  I  ask  each  and  every  member 
to  work  and  support  their  choice  for  president-be  it  JOHNSCN  or  GTUJ'J'ATER,.... .. 

■'■-     ■  -"--  CtllT'tlf^' campaign  office  of  your  cairiditate  and   ^,ffer  your 

^  needed  help  or  either  you 'ftaii  set  bfeck  and  oomplain  for  the  next  four  years,,,,. 

1965  CEORGIA  STATE  KI/NVOKATION  WLL  BE  HEID  AT  SAtfANNAH.GETRGIA  IN  THE  fTNTH  OF 
JUir,  DATE  WILL  BE  RELEASED  AT  A  L«TER  TIME,  Savanhah  Kl^n  ^  k\  will  be  the  H^ei 
«o  nor  WB  hare  8.months  to  plan  the  savannah  trip  I  feel  sure  many  will  take  thi 
eir  vacation  at  this  time.  We  will  have  another  State  KLonvokation  this  year 
196*1  which  will  bring  us  t^  to  date.  Time  and  place  will  be  put  in  the  next  news 
letter.  Their  will  be  «  nuifcer  rf  positions  up  for  relection  on  the  State  Board, 

BOVHCtS  21  Saturday*  TURRET  SHCGT  at  Sam  Pooles  Place  on  Hway#   81,     6  miles 
north  of  Corington.Ofl,  Benefit  Covington  #38  Klavern. 

COT, 29,     PPM    Old  66  N'side  Dr.and  Marietta  St.Atlanta  will  have  a   naturllzn- 
tlon  all  units  are  invited  to  bring  their  canditates  and  members   (^EN  OIILY) 
E.C,  Cleaper  says  Donuts   and  Q-ffee  will  be  served  also  he  says   tL  bring  y^ur 
robes. 

The  F.B.I,  cnntinuee  to  haresa  the  man  in  Athens, Ga,  they  are  in  still  need  ..f 
finiaiioaful  help. 

I  would  like  for  any  unit  that  haves  any  problems  that  they  cannot  handle  them 
selves  to  write  and  let  the  State  Beard  try  t..  advise  or  cffer  suggestions, But 
let  us  all  understand  that  .all  of  our  tr.ubles   sxq  to  be  handled  in  the  chain 

of  coniwind  as   th^  organization  is   set  up.  That  is  why  we  elect  officers 

In  a  recent  conversation  with  the  Imperial  Wizard  the  pins   ad-  pted  in  3 'ham 
should  be  in  the  hands   of  each  state.   The  G.D.s   office  will  let  y.  u  know  when 
they  are  ready  for  distribution  here  in  Georgia. 

In  the  C'.-mirg  months   let  us  renew  our  faith  in  the  .rganizati'n 
and  atriva  for  UNITY  in  the  UNITED  KLaKS  OF  hMERICA  INC. 

I>ue  to  the  arrest  of  several  white  Mls.'sissippians  who,  have  been  charged  in  confi 
nnaotion  with  the  recent  bindings   in  MoComb.Miss,  The  Grand  Dragon    -f  Miss. 
advises  me  thatit  is   nessesary  to  go  t  ■  the  assistance  of  these  men  whe^  have 
been  imjillcated  by  the  press  that  thay  are  Klansaen.   However  the  only  thing 
they  had  cncering  the   KLan  was  a   ccmplimentary  card  of  some  s^rt.  As  ycu  kno^w 
we  do  n- 1  condrne  nor  advocate  such  acts   of  vioaenGe,but  we  beleive  these  man 
are  victims  of  cireusmstanoeB  .Iftss,  needs  y.ur  help  send  yo.ur  ^o.nations   t 

E.LiKdaniel  G.D.   Mis.n. 

P.r.Bf'X  1341 

NATCHE.Z.IIISS. 

Klanspe'-ple  the  work  that  y^u  d^  In  the  noxt  3  weeks  may  be  the   turning  factcr 
in  the  future  of  this  great  and  glorius  country.  A  ME  R  I  C  h   

THE   KLAN  DID  IT  BEFORE  LET  THE  UNITED 
DO  IT     NfW 

Y.-urs  f'^r  GOD  and  Gauntry 
Calvin  F.Craig 


ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S.  3051 

Mr.  Appell.  Is  the  deceit  of  the  United  Klans  of  America  about 
its  nonviolent  position  which  it  gives  to  the  general  public  also  com- 
parable to  the  deceit  which  it  gives  to  its  own  members  with  respect  to 
violence  of  its  membership  ? 

Mr.  McDaniel.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  McDaniel,  did  you  attend — I  put  it  to  you  as  a 
fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny  the  fact,  that  you  attended  a  public 
rally  of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Kealm  of  Louisiana,  held  at  the 
West  Monroe  Fairgrounds,  West  Monroe,  Louisiana,  on  December  6, 
1964  ?     I  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny  that  fact. 

Mr.  McDaniel.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  advise  Klansmen  there  that  you  had,  you  and 
your  lieutenants  that  accompanied  you,  had  to  return  to  Natchez, 
Mississippi,  because  Imperial  Wizard  Shelton  was  in  Mississippi  con- 
tacting United  Klans  units  in  that  State  about  raising  money  to  defend 
the  individuals  arrested  by  the  FBI  on  the  murder  of  the  civil  rights 
workers  the  previous  summer. 

Mr.  McDaniel.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  have  no  further  questions,  Mr.  Chairman. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  McDaniel,  according  to  our  investigation,  you 
had  placed  in  the  public  press  in  September  1964  a  statement  to  the 
ejffect  that  you  wished  to  inform  all  parties  concerned  that  the  United 
Klan  does  not  condone  or  advocate  bombing.  I  want  to  ask  you  today, 
Mr.  McDaniel,  does  the  United  Klan  condone  or  advocate  bombing? 

Mr.  McDaniel.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  How  many  members  are  there  of  the  Mississippi 
Kealm  of  the  United  Klans  of  America  ? 

Mr.  McDaniel.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  In  April  of  this  year,  according  to  our  investigation, 
you  issued  a  statment  welcoming  this  inquiry  by  the  House  Com- 
mittee on  Un-American  Activities. 

Now  in  connection  with  that,  you  stated,  I  believe,  "I  have  always 
advocated  nonviolence  and  will  continue  to  do  so." 

I  would  like  to  know,  Mr.  McDaniel,  today  whether  or  not  you  as 
the  chief  executive  officer  of  the  Mississippi  Realm  of  the  United  Klans 
of  America  do  advocate  nonviolence  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  do  not  intend  to  correct  the  Chair, 
but  I  believe  the  Chair  said  in  April  of  this  year.  I  believe  it  was 
April  of  last  year. 

Mr.  Weltner.  April  1965.     Thank  you,  Mr.  Chalmers. 

With  that  correction,  I  would  ask  the  witness  whether  or  not  he 
does  advocate  nonviolence. 

Mr.  McDaniel.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  How  much  money  was  collected  for  the  defense  of 
Klansmen  involved  in  several  legal  proceedings  in  Mississippi  pur- 
suant to  this  bulletin  issued  by  Grand  Dragon  of  Georgia  and  other 
efforts  among  the  other  Klans? 


3052  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S. 

Mr.  MgDaniel.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question, 
based  upon  the  ground  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Do  you  know  Lawrence  Rainey,  the  sheriff  of 
Neshoba  County,  Mississippi  ? 

Mr.  McDaniel.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  McDaniel,  was  there  not  broadcast  widely  in 
this  country  a  CBS  television  documentary  on  September  17,  1965, 
wherein  you  introduced  Sheriff  Rainey  on  the  platform  of  the  public 
gathering  of  the  Mississippi  Realm  of  the  United  Klans  of  America  ? 
Isn't  that  a  fact  ? 

Mr.  McDaniel.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Is  Sheriff  Rainey  a  member  of  the  United  Klans 
of  America? 

Mr.  McDaniel.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Did  you  invite  Sheriff  Rainey  to  make  an  investi- 
gation of  the  United  Klans  of  America  as  indicated  on  that  television 
program  ? 

Mr.  McDaniel.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  McDaniel,  did  you  discuss  with  any  of  the 
following  parties  their  appearance  before  this  committee  today :  Paul 
Dewey  Wilson,  Murphy  Duncan,  Emery  Lee?  Did  you  have  any 
discussion  with  any  of  these  parties  as  to  their  appearance  before  this 
committee  ? 

Mr.  McDaniel.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question, 
based  on  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Do  you  have  some  further  questions,  Mr.  Appell  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes. 

Mr.  McDaniel,  someone  mailed  to  the  committee  a  clipping  from 
a  newspaper  which  I  believe  to  be  a  Jackson,  Mississippi,  paper, 
which  carries  a  caption,  "Over  100  Crosses  Burned  In  State." 

The  article  sets  forth  that  this,  according  to  the  Mississippi  High- 
way Patrol,  was  strictly  a  planned  operation  by  the  United  Klans 
of  America  and  I  quote: 

"Klansmen  were  advised  a  week  or  so  in  advance  to  take  part  in  this  protest 
burning,  which  was  in  protest  of  the  House  Un-American  activities  committee 
hearings  which  resumed  Tuesday." 

I  ask  you  if  you  as  the  Grand  Dragon  ordered  these  series  of  cross- 
burnings  and  what  did  you  hope  to  accomplish  by  them  ? 

Mr.  McDaniel.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question 
based  upon  the  groands  previously  stated. 

(Document  marked  "Edward  McDaniel  Exhibit  No.  4"  follows:) 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 


3053 


Edward  McDaniel  Exhibit  No.  4 
I  Unidentified  Mississippi  newspaper  of  January  5, 


1966) 


Over  100  Crosses 
Burned  In  State 


By  JOHN  HALL 
Associated  Press  Writer 


la  pickup  truck  opened  fire  off- 
FBI  agents  sockin;:  ,i.e  Iscense 
'tag    numbpf    o-    their    pickup 


Officials  said  Tuesday  prob-; truck  after  tiie  .Tiea  drrvpped  a 
ably  over  100  crosses  were  set j burning  coss  'efore  tiie  Ben- 
aflame  from  one  end  of  Misiis-jton  Countv  Cit.vens  Ciuh  huild- 
sippi  to  the  other  Monday  night  mg  a  CiviJ  Rights  headquarter?'. 
in  a  nearly  .vunultaneous  Kui  Bobby  Byrd,  22,  and  Allen 
Klux  Klan  operation  protesting  j  Byrd,  both'  of  Benton  county, 
resumption  of  Congressional  in- ;  were  arrested  and  charged  with 
vestigation  of  the  KKK.  j  assault. 

Gunfire  between  officer  andj  FBI,  Highway  Patrol  and 
clandestine  cross  -  burners  was  t  county  officers  chased  the  pick- 
reported  in  at  least  two  places, '  up  to  Allen  Byrd's  farm  and 
and  at  least  eight  men  were  ar-  captured      Bobby      in     nearb} 


rested  in  three  places 

Tne   Hicln^    -   "  •' 
was  posr.i'. 
were  buriKu 
that  got  underway  arm 
Monday  night 

Another  report  came  from  anj 


ix)d.s.  Allen  turned  himself  in 
I'Mesday. 

The  patrol  said  crosses  and 
expended  .W  caliber  and  shot- 
gun ammunition  were  found  in 
the  pickup  truck. 

In  another  Meridian  incident. 


official  who  diriinod  to  be  (police  arrested  five  men  on 
quoted  by  name  said  nearly  100  ' 
crosses  had  bee;i  reported  and 
more  were  expected  and  "prob- 
ably a  very  few  were  never  ob- 
served. The^p  )'•'"  minimum 
figuri  ^  ■  : 


ha\ 
He 

a     p: 


week 
part 
which 
House 


re- 


A<tij   in   proU:s 
Un-American 
committee  hearings    ' 
sumed  Tuesday." 

0  group  of  men  met  gunfire 
when    thev    tossed    a    flaming 


charges  of  con.-^iracy  to  com 
mit  a  crime  after  a  kerosene- 
soaked  cross  was  discovered  in 
their  pickup  truck. 

OUT  O.N  BOND 
The  men.  wiio  were  re- 
leased on  5i5O0  bond,  were  iden- 
afied  as  Mack  Holdiness,  41. 
Thomas  L.  Cockrell,  32.  Charles 
'  May  25,  Charles  Kenr.eth  Har- 
ri.son  31,  and  Robert  Broad- 
V  -  ,>i"  Meridian 

.'lso   reported    at 
'     ■   .,:       :  -.n  was  arrested  at 
tiie  I  Pontotoc     ;n    connection     with 
vilies' crosses.    Several   persons   were 


surprised    just     inside     Monti- 
cello  burning  a  cross,  but  Uiere 
were  no  arrests. 
_     Cro^.ses  burntxl  by  county  In 

cross  m  the  yard  of  the  home!  a  partial  list,  officials  reported. 

of  Meridian    Attorney    William !  showed    Pt-arl    River    with    15, 


M-- 
stake 

Ready   ; ...:...:.   _      -'  j 

twice'wi'n  a  ■ihotgun,  but  ;:  was 
not  knov-n  if  they  hit  any  cross- 
bun»OTS. 


Washington  11.  Winston  10,  Lau- 

k'fdale  liuhr,  Hinds  seven.  Pike 

von,   Mar->ha]l    six.    Choctaw 

:.e,  Clarke  five,  Pontotoc  four, 

Sharkey    four,    Adams    four. 

Wa\Tie    four,    Benton    three. 

''lay  three,  Lincoln  Uiree,  Jones 


In  North  Mississippi,  men  in.l  three  and  Lowndes  two. 


Official? 
one   cros= 

i.e:ikn.     !" 

Tippah     ,,- 

;)nd  seve'\.  ... 

iN.n.    The>    iaw    .lyuit;^    w.-rt-    ^ 

•nmimum. 

The  crosses  generally  ap- 
()eared  in  front  of  desegregated 
school  or  at  other  public  places, 
such  as  courth<wses  and  on- 
highways  and  streets,  particu- 
larly at  intersections. 

GOT  INSTRUCTIONS 
The  official  wlio  reported  the 
j  figure  of  100  said  Klansmen 
i  were  instructed  to  put  the  cross- 
!es  in  public  places  and  "if  they 
!  decided  to  go  down  and  put  it 
I  in  front  of  the  house  of  one  of 
.'his  enemies  that  was  that." 
;  The  FBI  said  federal  charges 
:  of  assaultir^  an  officer  had 
I  not  been  placed  against  the 
men  arrested  in  Benton  county. 
The  offense  carries  a  penalty  of 
10  years  in  prison  and  $10,000 
fine  as  a  maximum  if  a  deadly 
;  weapon  s  used. 
■j  In  Jackson,  crosses  appeared 
!  aflame  in  front  of  six  desegre- 
i  gated  schools  and  the  city's  Ne- 
I  gro  .Municipal  Aoditorom  at 
I  College  Park. 

i  The  &.hools  were  Murrah, 
jProvme  and  Central  High 
!  schools  and  Robert  E.  l«e. 
I  Bar^  and  George  Elementary 
j  schov>ls. 

i  In  WashingUm  county,  a^tho^ 
\  itJes  attributed  the  cross43um- 
ings  to  the  United  Klans  of 
;  America  and  said  tticy  probably 
;  know  identities  of  the  Klansmen 
involved. 

Witnesses,  they  said,  saw  two 
carloads  of  men  stop  and  burn 
a  cross  after  donning  KKK 
robes  and  hoods. 

Other    crosses    in    Meridian 
were  set  aflartie  at  the  home 
of  Mayor  Al  Key,  Meridian  City- 
Junior  College  and  Marion  Park 
;  Elementary  School.    Tlie    tun 
i  schools    have    Negro    students 
i  along  with  whites. 


Mr,  Appell.  Mr.  McDaniel,  the  Philadelphia  Bulletin  of  December 
24,  1965,  states  that  the  Grand  Dragon  of  the  Mississippi  Ku  Klux 
Klan  last  night  had  Natchez  Police  Chief  J.  T.  Robinson  arrested  on 
a  charge  of  failing  to  enforce  the  law. 


3054 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 


And  the  article  stated  that  lie  was  so  arrested,  and  I  ask  you,  Mr. 
McDaniel,  as  Grand  Dragon,  whether  this  charge  of  failing  to  perform 
a  duty,  which  any  citizen  can  perform  under  Mississippi  law,  was 
designed  by  you  to  remove  from  the  leadership  of  the  police  depart- 
ment a  police  chief  who  was  anti-Klan  in  order  to  have  promoted 
members  of  the  United  Klans  of  America  who  were  members  of  that 
police  force  ? 

Mr.  McDaniel.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question 
on  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Document  marked  "Edward  McDaniel  Exhibit  No.  5"  follows:) 

Edward  McDaniel  Exhibit  No.  5 
[Philadelphia,  Pa.,  Bulletin,  December  24,  1965] 


Klan  Charge 
Brings  Arrest 
Of  Police  Chief 

Grand  Dragon  Says 
Natchez  Official 
Failed  in  Duty 

Natchez,  Miss.,  Dec.  24  — 
(UPI)— The  grand  dragon  of  the 
Vlississippi  Ku  Klux  Klan  last 
flight  had  Natchez  Police  Chief 
r.  T.  Robinson  arrested  on  a 
:harge  of  failing  to  enforce  the 
aw. 

In  Mississippi,  anyone  can 
sign  an  affidavit  and  have  a  man 
arrested,  and  does  not  have  to' 
substantiate  his  charge  until  .a 
•ater  hearing. 

Robinson    was    arrested    by 


Sheriff  Odell  Anders  and  re- 
leased on  a  $100  bond. 

There  was  no  official  explan- 
ation of  the  charges,  but  Robin- 
son said  grand  dragon  E.  L.  Mc- 
Daniel, a  Natchez  resident,  had 
becii  urging  him  to  arrest  civil 
rights  leaders  under  a  state  anti- 
boycott  law. 

Negros  have  renewed  a  boy- 
cott of  Natchez  merchants  .be- 
cause, they  claim,  two  police- 
men unnecessarily  beat  Negroes 
in  a  racial  flareup  on  Wednes- 
day. The'boycott  had  been  called 
off  Dec.  3  when  22  merchants 
agreed  to  hire  Negro  clerks. 

Reprieve  for  Negroes 

Baton  Rouge,  La.,  Dec.  24  — 
(AP)  —  U.  S.  District  Judge  E. 
Gordon  West  late  yesterday  is- 
sued a  restraining  order  to  keep 
Negro  sharecroppers  in  West 
Feliciana  Parish  from  being 
evicted  by  their  white  landlords 
until  the  court  can  decide  wheth- 
er they  are  being  harassed  for 
registering  to  vote. 


(At  this  point  Mr.  Senner  entered  the  hearing  room.) 

Mr.  Appell.  James  K.  Greer  in  a  statement  given  to  the  Mississippi 
Highway  Patrol,  identified  as  a  man  he  knew  to  be  a  Klansman  Cap- 
tain Wisner  of  that  police  department.  Was  your  action  against 
Chief  Robinson  designed  to  promote  Captain  Wisner  ? 

Mr.  McDaniel.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  have  no  further  questions. 

Mr.  Weltner.  One  further  matter. 

Mr.  McDaniel,  you  were  directed  by  the  committee  to  produce  the 
documents  referred  to  in  paragraph  2  of  the  subpena  served  upon  you. 
I  extend  to  you  at  this  point  the  opportunity  to  make  known  to  this 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  3055 

committee  any  reason  why  yon  might  be  unable  to  produce  those 
documents.  You  do  have  that  opportunity  at  this  point  to  state,  if 
that  be  the  case,  under  oath  that  you  are  unable  to  comply  with  the 
subpena  by  virtue  of  the  fact  that,  if  that  is  the  case,  that  you  do  not 
have  possession  or  you  do  not  have  any  such  records  in  your  custody 
or  control  or  that  they  are  not  available  to  you. 

You  now  have  that  opportunity  if  you  so  desire. 

Mr.  Chalmers.  I  am  not  certain  whether  that  is  a  question  or  not, 
Mr.  Chairman. 

Mr.  Weltner.  It  is  not  a  question,  it  is  an  opportunity  I  am  giving 
tlie  witness  at  this  point,  if  he  so  desires,  to  state  that  or  to  bring  that 
matter  to  the  committee's  attention.  I  make  that  offer  in  view  of  the 
action  that  the  House  of  Representatives  took  on  yesterday  with  re- 
gard to  similar  requirements  of  this  committee. 

Hearing  no  response  by  the  witness  or  his  counsel,  I  will  assume 
that  he  does  not  desire  to  make  any  statement  at  this  point. 

Mr.  Senner.  Mr.  Chairman. 

Mr.  McDaniel,  do  you  have  in  your  possession  or  control  the  docu- 
ments or  records  called  for  by  this  subpena  in  paragraph  2  as  ordered 
by  the  chairman  of  this  committee  to  he  produced  at  this  point  ? 

Mr.  McDaniel.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Senner.  Do  you  have  any  knowledge  of  where  those  records 
might  be  so  that  you  can  easily  obtain  them  and  furnish  them  to  this 
committee  to  comply  with  the  subpena  and  the  order  of  the  chairman 
of  this  committee  ? 

Mr.  McDaniel.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  on  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

]V[r.  Weltner.  There  being  no  further  questions,  the  vsdtness  will 
be  excused. 

The  committee  will  stand  in  recess  until  10  a.m.  tomorrow,  and  the 
place  of  meeting  of  the  subcommittee  will  be  in  the  House  Caucus 
Room  in  the  Cannon  Office  Building. 

I  might  announce  that  the  area  to  be  inquired  into  tomorrow  will 
be  with  regard  to  the  State  of  Alabama. 

(Wliereupon,  at  4:20  p.m.,  Thursday,  February  3,  1966,  the  subcom- 
mittee recessed,  to  reconvene  at  10  a.m.,  Friday,  February  4,  1966.) 


59-222  O — 67— pt.  4- 


ACTIVITIES  OF  KU  KLUX  KLAN  ORGANIZATIONS  IN 
THE  UNITED  STATES 

Part  4 


FRIDAY,  FEBRUARY  4,  1966 

United  States  House  of  Representatives, 

Subcommittee  of  the 
Committee  on  Un-American  Activities, 

Washington^  D.O. 

PUBLIC  HEARINGS 

The  subcommittee  of  the  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities,  as 
reconstituted  for  the  February  4  hearings,  met,  pursuant  to  recess, 
at  10:20  a.m.  in  the  Caucus  Room,  Cannon  House  Office  Building, 
Washington,  D.C.,  Hon.  Charles  L.  Weltner  (chairman  of  the  sub- 
committee) presiding. 

(Subcommittee  members:  Representatives  Charles  L.  Weltner,  of 
Georgia,  chairman;  John  M.  Ashbrook,  of  Ohio;  and  John  H. 
Buchanan,  Jr.,  of  Alabama.) 

Subcommittee  members  present:  Representatives  Weltner  and 
Buchanan, 

Staff  members  present:  Francis  J.  McNamara,  director;  William 
Hitz,  general  counsel ;  Alfred  M.  Nittle,  counsel ;  Donald  T.  Appell, 
chief  investigator ;  and  Phillip  R.  Manuel,  investigator. 

Mr.  Weltner.  The  subcommittee  will  come  to  order. 

I  file  for  the  record  at  this  point  a  designation  of  a  subcommittee 
consisting  of  myself  as  chairman,  Messrs.  Ashbrook  and  Buchanan  as 
associate  members,  for  the  purpose  of  conducting  hearings  on  Friday, 
February  4.  A  quorum  of  that  subcommittee  is  present,  and  Mr.  Ap- 
pell, you  will  call  your  first  witness. 

(The  order  of  appointment  of  the  subcommittee  follows:) 

February  2,  1966. 
To  Mr.  Francis  J.  McNamara, 
Director,  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities: 

Pursuant  to  the  provisions  of  tlie  law  and  the  Rules  of  this  Committee,  I 
hereby  appoint  a  subcommittee  of  the  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  con- 
sisting of  Honorable  Charles  L.  Weltner  as  Chairman,  and  Honorable  John  M. 
Ashbrook  and  Honorable  John  Buchanan  as  associate  members,  to  conduct  hear- 
ings in  Washington,  D.C.  on  Friday,  February  4,  1966,  as  contemplated  by  the 
resolution  adopted  by  the  Committee  on  the  30th  day  of  March,  1965,  authoriz- 
ing hearings  concerning  the  activities  of  the  various  Ku  KIux  Klan  organiza- 
tions in  the  United  States. 

Please  make  this  action  a  matter  of  Committee  record. 

If  any  member  indicates  his  inability  to  serve,  please  notify  me. 

Given  under  my  hand  this  2nd  day  of  February,  1966. 

/s/    Edv?in  B.  Willis, 
Edwin  E.  Willis, 
Chairman,  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities. 

3057 


3058  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Charles  J.  Seal?  Would  his  attorney  come 
forward  ? 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Chalmers,  you  are  appearing  here  on  behalf  of 
the  witness,  Charles  J.  Seal? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir,  I  am,  Mr.  Chairman.  Yesterday  I  re- 
ceived a  telegram  from  Dr.  W.  F.  Stringer  of  Poplarville,  Mississippi, 
who  has  been  appointed  by  the  Veterans'  Administration  to  look  after 
this  ex-veteran  witli  respect  to  a  heart  condition  that  he  has. 

Now  the  telegram  that  I  received  yesterday  afternoon  after  the 
hearing  was  recessed,  I  did  not  feel  was  satisfactory,  so  1  bnd  Mv. 
Seal  contact  Dr.  Stringer  again,  and  this  telegram  was  received  this 
morning : 

Charles  J.  Seals 

Room  522  Congress  Motel,  Wash.,  D.C. 

Mr.  Seals,  in  addition  to  the  information  sent  you  this  morning  I  believe 
that  it  would  be  against  your  health  to  be  required  to  testify  in  any  stressful 
.situation.  ,     ' 

W.  P.  Stringer,  M.D. 

Mr.  Weltner.  You  are  asking  the  committee  to  excuse  the  witness 
on  the  basis  of  that  message? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir;  I  am,  and  may  I  say  this  for  the  record 
and  for  the  chairman's  information? 

This  young  man  has  had  about  six  heart  attacks,  as  I  understand, 
and  he  is  under  constant  supervision  of  the  Veterans'  Administration, 
through  the  Dr.  Stringer  that  they  have  asked  for. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Well,  without  objection,  the  telegram  of  the  physi- 
cian will  be  made  a  part  of  the  record  and  this  witness  w^ll  be  excused. 

You  are  excused,  Mr.  Seal. 

Call  your  next  witness,  Mr.  Appell. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Robert  Sidney  Thomas. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Do  you  swear  the  testimony  you  will  give  in  this 
hearing  will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth, 
so  help  you  God? 

Mr.  Robert  Thomas.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Be  seated. 

Proceed,  Mr.  Appell. 

TESTIMONY  OF  ROBERT  SIDNEY  THOMAS,  ACCOMPANIED  BY 
COUNSEL,  LESTER  V.  CHALMERS,  JR. 

Mr.  Appell.  Would  you  state  your  full  name  for  the  record? 

Mr.  Robert  Thomas.  Robert  Sidney  Thomas. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  appearing  here  today  in  accordance  with  a 
subpena  served  upon  you  at  2802  Second  Place,  Northwest,  Center 
Point,  Birmingham,  Alabama,  on  the  3d  day  of  November  1965  by 
a  deputy  United  States  marshal  ? 

Mr.  Robert  Thomas.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  represented  by  counsel  ? 

Mr.  Robert  Thomas.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  counsel  identify  himself  for  the  record? 

Mr.  Chalmp^rs.  Lester  V.  Chalmers,  Jr.,  attorney  at  law,  Room  501, 
First  Federal  Building,  Raleigh,  North  Carolina. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S.  3059 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Thomas,  the  subpeiia  served  upon  you  contained 
an  attachment  Avhich  was  made  a  part  of  the  subpena,  and  according 
to  the  terms  of  the  subpena,  you  were  directed  to  bring  with  you  and 
to  produce  documents  set  forth  in  paragraph  1  of  the  subpena  which 
reads  as  follows: 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  relating  to  the 
organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  business  and  affairs  of  the  Invisible  Empire, 
United  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also  known  as  the 
United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  and  affiliated 
organizations,  namely,  the  Alabama  Rescue  Service,  Province  #.5,  Realm  of 
Alabama  and  Eastview  Klavern  #13,  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control,  or 
maintained  by  you  o,r  available  to  you  as  Titan,  Province  #.5,  Realm  of  Alabama, 
and  former  Exalted  Cyclops,  Eastview  Klavern  #13  of  the  Invisible  Empire, 
United  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also  known  as  the 
United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan. 

In  the  representative  capacity  set  forth  in  paragraph  1,  I  ask  you 
to  produce  the  documents  called  for. 

Mr.  Robert  Thomas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  com- 
mittee any  and  all  documents  as  demanded  by  the  committee  under 
subpena  dated  October  14,  1965,  for  the  reason  that  I  honestly  feel 
that  to  do  so  might  tend  to  incriminate  me  in  the  violation  of  my 
rights  as  guaranteed  me  by  amendment  5,  1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Consti- 
tution of  the  United  States  of  America. 

I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any  and  all  rec- 
ords as  requested  by  this  committee  under  subpena  dated  October  14, 
1965,  for  that  information  is  not  relevant,  germane  to  the  subject 
under  investigation  and  the  same  would  not  aid  the  Congress  in  a 
consideration  of  any  valid  remedial  legislation,  nor  is  such  inquiry 
within  the  scope  of  that  authorized  by  Rule  XI  of  the  rules  adopted 
by  the  89th  Congress,  by  House  Resolution  8,  adopted  January  4, 1965. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Chalmers  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Mr.  Chairman,  it  is  stipulated  that  the  witness  has 
been  apprised  of  the  chairman's  opening  statement  with  respect  to  the 
matter  and  that  lie  is  familiar  with  the  contents  thereof. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Thomas,  the  committee  does  not  accept  your 
reasons  for  refusing  to  produce  these  documents.  Accordingly,  I 
order  and  direct  you  to  produce  the  documents  required  in  the  para- 
graph just  read  by  the  investigator.  You  are  directed  to  produce 
those  documents  at  this  time. 

Mr.  Robert  Thomas.  Sir,  I  respectively  decline  to  deliver  to  the 
committee  the  documents  heretofore  ordered  by  the  chairman,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Chalmers,  wnll  you  stipulate  also  that  the  direc- 
tions in  the  subpena  to  produce  the  documents  are  those  documents 
maintained  in  an  official  representative  capacity  of  this  witness? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  As  stated  in  the  subpena. 

Mr.  Weltner.  As  stated  in  the  subpena. 

All  right,  Mr.  Appell. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Thomas,  paragraph  2  directs  you  to  produce : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  in  your  posses- 
sion, custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  or  available  to  you,  in  your  capacity 
as  Titan,  Province  #5,  Realm  of  Alabama,  and  former  Exalted  Cyclops,  East- 
view  Klavern  #13  of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux 
Klan,  which  the  "Constitution  and  Laws"  of  said  organization  authorize  and 
require  to  be  maintained  by  you  and  any  other  officer  of  said  organization,  the 
same  being  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control. 


3060  ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S. 

In  the  representative  capacity  set  forth  in  paragraph  2,  Mr.  Thomas, 
I  ask  you  to  produce  the  documents  called  for, 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Robert  Thomas.  Sir,  I  respectively  decline  to  deliver  to  the 
committee  the  documents  requested,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously 
stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Thomas,  I  order  and  direct  you  to  produce  these 
documents,  and  I  inquire  of  Mr.  Chalmers  whether  the  same  stipu- 
lation as  to  the  representative  capacity  stated  in  the  subpena  applies 
in  this  connection. 

Mr.  Chalmers.  It  does,  sir,  and  also  the  familiarity  with  the  chair- 
man's opening  statement. 

Mr.  Weltner.  You  are  directed  to  produce  the  documents,  Mr. 
Thomas. 

Mr.  Robert  Thomas.  Sir,  I  respectively  decline  to  deliver  to  the 
committee  the  documents  ordered  by  the  chairman,  based  upon  the 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Thomas,  when  and  where  were  you  born? 

Mr.  Weltner.  Prior  to  going  into  that,  Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Thomas, 
you  have  at  this  point  an  opportunity  under  oath  to  present  any  rea- 
son to  this  committee  why  you  are  unable  to  produce  documents  called 
for  in  this  subpena.  You  have  that  opportunity  at  this  point :  Either 
that  they  are  not  in  your  possession  or  that  you  have  no  custody  or 
control  over  them  or  you  have  no  access  to  them,  and  you  have  the 
opportunity  to  make  any  statement  to  that  effect  at  this  point. 

Hearing  no  response,  the  investigator  will  proceed. 

Mr.  Appell.  When  and  where  were  you  born,  Mr.  Thomas? 

Mr.  Robert  Thomas.  I  respectively  decline  to  answer  that  question 
for  the  reason  that  I  honestly  feel  any  answer  might  tend  to  incrimi- 
nate me  in  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendment  5,  1,  4,  and 
14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Thomas,  in  May  of  1961,  as  a  member  of  the  Ala- 
bama Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  were  you  involved  in  the  Freedom 
Bus  trouble  that  was  in  Anniston  and  Birmingham  ?  And  in  connec- 
tion with  that,  did  you  have  conversations  with  Imperial  Wizard 
Robert  M.  Shelton? 

Mr.  Robert  Thomas.  Sir,  I  respectively  decline  to  answer  that  ques- 
tion, based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Thomas,  in  a  legal  action  brought  by  Robert  M. 
Shelton  against  the  Tuscaloosa  Newspapers,  Incorporated,  and  Buf ord 
Boone,  et  al.,  during  a  pretrial  deposition  Mr.  Shelton  was  asked: 

In  May,  1961,  this  was  about  the  time  of  the  so-called  Freedom  Bus  trouble 
in  Anniston  and  Birmingham,  a  long  distance  telephone  call  to  your  number  in 
Tuscaloosa  was  charged  to  a  Birmingham  telephone  listed  to  a  Ro'ber't  Thomas. 
Was  Robert  Thomas  at  that  time  a  member  of  the  Klan? 

And  Mr.  Shelton  was  instructed  not  to  answer. 

Did  you,  as  reported  in  the  question,  make  a  long-distance  telephone 
call  to  Robert  Shelton? 

Mr.  Robert  Thomas.  Sir,  I  respectively  decline  to  answer  that  ques- 
tion, based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Excerpt  from  Shelton  deposition  marked  "Robert  Thomas  Ex- 
hibit No.  1"  follows:) 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S.  3061 

Robert  Thomas  Exhibit  No.  1 
ROBXRT    N.     SHBLTOH, 
PIAZMTZrr, 


VS. 

TUSCALOOSA  HKWttAPimS, 

IMC.,  A  COKPCllATZOV, 
BUrORD  BOOKS,  XT  AL. , 

OBPBHDAJfTB. 


ZM  TUS  CZRCUZT  COURT  OP 
TD8CAL008A  COUVTY,  ALABAMA 
AT  LAW 


Cas«  Mo.  19462 


APPBARAMCKS 
OH    BBHALP    OP    PLAZVTZPPt       CROWVOVKR    ft    BURROUOBS 
ON    BEHALP    OP    DIPXlfDAXTS  i    J0MX8.     NoKACHZV.     ORMOVD    4    PULTOV 

Byt   Mr.  Bruca  MaB«chin 


DBPOSZTZOW  OP  ROBBRT  M.  SHBLTOM 
T«X«n  by  0«f«ndanta  b«for«  JIbbI*  R.  Black  aa 
CowBlaalonar  on  Ootobar  14,  1964  in  Rooai  223  of  tha 
County  Courthouaa,  Tuaoaiooaa,  Alabama,  in  accordanoa 
with  tha  proviaions  of  Act  Mo.  375  of  tha  19)5  L,agia- 
latura  of  Alabaaa,  and  purauant  to  tha  following  atipu- 
lationt 

*****       if        * 

Q   Zn  May,  1961,  thia  waa  about  tha  tia«  of  tha  ao-calla^ 
Praadoa  Bua  troubla  in  Anniaton  and  Birninghaa,  a  long 
diatanca  talaphona  oall  to  your  nuabar  in  Tuacalooaa 
waa  chargad  to  a  Birainghaa  talaphona  liatad  to  a 

Robart  Tho»aa.   Waa  Robart  Thomaa  at  that  tima  a  nanbar 

of  tha  Klan? 

MR.  BURROUORSi   Inatruct  bin  not  to 

anawar. 


3062  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Thomas,  do  you  know  (xary  Rowe? 

Mr.  Egbert  Thomas.  Sir,  I  respectively  decline  to  answer  that  ques- 
tion, based  upon  the  <>:rounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  According  to  newspaper  accounts,  Gary  Rowe  testified 
in  a  Title  18,  section  241,  trial  recently  in  Montgomery,  Alabama,  that 
on  your  instruction  that  he.  Collie  Leroy  Wilkins,  Eugene  Thomas, 
and  W.  O.  Eaton  were  sent  on  a  night-riding  mission  in  Selma,  Ala- 
bama.    Was  his  testimony  truthful  ? 

Mr.  Robert  Thomas.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  ques- 
tion, based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  in  view  of  the  witness"  claim  of  privilege 
and  his  consistent  refusal  to  answer  my  questions,  I  present  to  the 
committee  the  results  of  our  investigation  as  they  pertain  to  Robert 
Sidney  Thomas. 

Mr.  Thomas  was  born  on  January  25,  1929,  at  Birmingham,  Ala- 
bama. He  has  received  a  21^  year  high  school  education.  He  served 
in  the  United  States  Marine  Corps  from  August  21,  1946,  to  July  9, 
1948,  and  received  an  honorable  discharge.  He  resides  at  2519  18th 
Avenue,  Birmingham,  Alabama,  and  is  employed  by  Southern  Railroad 
Company,  B i rm ingham. 

In  1963,  Mr.  Thomas  w^as  the  exalted  cyclops  of  Eastview  Klavern 
No.  13,  and  since  1964  has  been  great  titan  of  Province  No.  5,  Realm  of 
Alabama,  which  position  he  currently  holds. 

According  to  the  committee's  investigation,  he  is  one  of  the  most 
influential  Klansmen  in  the  United  Klans  of  America  in  Alabama,  and 
has  the  power  to  dictate  the  appointment  of  Klavern,  realm,  and  even 
imperial  officers. 

Robert  Thomas  was  a  member  of  the  Klan  of  Alabama  at  the  time 
it  was  affiliated  with  the  U.S.  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan, 
under  Eldon  Edwards.  When  the  Alabama  Realm  of  the  U.S.  Klans 
was  expelled  because  of  the  refusal  of  Robert  M.  Shelton  to  make 
accounting  of  funds  and  also  because  Imperial  Wizard  Edwards  was 
imable  to  control  the  violence  of  the  Alabama  Klansmen,  Thomas, 
Shelton,  Hubert  Page,  and  Fredrick  Smith  were  the  leaders  in  the 
creation  of  an  independent  Klan  group  known  as  the  Alabama 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan. 

Many  meetings  in  which  the  primary  discussion  is  that  of  violence 
have  been  held  at  the  residence  of  Robert  Thomas. 

Early  in  1965,  Robert  Thomas  discussed  from  the  floor  of  a  meeting 
of  Eastview  Klavern  No.  13  that,  in  the  future,  members  of  the  orga- 
nization would  adopt  a  new  tactic  in  dealing  with  racial  demonstra- 
tors. Thomas  stated  that  in  the  future,  no  large  number  of  Klansmen 
would  show  up  at  a  demonstration — just  one  or  two  men,  who  would 
appear  on  the  scene,  and  if  able,  would  drop  grenades  out  of  a  second- 
story  window,  or  from  a  rooftop,  into  the  midst  of  demonstrators, 
and  then  calmly  leave  the  area.  Thomas  stated  that,  in  using  this 
tactic,  they  would  considerably  lessen  the  danger  of  having  known 
Klansmen  identified  at  the  scene  of  racial  demonstrations. 

Thomas  ordered  Gary  Rowe,  Collie  Leroy  Wilkins,  Eugene  Thomas, 
and  William  Eaton  to  go  to  Selma,  Alabama,  on  the  night  that  Mrs. 
Viola  Liuzzo  was  murdered. 

Robert  Thomas  attended  a  regular  meeting  of  the  Eastview  Klavern 
on  the  night  of  March  25,  1964.     During  the  meeting,  he  discussed  a 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3063 

forthcoming  religious  service  to  be  conducted  by  Billy  Graham. 
Thomas  announced  he  expected  trouble  after  the  Graham  rally.  He 
pointed  out  that  the  last  two  times  Billy  Graham  had  held  rallies,  he 
had  left  the  Negroes  so  depressed  that  they  demonstrated  after  the 
rallies.  Thomas  expected  that  the  city  or  county  police  would  ask 
Klan  support.  He  therefore  advised  the  then  exalted  cyclops,  Ronald 
Tidwell,  to  have  all  Klan  leaders  "in  pocket." 

September  27,  1964,  a  meeting  was  held  at  the  home  of  Robert 
Thomas,  during  which  a  plan  was  formulated  to  dynamite  and  other- 
wise assault  with  hand  grenades  and  automatic  weapons  a  Negro  night 
club  known  as  the  Flame  Club. 

On  November  8,  1964,  Robert  Thomas  attended  a  meeting  of  the 
Fort  Payne,  Alabama,  Klavern.  On  April  30,  1964,  Robert  Thomas 
appointed  Herbert  Eugene  Reeves  as  the  exalted  cyclops  of  Eastview 
Klavern  No.  13,  replacing  Ronald  Tidwell  in  that  position. 

This  information,  Mr.  Chairman,  indicates  that  Mr.  Thomas  pos- 
sesses additional  information  which  is  both  pertinent  and  relevant  to 
this  inquiry  and  would  materially  aid  the  Congress  in  enacting  re- 
medial legislation. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Thomas,  you  have  heard  the  sworn  statement  of 
the  committee's  investigator.  You  now  have  the  opportunity  to  reply 
to  any  portion  of  that  statement,  to  confirm,  challenge  the  accuracy  of 
the  information,  to  explain  any  part  of  the  statement.  In  addition, 
you  may,  if  you  desire,  offer  any  other  matter  which  the  committee 
deems  relevant.  I  give  you  that  opportunity  now  and  point  out  that 
the  record  of  this  hearing  today,  unless  it  is  rebutted  by  other  evidence 
or  by  yourself,  will  show  that  you  are  the  party  responsiJDle  for  the 
presence  in  Selma  of  four  men,  who  have  since  been  convicted  of  in- 
volvement in  one  of  the  most  notorious  and  brutal  murders  in  the  last 
decade.  So  you  have  that  opportunity  at  this  point,  to  make  any 
statement  that  you  wish  to  make. 

The  witness  remains  silent,  and  upon  that  choice  by  the  Avitness,  I 
must  advise  him  that  unless  other  evidence  comes  to  the  attention  of  the 
committee,  then  we  will  rely  upon  the  accuracy  of  this  investigation. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Thomas,  to  your  certain  knowledge,  have  members 
of  the  United  Klans  of  America  been  deputized  in  either  the  State 
highway  patrol  and  the  sheriff's  departments  or  police  departments 
throughout  Province  No.  5  ? 

Mr.  Robert  Thomas.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question 
for  the  reasons  that  I  honestly  feel  that  my  answer  might  tend  to 
incriminate  me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by 
amendment  5,  1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of 
America. 

Mr.  Appell.  With  respect  to  the  Klavern  at  Fort  Payne,  Alabama, 
Mr.  Thomas,  do  you  know  the  officers  of  that  Klavern  to  now  be 
George  D.  Killian,  K-i-1-l-i-a-n,  of  Route  1,  Portersville,  Alabama; 
Guton,  G-u-t-o-n,  H.  Tutor,  T-u-t-o-r,  of  600  South  Alabama  Avenue, 
Fort  Payne;  and  Cecil  King  of  706  Turner  Avenue,  Fort  Payne? 

Mr.  Robert  Thomas.  Sir,  I  respectively  decline  to  answer  that  ques- 
tion, based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Thomas,  do  you  know  of  the  existence  within  the 
State  of  Alabama  of  an  Imperial  Klokann  Committee  ? 


3064  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Robert  Thomas.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  ques- 
tion, based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact  that  it  is  the  responsibility  of 
the  klokann  committee  to  carry  out  acts  of  violence  deemed  necessary 
by  Klaveni  leaders  or  by  Klaverns  themselves,  or  realm  or  imperial 
officers. 

Mr.  Robert  Thomas.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  ques- 
tion, based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated, 

Mr.  Appell.  Do  you  know  Ralph  Roton  to  be  a  member — Let  me 
name  them  all.  Do  you  know  Ralph  Roton,  Herbert  Eugene  Reeves, 
Cecil  Henson,  Eugene  Thomas,  Madison  Hill,  and  Ronald  Tidwell 
to  be  members  of  the  Imperial  Klokami  Committee  ? 

Mr.  Robert  Thomas.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Do  you  possess  knowledge  of  the  bombing  of  the  16th 
Street  Baptist  Church  in  1963,  at  which  four  young  girls  were  killed  ? 

Mr.  Robert  Thomas.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Do  you  know  J.  B.  St  oner '^ 

Mr.  Robert  Thomas.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  ever  confer  with  J.  B.  Stoner  with  respect  to 
an  act  of  violence  which  would  be  carried  out  by  members  of  the 
United  Klans  of  America  ? 

Mr.  Robert  Thomas.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  ques- 
tion, based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Cliairman,  the  staff  has  no  further  questions  to 
ask  Mr.  Thomas. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Thomas,  did  you  in  fact  direct  Gary  Rowe, 
Collie  Leroy  Wilkins,  and  others  to  Selma,  Alabama,  on  the  night 
that  Mrs.  Viola  Liuzzo  was  killed  ? 

Mr.  Robert  Thomas.  Sir,  1  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Did  you  have  any  telephone  conversations  with 
those  four  men,  subsequent  to  the  shooting  of  Mrs.  Liuzzo  ? 

Mr.  Robert  Thomas.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Buchanan  ? 

Mr.  Buchanan.  Mr.  Chairman,  since  this  witness  is  from  the 
Realm  of  Alabama,  as  are  other  witnesses  about  to  be  called,  I  would 
like  to  reiterate  today  what  I  said  on  the  first  day  of  these  hearings, 
that  is,  that  I  approach  this  investigation  from  the  point  of  view  of 
one  who  loves  the  South  and  who  believes  in  its  people  and  who 
knows  about  them,  that  an  overwhelming  majority  there  deplore 
acts  of  violence  and  terrorism. 

I  stated  further  that  he  Avho  lias  nothing  to  hide  has  nothing  to 
fear  from  this  investigation.  And  it  was  my  hope  then,  which  I 
expressed,  that  the  members  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  would  come  for- 
ward, would  answer  questions,  would  tell  us  whatever  there  might 
be  that  they  could  tell  us  that  was  good  about  their  organization,  and 
would  demonstrate  that  the  things  that  had  been  believed  about  them 
through  the  long  years  by  a  great  many  people,  that  they  were,  in 
fact,  guilty  of  acts  of  violence  and  terrorism,  were  groundless. 


ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3065 

Now  this  investigcation  has  gone  on  for  many  weeks,  running  into 
months.  We  have  heard  testimony  concerning  bombings,  burnings, 
beatings,  and  worse,  concerning  various  Klan  members  and  groups. 
We  have  yet  to  liear  any  testimony  from  any  leader  of  any  Klan 
group  concerning  that  wliich  is  good  and  worthwhile  about  this 
organization  that  claims  to  be  a  Christian  organization. 

Now  as  far  as  I  am  concerned,  whoever  is  guilty  of  committing  acts 
of  violence  and  terrorism,  this  criminal  minority  constitutes  the  worst 
enemy  to  the  people  of  the  South.  This  group,  whoever  they  may  be, 
plays  into  the  hands  of  the  Communist  conspiracy  in  this  country 
and  around  tlie  world  by  forwarding  the  aims  and  goals  of  com- 
munism, in  stirring  racial  dissension  in  the  South  and  elsewhere,  by 
feeding  grist  for  the  Communist  propaganda  mill  into  that  mill, 
that  it  might  be  dispensed  all  over  the  world. 

These  people  are  responsible  for  the  whole  world  thinking  the 
falsehood  about  the  South,  that  acts  of  violence  and  terrorism  are 
representative  of  the  fine  people  of  the  South,  and  this  is  not  the 
case. 

Such  groups  are  responsible,  in  my  considered  judgment,  for  the 
passage,  for  building  the  motivation  all  over  this  country  resulting  in 
the  passage,  of  legislation  that  some  of  us  have  not  considered  either 
wise  or  just,  such  as  the  1965  Voting  Rights  Act,  which  in  my  judg- 
ment was  neither  wise  nor  just  nor  necessary.  Those  who  committed 
acts  of  violence  and  terrorism  set  the  stage  for  the  passage  of  this  act. 

Now,  Mr.  Thomas,  I  want  to  give  you  one  more  opportunity  to 
answer  the  charges  presented  in  this  hearing  this  day  against  you 
and,  further,  to  tell  us  any  good  thing  you  know  about  the  Ku  Klux 
Klan  organization,  because  I  will  say  to  you,  sir,  that  whoever  is 
guilty  of  such  acts  of  violence  and  terrorism  as  have  been  indicated 
in  this  hearing,  whoever  these  people  are,  they  constitute  the  worst 
enemies  to  the  people  of  the  South.  They  are  playing  into  the  hands 
of  the  Communist  conspiracy,  and  I  think  if  you  know  any  answers, 
you  ought  to  give  them.  If  you  know  any  good  thing  about  the  Ku 
Klux  Klan,  you  ought  to  say  it,  here  and  now,  and  I  invite  all  the 
subsequent  Alabama  witnesses  to  do  the  same. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Failing  any  response  from  the  witness,  the  record 
will  so  indicate. 

Any  further  questions  by  the  staff  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  None,  Mr.  Chairman. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Buchanan  ? 

Mr.  Buchanan.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  This  witness  may  be  excused. 

Call  your  next  witness. 

Mr.  Appell.  Herbert  Thomas. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Do  you  solemnly  swear  that  the  testimony  you  shall 
give  in  this  hearing  will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but 
the  truth,  so  help  you  God  ? 

Mr.  Herbert  Thomas.  I  do. 


3066  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

TESTIMONY  OF  HERBERT  THOMAS,  ACCOMPANIED  BY  COUNSEL, 
LESTER  V.  CHALMERS,  JR. 

Mr.  Appell.  State  your  full  name  for  the  record,  Mr.  Thomas. 

Mr.  Herbert  Thomas.  Herbert  Thomas. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  appearing  here  today  in  accordance  with  a 
subpena  served  upon  you  at  106  Low  Street,  Warrior,  Alabama,  W-a-r- 
r-i-o-r,  on  the  25th  clay  of  October  1965  by  a  deputy  United  States 
marshal  ? 

Mr.  Herbert  Thomas.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  represented  by  counsel  ? 

Mr.  Herbert  Thomas.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Would  counsel  identify  himself  for  the  record? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Lester  V.  Chalmers,  Jr.,  attorney  at  law,  501  First 
Federal  Building,  Raleigh,  North  Carolina. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Thomas,  the  subpena  served  upon  you  contained 
an  attachment,  which  was  made  a  part  of  the  subpena.  Under  the 
terms  of  the  subpena,  you  were  commanded  to  bring  with  you  and  to 
produce  those  documents  set  forth  in  paragraph  1,  reading  as  follows: 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  relating  to  the 
organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  business  and  affairs  of  the  Invisible  Empire, 
United  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also  known  as  the 
United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  and  affiliated 
organizations,  namely,  the  Alabama  Rescue  Service,  and  Warrior  Klavern, 
Realm  of  Alabama,  United  Klans  of  America,  in  your  possession.,  custody  or 
control,  or  maintained  by  you  or  available  to  you  as  present  or  former  Exalted 
Cyclops  of  Warrior  Klavern,  Realm  of  Alabama  of  the  Invisible  Empire,  United 
Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also  known  as  the  United 
Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan. 

In  the  representative  capacity  set  forth  in  paragraph  1,  I  ask  you 
to  produce  the  documents. 

Mr.  Herbert  Thomas.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the 
committee  any  and  all  documents  as  demanded  by  the  committee  in  a 
subpena  dated  October  14,  1965,  for  the  reason  that  I  honestly  feel 
that  to  do  so  might  tend  to  incriminate  me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as 
guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments  5,  1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of 
the  United  States  of  America. 

I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any  and  all  records 
as  requested  by  this  committee  under  subpena  dated  October  14,  1965, 
for  that  information  is  not  relevant,  germane  to  the  subject  under 
investigation  and  the  same  would  not  aid  the  Congress  in  the  con- 
sideration of  any  valid  remedial  legislation,  nor  is  such  inquiry  within 
the  scope  of  that  authorized  to  be  investigated  by  Rule  XI  of  the  rules 
adopted  by  the  89th  Congress,  by  House  Eesolution  8,  adopted  Janu- 
ary 4, 1965. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Chalmers,  do  we  have  the  stipulation  that  the 
Avitness  has  been  furnished  a  copy  of  the  chairman's  opening  state- 
ment and  is  familiar  with  its  contents  and  that  the  directions  in  the 
subpena  to  produce  documents  are  made  to  the  witness  in  his  official 
representative  capacity  as  described  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  As  stated  in  the  subpena;  yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Thomas,  your  reasons  for  failing  to  comply  with 
the  subpena  are  not  accepted  by  the  committee,  and  as  chairman  of 
the  subcommittee,  I  order  and  direct  you  to  produce  those  documents. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  3067 

Mr.  Herbert  Thomas.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the 
committee  the  documents  heretofore  ordered  by  the  chairman,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Thomas,  paragraph  2  of  the  attachment  to  the 
subpena  directs  you  to  produce : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  in  your  posses- 
sion, custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  or  available  to  you,  in  your  capacity 
as  present  or  former  Exalted  Cyclops  of  Warrior  Klavern,  Realm  of  Alabama  of 
the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  which  the 
"Constitution  and  Laws"  of  said  organization  authorize  and  require  to  be  main- 
tained by  you  and  any  other  officer  of  said  organization,  the  same  being  in  your 
possession,  custody  or  control. 

Under  the  representative  capacity  s(;t  forth  in  paragraph  2,  I  ask 
you  to  produce  the  documents  called  for. 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Herbert  Thomas.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the 
committee  the  documents  heretofore  ordered,  based  upon  the  grounds 
previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Do  we  have  the  same  tAvo  stipulations  with  regard  to 
this  paragraph'^ 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir. 

]Mr.  Weltner.  ]Mr.  Thomas,  I  order  you  to  produce  those  records. 

Mr.  Herbert  Thomas.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the 
committee  the  documents  heretofore  ordered  by  the  chairman,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Thomas,  as  an  exalted  cyclops  of  the  United  Klans 
of  America,  Realm  of  Alabama,  did  you  participate  in  a  konv^okation 
or  kloncilium  which  authorized  Mrs.  Robert  Shelton  to  comake  checks 
drawn  against  the  Alabama  Rescue  Service,  using  the  name  James  J. 
Hendrix  ? 

Mr.  Herbert  Thomas.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question  for  the  reason  that  I  honestly  feel  my  answer  might  tend 
to  incriminate  me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by 
amendments  5,  1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  vote  to  authorize  Carol  Long  to  comake  checks 
with  Robert  M.  Shelton,  using  the  name  "T.  M.  Montgomery"? 

Mr.  Herbert  Thomas.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Thomas,  the  committee's  investigation  established 
that  as  of  April  1965  that  you  were  the  exalted  cyclops  of  Warrior 
Klavern,  Warrior,  Alabama,  of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Realm 
of  Alabama.    Is  the  investigative  result  of  the  committee  factual? 

Mr.  Herbert  Thomas.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Thomas,  under  the  procedures,  the  operational 
procedures  of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  each  Klavern  appoints 
a  klokann  committee,  whose  members  are  appointed  by  the  exalted 
cyclops.     Did  you  as  exalted  cyclops  appoint  a  klokann  committee? 

Mr.  Herbert  Thomas.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  ansAver  that 
question,  ba.sed  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  addition  to  yourself  as  the  exalted  cyclops  who  are 
tlie  officers  of  the  Warrior  Klavern? 

Mr.  Herbert  Thomas.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 


3068  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX-  KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Thomas,  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to 
affirm  or  deny  the  fact,  that  you  were  born  on  August  19,  1914,  at 
Beltona,  B-e-1-t-o-n-a,  Alabama. 

Mr.  Herbert  Thomas.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  staff  lias  no  further  questions  to 
ask  of  this  witness. 

Mr.  Buchanan.  Mr.  Chairman, 

Mr.  Thomas,  I  would  like  to  give  you  the  same  opportunity  I  gave 
to  the  other  Mr.  Thomas.  Now  we  have  found  in  some  States,  and 
we  have  had  some  testimony  indicating  there  were  men  who  came  into 
the  Ku  Klux  Klan  with  no  idea  of  wrongdoing,  out  of  strong  convic- 
tions, that  have  not  been  guilty  of  any  wrongdoing,  and  some  of  those 
have,  since  the  beginning  of  this  hearing,  disassociated  themselves 
from  the  United  Klans  and  other  like  groups.  I  want  to  give  you 
opportunity  today  to  testify  to  this  committee  as  to  anything  good 
you  know  as  to  the  denial  of  any  charges  that  have  been  made,  or  I 
want  to  invite  you  to  follow  the  example  of  other  like  men  who  have 
themselves  entered  an  organization  with  no  intent  of  wrongdoing  and 
have,  therefore,  disassociated  themselves  from  that  organization  in 
light  of  the  things  that  we  have  uncovered  in  these  hearings. 

I  didn't  ask  a  question.  I  want  to  give  you  an  opportunity  to  speak, 
if  you  will. 

Mr.  Weltner.  The  record  will  indicate  the  witness  remains  silent. 
The  witness  is  excused. 

Call  your  next  witness,  Mr.  Appell. 

Mr.  Appell.  Konald  Jefferson  Tidwell, 

Mr,  Weltner,  Raise  your  right  hand,  please. 

Do  you  solemnly  swear  the  testimony  you  are  to  give  in  this  hearing 
will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth,  so  help 
you  God  ? 

Mr.  Tidwell.  I  do. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Be  seated. 

TESTIMONY  OF  RONALD  JEFFERSON  TIDWELL,  ACCOMPANIED  BY 
COUNSEL,  LESTER  V.  CHALMERS,  JR. 

Mr.  Appell.  State  your  full  name  for  the  record,  Mr,  Tidwell, 

Mr,  Tidwell.  Ronald  Jefferson  Tidwell. 

Mr.  Appfjll,  Are  you  appearing  here  today  in  accordance  with  a 
subpena  served  upon  you  on  the  26th  day  of  October  1965  at  1309-16th 
Avenue  North,  Birmingham,  Alabama,  by  a  deputy  United  States 
marshal  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  May  I  inquire,  please,  sir,  what  is  the  date  of  the 
subpena,  the  date  of  its  issuance  by  the  chairman  ?  I  believe  it  is  the 
14th. 

Mr.  Appell.  14  October ;  yes,  sir.     It  was  served  the  26th. 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Tidwell.  Yes. 

Mr.  Weltner.  The  witness  is  represented  by  counsel.  Will  he  iden- 
tify himself  at  this  point? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Lester  V.  Chalmers,  Jr.,  attorney  at  law.  Room  501, 
First  Federal  Building,  Raleigh,  North  Carolina. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3069 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Tidwell,  the  subpena  served  upon  you  contained 
an  attaclmient,  which  was  made  a  part  of  the  subpena.  And  under 
the  terms  of  subpena,  you  were  directed  to  bring  w^th  you  and  to 
produce  documents  set  forth  in  two  paragraphs.    Paragraph  1  reads : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  relating  to 
the  organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  business  and.  affairs  of  the  Invisible  Em- 
pire, United  Klaus,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also  known 
as  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  and  affiliated 
organizations,  namely,  the  Alabama  Rescue  Service,  and  Eastview  Klavern  #13. 
in  your  possession,  custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  you  or  available  to  you  as 
former  Exalted  Cyclops  of  Eastview  Klavern  #13  of  the  Invisible  Empire, 
United  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also  known  as  the 
United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan. 

In  the  representative  capacity  set  forth  in  paragraph  1,  I  ask  you 
to  produce  the  documents  called  for. 

Mr.  TiDWELL.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  commit- 
tee any  and  all  documents  as  demanded  by  the  committee  in  a  subpena 
dated  October  14,  1965,  for  the  reason  that  I  honestly  feel  that  to  do 
so  might  tend  to  incriminate  me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed 
to  me  by  amendments  5,  1,  14,  and  4  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United 
States  of  America. 

I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any  and  all  records 
as  requested  by  this  committee  under  subpena  dated  October  14,  1965, 
for  that  information  is  not  relevant  and  germane  to  the  subject  under 
investigation  and  the  same  w^ould  not  aid  the  Congress  in  the  consid- 
eration of  any  valid  remedial  legislation,  nor  is  such  inquii-y  within  the 
scope  of  that  authorized  to  be  investigated  by  Rule  XI  of  the  rules 
adopted  by  the  89th  Congress,  by  House  Resolution  8,  adopted 
January  4,  1965. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Chalmers,  do  we  have  a  stipulation  about  the 
opening  statement  of  the  chairman,  to  the  effect  that  this  witness  has 
received  a  copy  of  it  and  understands  the  contents? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  He  is  familiar  with  it ;  yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  And  do  w^e  have  a  stipulation  to  the  effect  that  the 
documents  called  for  in  the  subpena  are  called  for  in  the  representa- 
tive capacity  of  this  witness  as  designated  in  the  subpena  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  As  stated  in  the  subpena. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Tidwell,  this  committee  does  not  accept  your  re- 
fusal to  deliver  these  documents,  and  I  order  and  direct  you  to  produce 
them  at  this  time. 

Mr.  Tidwell.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee 
the  documents  heretofore  ordered  by  the  chairman,  based  upon  the 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  And  I  give  you  an  opportunity,  if  you  so  desire,  to 
set  forth  for  this  committee  any  reason  why  you  are  unable,  by  virtue 
of  nonpossession  or  want  of  custody  or  lack  of  access  to  these  records, 
to  comply  with  the  mandate  of  this  subpena. 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Weltner.  There  being  no  response,  we  will  proceed  to  the  next 
paragraph. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Tidwell,  under  paragraph  2  you  were  ordered  to 
produce : 


3070  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  in  your  pos- 
session, custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  or  available  to  you,  in  your  capacity 
as  former  Exalted  Cyclops  of  Eastview  Klavern  #13  of  the  United  Klans  of 
America,  Inc.,  Knijjhts  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  which  the  "Constitution  and  Laws" 
of  said  organization  authorize  and  require  to  be  maintained  by  you  and  any 
other  officer  of  said  organization,  the  same  being  in  your  possession,  custody  or 
control. 

In  the  representative  capacity  set  forth  in  paragraph  2, 1  ask  yon  to 
produce  the  documents  called  for. 

Mr.  TiDWELL.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  tlie  committee 
the  documents  heretofore  ordered,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously 
stated. 

Mr.  Weltxer.  Mr.  Chalmers,  do  we  have  tlte  same  two  stipulations 
with  regard  to  this  paragraph  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Tidwell,  I  order  you  to  produce  the  documents 
called  for. 

Mr.  Tidwell.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee 
the  documents,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Tidwell,  when  and  where  were  you  born? 

Mr.  Tidwell.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
reason  that  I  honestly  feel  my  answers  might  tend  to  incriminate  me 
in  violation  of  my  rights  as  quaranteed  to  me  by  amendments  5,  1,  4, 
and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Tidwell,  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact  that  you  possess 
knowledge  of  the  bombing  of  the  16th  Street  Baptist  Church  in 
Birmingham,  Alabama,  on  September  15,  1963,  and  I  ask  you  to  give 
the  committee  the  benefit  of  that  knowledge. 

Mr.  Tidwell.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Appell,  is  that  date  and  place  the  incident  where 
on  a  Sunday  morning  in  the  city  of  Birmingham,  Alabama,  a  Negro 
church  was  bombed,  with  the  loss  of  the  lives  of  four  Sunday  school 
students  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  That  is  our  understanding  also,  Mr.  Chairman. 

Mr.  Tidw^ell,  have  you  served  on  the  Imperial  Klokann  Committee '( 

Mr.  Tidw^ell.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr,  Appell.  As  a  member  of  the  Imperial  Klokann  Committee,  have 
you  ever  been  instructed,  and  did  you  carry  out  those  instructions, 
with  respect  to  acts  of  intimidation  or  violence  ? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Tidwell.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Tidwell,  have  you  ever  served  time  in  a  jail  or 
penitentiary. 

Mr.  Tidwell.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answ^er  that  question,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  in  view  of  the  witness"  claim  of  priv- 
ilege and  his  consistent  refusal  to  answer  my  questions,  I  jn-esent  to  the 
committee  the  results  of  our  investigation  as  they  pertain  to  Ronald 
Jefferson  Tidwell. 

He  was  born  in  Jefferson  County,  Alabama,  on  January  23,  1935. 
He  received  education  at  the  Phillips  High  School  from  January  of 


ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  3071 

1956  to  March  of  1956,  when  he  quit.  He  has  been  employed  since 
in  various  posirious  as  an  electrician. 

Tidwell  was  arrested  and  charged  with  burglary  and  grand  larceny 
on  March  13,  1950.  On  July  26,  1956,  he  was  sentenced  to  6  months  in 
jail,  and  placed  on  probation  for  2  years.  He  was  arrested  on  June  17, 
1962,  on  a  charge  of  violating  the  State  Fireanns  Act.  On  June  27, 
1962,  the  charge  was  changed  to  carrying  a  concealed  weapon.  He  was 
fined  $55  on  this  charge. 

At  an  election  of  officers  of  the  Eastview  Klavern  No.  13  of  the 
United  Klaus  of  America  on  December  29,  1963,  Ronald  Tidwell  was 
elected  exalted  cyclops  of  the  Klavern.  On  April  22,  1964,  the  Klan 
had  expressed  an  interest  in  the  possible  demonstrations  at  Tuscaloosa, 
Alabama,  and  Ronald  Tidwell  had  announced  that  action  groups 
should  be  on  standby  notice. 

On  January  the  20th,  1964,  Tidwell  at  a  meeting  of  Eastview 
Klavern  No.  13,  made  the  comment  that  "If  w^e're  going  to  be  Ku 
Kluxers,  let's  Klux."  And  in  this  comiection,  Mr.  Chairman,  "Klux- 
ing"  is  a  term  referred  to  within  the  Klan  as  a  militant  action  on  the 
part  of  the  membership. 

On  January  23,  1964,  Tidwell  presided  over  a  meeting  of  the  East- 
view  Klavern  No.  13.  At  that  time,  Tidwell  commented  that  he  had 
heard  from  the  Tutwiler  Hotel  that  the  FBI  had  found  out  about  the 
approaching  klonvokation  and  that  he  had  the  impression  that  the 
Tutwiler  management  was  "shook." 

Tidwell  added  that  the  leak  of  information  appeared  to  come  from 
Eastview  Klavern  or  the  Warrior  Klavern  in  Warrior,  Alabama.  He 
stated,  "We  will  have  to  be  extremely  careful  with  such  information  in 
the  future." 

Tidwell  said  that  Shelton,  the  Imperial  Wizard,  was  sought  for  an 
interview  by  the  news  media,  and  that  his  comment  was  that  he  did 
not  know  anything  about  a  klonvokation. 

Tidwell  also  said  that  after  an  applicant  to  the  Klan  had  been 
checked  out,  that  "we  have  a  contact  w4iere  we  can  check  city,  county, 
and  Federal  arrest  records."  Tidwell  discussed  a  push  similar  in 
Montgomery  to  the  bus  incident  at  Birmingham.  Tidwell  further 
said  that  "around  June  of  this  year  [1964],  the  demonstrations  will 
probably  be  going  strong."  He  said  the  "Klansmen  will  go  down- 
town and  get  something  started,  and  once  it  catches  on,  the  Klansmen 
will  drop  out  and  get  the  leaders,  once  this  is  over." 

Tidwell  added  "a  tap  on  the  head  won't  be  enough."  Tidwell  said 
once  the  Klansmen  got  a  conflict  between  whites  and  Negroes  started, 
"they  can  drop  out,  get  the  leaders,  and  quit  all  Klan  activities  for 
6  months." 

Tidwell  added  that  memibers  would  receive  summonses  in  the  Fiery 
Gross  and  that  they  should  respond  immediately. 

A  Klansman,  Ross  Keith,  made  a  comment  that  all  Klansmen 
would  have  to  bring  their  guns  with  them  to  the  klonvokation  at  the 
Tutwiler,  since  the  public  now  knows  about  the  Tutwiler  meeting. 

At  this  point,  Tidwell  exhibited  a  pistol  he  had  under  his  coat  and 
showed  a  pistol  he  had  inside  a  briefcase  with  him  at  that  time. 

At  a  regular  meeting  of  the  Eastview  Klavern  held  on  the  night  of 
January  30,  Tidwell  said  he  had  information  from  the  Mississippi 
State  Legislature  about  a  70-year-old  man  who  was  arrested  along 

57-222  O— 67— pt.  4 12 


3072  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLTJX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S. 

with  some  yoiiiio-er  men,  and  tliey  made  him  sit  against  the  wall  with 
his  knees  drawn  up  and  his  hands  locked  around  them  for  over  3 
hours,  and  that  when  he  relaxed  his  knees,  that  someone  hit  him  with 
a  night  stick  and  broke  his  kneecap. 

On  March  26,  1964,  Tidwell  attended  a  meeting  at  the  Eastview 
Klavern  hall,  in  wliich  it  was  announced  that  all  seven  squads  of  the 
Eastview  Klavern  would  be  on  standby  for  the  Billy  Graham  rally 
being  held  at  the  Legion  Field  on  March  29,  1964.  Robert  Sidney 
Thomas,  the  great  titan,  announced  he  expected  trouble  after  the 
Graham  rally.  Thomas  said  that  the  city  police  expected  trouble 
at  the  rally  and  that  he  thought  the  city  or  county  would  ask  for 
Klan  support  and,  therefore,  he  wanted  Exalted  Cyclops  Tidwell  to 
have  all  this  leaders  "in  pocket"  on  Sunday. 

Ronald  Tidwell  as  exalted  cyclops  of  Eastview^  Klavern  No.  13 
expressed  interest  in  the  opening  of  the  American  National  Bank, 
which  w^as  to  be  a  Negro  institution  in  Birmingham,  Alabama.  Tid- 
well suggested  pulling  the  string  on  a  tear  gas  container,  causing 
confusion  and  beating  a  few  Negroes  in  the  subsequent  panic. 

Tidwell  was  heard  to  remark  that  "something  ought  to  be  deposited 
in  the  bank,  but  I  do  not  have  any  money." 

On  April  14,  1964,  the  day  before  the  American  National  Bank  was 
to  open,  Robert  Thomas  instructed  that  there  would  be  no  Klan  action 
and  that  he  had  informed  Ronald  Tidwell  of  his  desire  in  this  matter. 

Thomas  indicated  that  Tidwell  claimed  the  people  of  Birmingham 
w^ere  tired  of  the  Klan's  inaction.  How^ever,  Thomas  stated  that 
Ronald  Tidwell  had  not  presented  any  factual  reasons  for  bombing 
the  bank;  therefore,  he  did  not  care  to  jeopardize  the  Klan  when  he 
knew  the  area  would  be  saturated  w^ith  police  officers. 

On  April  30,  1964,  Robert  Thomas,  province  titan,  appointed  Herb- 
ert Eugene  Reeves  as  the  new  exalted  cyclops  of  Eastview  Klavern 
No.  13,  replacing  Ronald  Tidwell. 

This  information,  Mr.  Chairman,  indicates  that  Mr.  Tidwell 
possesses  additional  information  which  is  both  pertinent  and  relevant 
to  this  inquiry  and  would  materially  aid  the  Congress  in  the  enact- 
ment of  remedial  legislation. 

Mr.  Weltner.  The  reporter  wnll  strike  from  the  record  any  refer- 
ence to  any  offenses  charged  against  this  witness  which  were  subse- 
quently dismissed. 

Mr.  Tidwell,  you  have  heard  the  result  of  this  investigation,  and 
you  have  an  opportunity  at  this  point  to  reply  to  any  portion  of  that 
statement.  You  may,  if  you  desire,  challenge  or  confirm  the  accuracy 
of  any  of  that  information  or  of  any  other  matter,  if  you  see  fit.  And 
I  must  observe  that,  as  the  matter  now  stands,  this  record  will  show  a 
substantial  involvement  by  yourself  over  a  period  of  some  several 
years  with  some  acts  of  violence,  leading  to  the  loss  of  human  life, 
so  you  have  an  opportunity  to  say  whatever  you  desire  at  this  point. 

The  witness,  not  undertaking  to  respond  to  that  opportunity,  is 
advised  that  absent  his  rebuttal  or  any  other  facts  which  come  before 
this  committee,  the  committee  will  rely  upon  the  accuracy  of  its 
investigation. 

Any  questions? 

Mr.  Buchanan.  Just  of  Mr.  Appell,  Mr.  Chairman, 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3073 

Mr.  Appell,  you  stated — and  I  am  referring  to  charges  which  were 
not  dismissed — that  this  witness  had  an  arrest  record  dating  back  in 
1956,  during  whicli  year,  I  believe,  there  were  charges  of  burglary 
and  grand  larceny,  and  then,  later,  a  charge  of  carrying  a  concealed 
weapon.     Is  that  correct? 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Buchanan.  Now,  you  then  stated  that  on  December  29,  1963, 
some  time  thereafter,  he  was  elected  exalted  cyclops  of  the  Eastview 
Klavern  No.  13  of  the  United  Klans.    Is  that  correct? 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Buchanan.  Now,  this  Eastview  Klavern  is  located  in  the  city 
of  Birmingham,  I  believe,  and  therefore  within  my  congressional 
district. 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Buchanan.  And  so  following  this  record,  he  was  elected  as 
leader  of  that  Klan  group.     That  is  correct? 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Buchanan.  No  questions,  Mr.  Chairman. 

Mr.  Weltner.  The  witness  is  excused. 

Call  your  next  witness,  Mr.  Appell. 

Mr.  Appell.  Rayford  Martin. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Do  you  solemnly  swear  the  testimony  you  give  in 
this  hearing  will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the 
truth,  so  help  you  God? 

Mr.  Martin.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Be  seated. 

TESTIMONY  OF  RAYFORD  JACKSON  MARTIN,  ACCOMPANIED  BY 
COUNSEL,  LESTER  V.  CHALMERS,  JR. 

Mr.  Appell.  State  your  full  name  for  the  record. 

Mr.  ISIartin.  Rayford  Jackson  Martin. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Martin,  are  you  represented  by  counsel? 

Mr.  Martin.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Will  your  counsel  identify  himself  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Lester  V.  Chalmers,  Jr.,  attorney  at  law,  Room  501, 
First  Federal  Building,  Raleigh,  North  Carolina. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Martin,  are  you  appearing  here  today  in  accordance 
with  a  subpena  served  upon  you  at  1711  Buena  Vista  Circle,  Decatur, 
Alabama,  on  October  25,  1965,  by  a  deputy  United  States  marshal? 

Mr.  Martin.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr  Appell.  Mr.  Martin,  the  subpena  served  upon  you  contained  an 
attachment,  which  was  made  a  part  of  the  subpena,  and  under  the 
terms  of  the  subpena  you  were  commanded  to  bring  with  you  and  to 
produce  documents  described  in  two  paragraphs.     Paragraph  1  reads : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  relating  to 
the  organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  business  and  affairs  of  the  Invisible 
p:;nii)ire.  United  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also 
known  as  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan, 
and  affiliated  organization.s,  namely,  the  Alabama  Rescue  Service  and  the  Decatur 
Klavern,  Realm  of  Alabama,  in  your  pos.se.'^sion,  custody  or  control,  or  maintained 
by  you  or  available  to  you  as  present  or  former  Exalted  Cyclops  of  Decatur 
Klavern,  Realm  of  Alabama  of  the  Invisible  Empire,  United  Klans,  Knights  of 
the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also  known  as  the  United  Klans  of 
America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan. 


3074  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

In  the  representative  capacity  set  forth  in  paragraph  1,  I  ask  you 
to  produce  the  documents  called  for. 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Martin.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any 
and  all  documents  as  demanded  by  the  committee  in  a  subpena  dated 
October  14, 1965,  for  the  reason  that  I  honsetly  feel  that  to  do  so  might 
tend  to  incriminate  me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guanrateed  to  me 
by  amendment  5,  1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constituion  of  the  United  States 
of  America. 

I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any  and  all  records 
as  required  by  this  committee  under  subpena — as  requested  by  this 
committee  under  subpena  dated  October  the  14th,  1965,  for  that  in- 
formation is  not  relevant  and  germane  to  the  subject  under  investi- 
gation and  the  same  would  not  aid  the  Congress  in  the  consideration 
of  any  valid  remedial  legislation,  nor  is  such  inquiiy  within  the  scope 
of  that  authorized  to  be  investigated  by  Rule  XI  of  the  rules  adopted 
by  the  89th  Congress,  by  House  Resolution  8,  adopted  January  the  4th, 
1965. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Chalmers,  do  we  have  the  stipulation  that  this 
witness  has  been  furnished  a  copy  of  the  chairman's  opening  statement 
and  understands  the  content  thereof  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  And  also  that  the  documents  sought  to  be  reached 
by  this  subpena  are  documents  alleged  to  be  maintained  or  in  the 
possession  of  this  witness  in  the  representative  capacity  stated  in  the 
subpena. 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Mr.  Chairman,  can't  we  stipulate  that  he — the  serv- 
ice of  the  subpena  was  served  upon  him  and  that  the  subpena  speaks 
for  itself,  which  we  have  heretofore  done  ? 

Mr.  Weltner.  I  am  not  consciously  trying  to  vary  the  format. 

Mr.  Chalmers.  I  certainly  realize  that ;  I  fully  realize  it,  but  I  tell 
you  what's  the  truth ;  I  hate  to  go  up  one  street  and  come  back,  seeing 
myself  the  other  way. 

Mr.  Weltner.  We  have  stipulated  that  the  directions  of  the  subpena 
to  produce  the  documents  called  for  are  made  to  the  witness  in  the 
official  representative  capacity  described  in  the  subpena.  Is  that 
correct  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Thank  you,  Mr.  Chalmers. 

Mr.  Martin,  the  committee  does  not  accept  your  reasons  for  refusing 
to  produce  these  documents,  and,  consequently,  I  order  and  direct  you 
to  produce  them  at  this  time. 

Mr.  Martin.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee 
the  documents  heretofore  ordered  by  the  chairman,  based  upon  the 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  And  as  in  other  cases,  you  are  offered  the  opportunity 
at  this  point  to  present  to  the  committee  any  reason  why  you  are  unable 
to  produce  these  documents,  either  for  lack  of  possession  or  custody  or 
for  want  of  access  thereto. 

You  remain  silent.     We  will  proceed  to  the  next  paragraph. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Martin,  paragraph  2  called  for  you  to  produce  : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  in  your  posses- 
sion, custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  or  available  to  you,  in  your  capacity  as 
present  or  former  Exalted  Cyclops  of  Decatur  Klavern,  Realm  of  Alabama  of  the 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S.  3075 

United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  tlie  Ku  Kliix  Klan,  wliich  the  "Con- 
stitution and  Laws"  of  said  organization  authorize  and  require  to  be  maintained 
by  you  and  any  other  officer  of  said  organization,  the  same  being  in  your  posses- 
sion, custody  or  control. 

In  the  representative  capacity  set  forth  in  paragraph  2, 1  ask  you  to 
produce  tlie  documents  called  for. 

Mr.  Maktix.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee 
the  documents  heretofore  ordered. 

Mr.  Weltner.  For  what  reason,  Mr.  Martin  ? 

Mr.  Martin.  Based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Chalmers,  may  we  have  the  same  two  stipulations 
with  regard  to  this  paragraph  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Martin,  I  direct  and  order  you  to  produce  those 
documents  at  this  time. 

Mr.  Martin.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee 
the  documents  heretofore  ordered  by  the  chairman,  based  upon  the 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Martin,  the  committee's  investigation  established 
you  to  be  the  exalted  cyclops  of  Decatur  Klavern,  United  Klans  of 
America,  Incorporated,  Realm  of  Alabama.  Is  the  result  of  the  com- 
mittee's investigation  factual? 

Mr.  Martin.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answ^er  that  question  for 
the  reason  that  I  honestly  feel  my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate  me 
in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendment  5, 1, 4,  and 
14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

Mr.  Appell.  As  an  exalted  cyclops,  Mr.  Martin,  can  you  explain  to 
the  committee  why  it  is  necessary  in  an  organization  that  publicly 
designates  itself  as  being  nonviolent  to  require  a  member  to  swear  that 
he  will  keep  secret  the  secret  of  a  Klansman,  except  for  crimes  such  as 
treason  against  the  United  States,  rape,  and  malicious  murder? 

Mr.  Martin.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previousl}^  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Martin,  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact  that  you  were  born 
on  July  15, 1936,  at  Rogersville,  Alabama.  I  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact. 

Mr.  Martin.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  As  an  exalted  cyclops,  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask 
you  to  affirm  or  deny  the  fact,  that  you  never  attended  a  klonvokation 
or  kloncilium  which  authorized  Mrs.  Robert  Shelton  to  comake  checks 
with  her  husband,  using  the  name  "James  J.  Hendrix,"  or  Carol  Long 
to  comake  checks  with  Robert  M.  Shelton. 

I  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny  the  fact. 

Mr.  Martin.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Martin,  under  the  United  Klans  of  America,  an 
exalted  cyclops  appoints  a  klokann  committee.  Will  you  identify  the 
committee,  the  members  of  the  klokami  committee,  which  you  ap- 
pointed as  exalted  cyclops? 

Mr.  Martin.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  staff  has  no  further  questions  to  ask 
of  this  witness. 


3076  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Weltner.  No  further  questions  of  this  witness  ? 

He  is  excused. 

The  subconnnittee  will  stand  in  recess  for  5  minutes. 

(Brief  recess.) 

Mr.  Weltner.  The  subcommittee  will  come  to  order. 

Mr.  Appell.  Wilson  Hood. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Do  you  solemnly  swear  the  testimony  you  give  in 
this  hearing  will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the 
truth,  so  help  you  God  ? 

Mr.  Hood.  I  do. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Be  seated. 

TESTIMONY  OF  WILSON  HOOD,  ACCOMPANIED  BY  COUNSEL, 
LESTER  V.  CHALMERS,  JR. 

Mr.  Appell.  State  your  full  name  for  the  record,  Mr.  Hood. 

Mr.  Hood.  Wilson  Hood. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Are  you  represented  by  counsel,  Mr.  Hood  ? 

Mr.  Hood.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Counsel  will  identify  himself. 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Lester  V.  Chalmers,  Jr.,  attorney  at  law,  501  First 
Federal  Building,  Raleigh,  North  Carolina. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Hood,  are  you  appearing  here  today  in  accordance 
with  a  subpena  served  by  a  deputy  United  States  marshal  on  October 
25,  --         --      -    -  -   -  ~ 

Alabama  ? 

Mr.  Hood.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  say  "yes"  ? 

Mr.  Hood.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Hood,  the  subpena  served  upon  you  contained  an 
attacliment,  which  was  made  a  part  of  the  subpena,  and  the  subpena 
directed  you  to  bring  with  you  and  to  produce  documents  called  for  in 
two  paragraphs  in  the  attachment.     Paragraph  1  reads : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  relating  to  the 
organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  business  affairs  of  the  Invisible  Empire, 
United  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also  know  as  the 
United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klu  Klan,  and  affiliated  organi- 
zations, namely,  the  Alabama  Rescue  Service  and  Moulton  Klavern,  Realm  of 
Alabama,  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  you  or  avail- 
able to  you  as  present  or  former  Exalted  Cyclops,  Moulton  Klavern,  Realm  of 
Alabama  of  the  Invisible  Empire,  United  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of 
America,  Inc.,  also  known  as  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc..  Knights  of  the 
Ku  Klux  Klan. 

I  ask  that,  in  the  representative  capacity  set  forth  in  paragraph 
1,  you  produce  the  documents  called  for. 

Mr.  Hood.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee 
any  and  all  documents  as  demanded  by  the  committee  in  a  subpena 
dated  October  14,  1965,  for  the  reason  that  I  honestly  feel  to  do  so 
might  tend  to  incriminate  me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed 
to  me  by  amendment  5,  1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United 
States  of  America. 

I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any  and  all  records 
as  requested  by  this  committee  under  subpena  dated  October  14,  1965, 
for  this  information  is  not  relevant  and  germane  to  the  subject  under 
investigation  and  the  same  would  not  aid  the  Congress  in  the  considera- 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3077 

tioii  of  any  valid  remedial  legislation,  nor  is  such  inquiry  within  the 
scope  of  that  authorized  to  be  investigated  by  Rule  XI  of  the  rules 
adopted  by  the  89th  Congress,  by  House  Resolution  8,  adopted  Janu- 
ary 4, 1965. 

Mr.  Weltxer.  ]\Ir.  Chalmers,  we  can  stipulate  that  the  witness  has 
been  furnished  a  copy  of  the  chairman's  opening  statement  and  that 
he  is  familiar  with  the  content  thereof  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Can  we  further  stipulate  that  the  directions  of  the 
subpena  to  produce  the  documents  called  for  are  made  to  the  witness 
in  the  official  representative  capacity  described  in  the  subpena  ? 

Mr,  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Hood,  the  committee  does  not  accept  your  rea- 
sons for  refusal  to  produce  these  documents,  and,  accordingly,  as  chair- 
man of  this  subcommittee,  I  order  and  direct  you  to  produce  those 
documents  at  this  time. 

Mr.  Hood.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  the 
documents  heretofore  ordered  by  the  chairman,  based  upon  the  grounds 
previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  And  I  offer  to  you,  if  you  so  desire,  the  opportunity 
to  present  to  this  committee  any  reason  why  you  might  be  unable  to 
comply  with  the  mandate  of  that  subpena. 

The  record  will  note  that  the  witness  offers  nothing  in  response. 

Proceed,  Mr.  Appell. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Hood,  paragraph  2  calls  for  you  to  produce : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  in  your  posses- 
sion, custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  or  available  to  you,  in  your  capacity 
as  present  or  former  Exalted  Cyclops,  Moulton  Klavern,  Realm  of  Alabama  of 
the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  which  the 
"Constitution  and  Laws"  of  said  organization  authorize  and  require  to  be  main- 
tained by  you  and  any  other  officer  of  said  organization,  the  same  being  in  your 
possession,  custody  or  control. 

Mr.  HooD.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  the 
documents  heretofore  ordered,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously 
stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  May  we  have  the  same  stipulations,  Mr.  Chalmers? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  Mr.  Chairman. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Hood,  the  committee  directs  you  to  produce  those 
documents  at  this  time. 

Mr.  Hood.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  the 
documents  heretofore  ordered  by  the  chainnan,  based  upon  the  grounds 
previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Hood,  the  committee  investigations  establish  you 
to  be  the  exalted  cyclops  of  Moulton  Klavern  in  Moulton,  Alabama. 
Are  the  results  of  the  committee's  investigation  factual  ? 

Mr.  Hood.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
reason  that  I  honestly  feel  my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate  me 
in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendment  5,  1,  4, 
and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Hood,  under  the  operational  procedures  of  the 
United  Klans  of  America,  the  exalted  cyclops  appoints  a  klokann  com- 
mittee. This  klokann  committee  is  required  to  make  investigations  and 
carry  out  acts  of  intimidation,  violence,  upon  order  and  instructions 
of  the  exalted  cyclops  or  of  the  Klavern  itself. 


3078  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Hood.  Sir,  I 

Mr.  Appell.  Identify  to  the  committee,  please,  the  members  of  tht 
Mokaiin  committee  which  you  appointed  as  exalted  cyclops. 

Mr.  Hood.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  staff  has  no  further  questions  to  ask 
of  this  witness. 

Mr.  Weltner.  One  or  two  questions. 

Are  you  presently  the  exalted  cyclops  of  the  Moulton  Klavern  of 
the  United  Klans  of  America,  Mr.  Hood  ? 

Mr.  Hood.  Sir,  I  resj^ectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  The  witness  will  be  excused. 
,  Call  your  next  witness. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  call  Myrtie  Eugene  Stephens. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Do  you  solemnly  swear  that  the  testimony  you  will 
give  in  this  hearing  will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but 
the  truth,  so  help  you  God  ? 

Mr.  Stephens.  I  do. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Be  seated. 

TESTIMONY  OF  MYRTIE  EUGENE  STEPHENS,  ACCOMPANIED  BY 
COUNSEL,  LESTER  V.  CHALMERS,  JR. 

Mr.  Appell.  State  your  full  name  for  the  record. 

Mr.  Stephens.  Myrtie  Eugene  Stephens. 

Mr.  Appell.  Kepresented  by  counsel  ? 

Mr.  Stephens.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  counsel  identify  himself  for  the  record  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Lester  V.  Chalmers,  Jr.,  attorney  at  law,  501  First 
Federal  Building,  Raleigh,  North  Carolina. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Stephens,  are  you  appearing  before  the  committee 
today  in  accordance  with  a  subpena  served  upon  you  on  October  25, 
1965,  at  226  12th  South,  Bessemer,  Alabama  ? 

Mr.  Stephens.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  think  that  is  South  12th  Street,  Bes- 
semer, Alabama.     I  ask  that  the  record  be  corrected. 

Mr.  Weltner.  The  record  will  be  corrected  accordingly. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Stephens,  under  the  terms  of  the  subpena  served 
upon  you  and  an  attachment  thereto,  which  was  made  a  part  of  the 
subpena,  you  were  ordered  to  produce,  bring  with  you  and  to  produce, 
documents  described  in  two  paragraphs.     Paragraph  1  reads : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  relating  to  the 
organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  business  and  affairs  of  the  Invisible  Empire. 
United  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also  known  as 
the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  and  affiliated 
organizations,  namely,  the  Alabama  Rescue  Service  and  Bessemer  Klavern  #20. 
Realm  of  Alabama,  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  you 
or  available  to  you  as  present  or  former  Kligrapp,  Bessemer  Klavern  #20,  Realm 
of  Alabama  of  the  Invisible  Empire,  United  Klans.  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan 
of  America,  Inc..  also  known  as  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc..  Knights  of 
the  Ku  Klux  Klan. 

In  the  representative  capacity  set  forth  in  paragraph  1,  I  ask  you 
to  produce  the  documents  called  for. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S.  3079 

Mr.  Stephens.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any 
and  all  documents  as  demanded  by  the  committee  in  a  subpena  dated 
October  14,  1965,  for  the  reason  that  I  honestly  feel  that  to  do  so  might 
tend  to  incriminate  me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me 
by  amendments  5, 1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States 
of  America. 

I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any  and  all  records 
as  requested  by  this  conmiittee  under  subpena  dated  October  14,  1965, 
for  that  information  is  not  relevant  and  germane  to  the  subject  under 
investigation  and  the  same  would  not  aid  the  Congress  in  the  considera- 
tion of  any  valid  remedial  legislation,  or  is  such  inquiry  within  the 
scope  of  that  authority  to  be  investigated  by  House  Rule  XI  of  the 
rules  adopted  by  the  89th  Congress  of  the  House  Resolution  8,  adopted 
January  4,  1965. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Chalmers,  can  we  stipulate  that  this  witness  has 
been  furnished  a  copy  of  the  chairman's  opening  statement  and  is 
familiar  with  the  contents  thereof? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Can  we  also  stipulate  that  the  directions  of  the  sub- 
pena to  produce  documents  called  for  are  made  to  the  witness  in  the 
official  representative  capacity  described  in  the  subpena  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Stephens,  the  committee  does  not  accept  your 
grounds  for  refusing  to  produce  these  documents,  and,  as  chairman  of 
this  subcommittee,  I  order  and  direct  you  to  produce  them  at  this  time. 

Mr.  Stephens.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  com- 
mittee the  documents  heretofore  ordered  by  the  chairman,  based  upon 
the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  All  right.  At  this  time,  the  committee  will  extend 
to  you  an  opportunity  to  bring  before  the  committee  any  reason  that 
you  might  have  for  any  inability  to  comply  with  the  requirements  of 
this  subpena. 

The  record  will  show  the  Avitness  remains  silent. 

Proceed  to  the  next  paragraph. 

Mr.  Appell.  Paragraph  2,  Mr.  Stephens,  orders  you  to  produce: 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  in  your  posses- 
sion, custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  or  available  to  you,  in  your  capacity  as 
present  or  former  Kligrapp,  Bessemer  Klavern  #20,  Realm  of  Alabama  of  the 
United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  which  the  "Con- 
stitution and  Laws"  of  said  organization  authorize  and  require  to  be  maintained 
by  you  and  any  other  officer  of  said  organization,  the  same  being  in  your 
possession,  custody  or  control. 

In  the  representative  capacity  set  forth  in  paragraph  2,  I  ask  you 
to  produce  the  documents  called  for. 

Mr.  Stephens.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  com- 
mittee the  documents  heretofore  ordered,  based  upon  the  grounds  pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Can  we  have  tlie  same  two  stipulations  with  regard 
to  this  paragraph? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  Mr.  Chairman. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Stephens,  you  are  hereby  directed  to  produce 
the  documents  described  in  paragraph  2. 


3080  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Stephens.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  commit- 
tee the  documents  heretofore  ordered  by  the  chairman,  based  upon  the 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  And  the  Chair  would  like  to  direct  that  the  reporter 
at  this  point  in  the  record  set  out  a  portion  of  the  Constitution  and 
Laws  of  the  United  Klans  of  America  previously  entered  into  the 
record  as  Shelton  Exhibit  No.  3,  specifically  that  portion  identified 
at  Section  5  on  page  39  thereof,  which  sets  forth  the  duties  of  the 
kligrapp  of  a  Klavern. 

(Section  5  follows:) 

Section  5.  KLIGRAPP :  The  Kligrapp  is  the  secretary  and  recording  oflBcer 
of  the  Klan.  He  shall  keep  an  accurate  and  complete  record  of  all  the  proceed- 
ings of  his  Klan  assembled,  and  a  correct  and  systematic  record  of  its  member- 
ship, and  of  the  date  each  member  was  naturalized,  etc.,  as  required  by  the  record 
book  for  that  purpose.  He  shall  make  a  report  through  the  proix^r  channles  [sic] 
to  the  proper  officers  not  later  than  the  10th  of  the  month  for  the  calendar  month 
last  past  on  the  regular  blanks  therefor ;  and  with  his  reports  he  shall  remit  to 
said  oflScer  or  officers,  all  monies  belonging  to  this  Order,  such  as  Imperial  Tax, 
Realm  or  Provincial  Tax,  Klectokons  monies  due  for  supplies  and  any  and  all 
other  monies  due  and  payable  to  said  officers.  He  shall  witness  all  requisitions 
made  for  any  article  or  paraphernalia,  regalia,  jewelry,  or  other  property  of  this 
Order,  to  be  used  by  the  Klan  or  a  member  thereof,  and  see  that  the  required 
sum  of  money  is  sent  therewith.  He  shall  notify  all  members  who  are  in  arrears 
three  months,  and  shall  notify  the  Imperial  office  of  the  arrears  of  a  member  for 
three  months.  He  shall  be  the  custodian  of  the  seal  of  the  Klan  and  shall  impress 
it  on  all  papers  and  documents  requiring  same  and  perform  such  other  duties 
as  may  be  required  of  him  by  the  Exalted  Cyclops,  the  Kloran  and  the  By-Laws 
of  his  Klan. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Proceed,  Mr.  Appell. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Stephens,  is  the  Klavern  to  which  you  belong, 
Bessemer  Klavern  No.  20,  the  Klavern  which  had  among  its  member- 
ship W.  O.  Eaton  and  Eugene  Thomas  ? 

Mr.  Stephens.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for 
the  reason  that  I  honestly  feel  my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate 
me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments 
5,  1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Stephens,  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you 
to  affirm  or  deny  the  fact,  that  the  cover  name  of  Bessemer  Klavern 
No.  20,  and  a  name  under  which  it  operates  a  bank  account  at  the  First 
National  Bank  of  Birmingham,  Bessemer  branch,  is  the  Young  Men's 
Social  Club,  Box  3093,  Hueytown,  Alabama. 

Mr.  Stephens.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  As  an  officer  of  that  Klavern,  were  you  ever  a  comaker 
of  checks  made  payable  to  "Gene  Thomas"  and  "W.  O.  Eaton"? 

Mr.  Stephens.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact  that  you  were  the  comaker, 
and  I  hand  you  Recordak  copies  of  four  checks  to  establish  that  fact. 

Mr.  Chairman,  the  record  should  be  corrected.    There  are  five. 

Mr.  Weltner.  The  witness  is  handed  five  checks  for  his  perusal. 

Mr.  Stephens.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Appell,  the  two  names  among  others  shown  on 
those  checks,  "W.  O.  Eaton"  and  "Gene  Thomas,"  are  those  the  names 
of  the  individuals  who  along  with  Gary  Rowe  and  Collie  Leroy 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 


3081 


Wilkins  were  involved  in  the  Viola  Liuzzo  incident  in  March  of  1965? 

Mr.  Appell.  They  are,  sir. 

I  would  like  to  put  to  Mr.  Stephens  as  a  fact,  and  ask  him  to  affirm 
or  deny  the  fact,  that  Collie  Leroy  Wilkins  was  also  a  member  of  his 
Klavern. 

Mr.  Stp:phens.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Checks  marked  "Myrtie  Stephens  Exhibit  No.  1."  Two  of  said 
checks  follow;  others  not  reproducible.) 

Myrtie  Stephens  Exhibit  No.  1 


KHhorB 


.  w 


1/y  ^  , 


-^^FmsfiitiiiiiMii*^ 


Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Stephens,  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact  that  this  Klavern 
has  been  known  as  the  Young  Men's  Social  Club  since  1956,  when  it 
was  affiliated  with  the  TT.S.  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan, 
under  the  leadership  of  Eldon  Edwards. 

Mr.  Stephens.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answ^er  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  1  shall  hand  you  for  your  verification,  Mr.  Stephens, 
signature  cards  filed  with  the  First  National  Bank  of  Birmingham, 
Bessemer  branch,  which  signature  cards  establish  that  July  28,  1956, 
that  the  authorized  signatures  to  that  account  were  L.  J.  Praytor, 


3082 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 


p-r-a-y-t-o-r,  K.  R.  Fields,  F-i-e-1-d-s,  George  Houston,  H-o-ii-s-t-o-n; 
that  this  authorization  was  changed  on  November  9,  1960,  to  the 
names  of  Henry  G.  McDaniel,  M.  Eugene  [Myrtie  E.]  Stephens, 
Oscar  T.  Syx;  and  that  on  March  the  17,  1965,  the  signature  card 
authorized  signatures  of  James  R.  Whitefield,  Cecil  E.  Davenport,  and 
Oscar  T.  Syx. 

Mr.  Stephens.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
basod  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Documents  marked  "Myrtie  Stephens  Exhibits  Nos.  2-A  through 
2-0,"  respectively,  follow:) 

Myrtie  Stephens  Exhibit  No.  2-A 


FORM    60-a-IM— 10-: 

THIii='lRST 


F3ESSEMER   BRANCH  "''^^!'^^^^^' 

\j  IK  OF  Birmingham,  Birmingham.  ALA 


TIic  signature—..  .;. 
will  recognize  in  the  pa> 

drafts,  acceptances  .ind  n 

The  handling  by  tVii-; 
shown  on-  the  icvtip*?  .=• 
conditior.3'  :•.'!•'  r-.i-,.;,..  •>; 


:tliorizcd   signature- 
i  insaction  of  other 


-ai  of  this  partnershiD,' 
^usincss  for  our  accotln 


which  you 
t.     Checks 

^of  tlus'within  signatures.  /  \ 

■her  itenis  will  be  subject  to  the  conditions 
reby  ac'snowledgcs  receipt   of  notice  of   said 


Title   ^ 

P;n-tncrrhii1 

D;..- 

Myrtie  Stephens  Exhibit  No.  2-B 


p|;4^B-i-M-3.59-97-c  BESSEMER   BRANCH 

lE^iRST  National  Bank  of  Birminghaivi.birmingham,  ala. 


^^  Tho  li.indling  by  thU  ottice  o(  ihecks,  drafo  and  oiticr  items  will  be  aubject  lo  iho  conditioot  shown  on 
4QW  rovrrao  cU!o  hereof,  and  tho  depositor  hereby  BcknovvIcdi;c]  receipt  of  notico  of  said  coudilions  and  contcau 
wad  ftgret;9  lo  tM  bound  thereby. 


Title      X-.//; 

■  ,';,   ■ 

Home  Office  Address 

Local  Address /_ 

'—■' 

Sff 

;nia'; 

■/^ 


Incorporate 


Phone 


-// 


Date  // 


^ 


COUNTERSIGNATURES 


The  t-i 
this  Corpo. 
business  for  o 
Checks,  drafts, 


///f/ic 


(I,  aro  tho  duly  authorizcj 
it  of  funds  and  the  tranff:c 


.of  the  'Within  .inentioned  signatures. 


I^J 


ff 


ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX   KLAN   IN    THE    U.S.  3083 

Myrtie  Stephens  Exhibit  No.  2-C 


BRANCH    J^(eSJ<^^gr^\ 
tlONAt  BANK  OF  BiRMiNgHAM.BmMmSHiCM,  aua. 


i^J^o^  .ii^Pfil 


i^ 


Phone 


Mr.  Weltner.  The  record  will  show  that  the  signature  cards  have 
been  handed  to  the  witness  for  his  examination. 

Mr.  Stephens,  after  examining  those,  will  you  tell  this  committee 
whether  or  not  that  is  your  signature  ? 

Mr.  Stephens.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  James  K.  Whitefield,  whose  name  was  added  to  the 
signature  card  of  March  17,  1965,  is  he  the  exalted  cyclops  of  the 
Klavern  ? 

Mr.  Stephens.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  October  1964,  did  you  know  Eugene  Thomas  to  be 
the  Klaliff  or  vice  president  of  the  Realm  of  Alabama,  and  James  R. 
"Whitefield  to  be  the  kligrapp  or  secretary  ? 

Mr.  Weltner.  Is  that  the  Grand  Klaliff  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  sir ;  Grand  Klaliff  and  the  grand  kligrapp. 

Mr.  Stephens.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  And  the  office  of  Grand  Klaliff  would  be  equivalent 
to  State  vice  president.    Is  that  correct,  Mr.  Appell  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Stephens,  do  you  know  Robert  Creel  to  be  the  Grand  Dragon  of 
the  State  of  Alabama  at  present  ? 

Mr.  Stephens.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  staff  has  no  further  questions  to  ask 
of  Mr.  Stephens. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Stephens,  what  is  the  Young  Men's  Social  Club 
of  Huey town,  Alabama  ? 


3084  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  ■ 

Mr.  Stephens.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  For  what  purposes  were  the  checks  which  have 
previously  been  exhibited  to  you  issued  to  Eugene  Thomas  and  W.  O. 
Eaton? 

Mr.  Stephens.  Sir,  I  respectfnlly  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  The  documents  previously  submitted  to  the  witness 
for  examination  will  be  entered  in  the  record  at  this  point. 

If  there  are  no  further  questions,  this  witness  will  be  excused. 

Mr.  Appell.  Herbert  Eugene  Reeves. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Do  you  solemnly  swear  the  testimony  you  w'ill  give 
in  this  hearing  will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the 
truth,  so  help  you  God  ? 

Mr.  Reeves.  I  do. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Be  seated. 

TESTIMONY   OF   HERBERT  EUGENE  REEVES,   ACCOMPANIED  BY 
COUNSEL,  LESTER  V.  CHALMERS,  JR. 

Mr.  Appell.  State  your  full  name  for  the  record. 

Mr.  Reeves.  Herbert  Eugene  Reeves. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  represented  by  comisel  ? 

Mr.  Reeves.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  counsel  identify  himself  for  the  record? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Lester  V.  Chalmers,  Jr.,  attorney  at  law,  501  First 
Federal  Building,  Raleigh,  North  Carolina. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Reeves,  are  you  appearing  here  today  in  accord- 
ance with  a  subpena  served  upon  you  on  October  26,  1965,  at  1805 
Second  Ave.  S.,  Birmingham,  Alabama  ? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Reeves.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Reeves,  the  subpena  served  upon  you  contained 
an  attachment,  wdiich  was  made  a  part  of  the  subpena,  and  under  the 
terms  of  the  subpena,  you  were  commanded  to  bring  with  you  and  to 
produce  documents  set  forth  in  paragraphs  1  and  2  of  the  attachment. 
Paragraph  1  reads: 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  relating  to 
the  organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  business  and  affairs  of  the  Invisible 
Empire,  United  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also 
known  as  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan, 
and  affiliated  organizations,  namely,  the  Alabama  Rescue  Service  and  Eastview 
Klavern  #13,  in  your  ijossession,  custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  you  or 
available  to  you  as  present  or  former  Exalted  Cyclops,  Eastview  Klavern  #13 
of  the  Invisible  Empire,  United  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America. 
Inc.,  also  known  as  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux 
Klan. 

In  the  representative  capacity  set  forth  in  paragraph  1  of  the 
subpena,  I  ask  you  to  produce  the  documents  called  for. 

Mr.  Reeves.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee 
any  and  all  documents  demanded  by  the  committee  upon  subpena  dated 
October  14,  1965,  for  the  reason  that  I  honestly  feel  that  to  do  so  might 
tend  to  incriminate  and  violate  my  rights  as  granted  to  me  by — guar- 
anteed to  me  by  amendments  5,  1,4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the 
United  States  of  America. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3085 

I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any  and  all  rec- 
ords as  requested  by  this  committee  under  subpena  dated  October  14, 
1965,  for  that  information  is  not  relevant  and  germane  to  the  subject 
under  investigation  and  the  same  would  not  aid  the  Congress  in  the 
consideration  of  any  valid  remedial  legislation,  nor  is  such  inquiry 
within  the  scope  authorized  to  be  investigated  by  the  Rules  XI  of 
the  rules  adopted  by  the  89th  Congress,  by  the  House  Resolution  8, 
adopted  January  the  4th,  1965. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Chalmers,  can  we  stipulate  that  this  witness 
has  been  furnished  a  copy  of  the  chairman's  opening  statement  and  is 
familiar  with  the  content? 

Mr.  Chaliniers.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  And  that  the  directions  in  the  subpena  to  produce 
documents  called  for  are  made  to  the  witness  in  the  official  representa- 
tive capacity  as  described  in  the  subpena? 

Mr.  Chauviers.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Reeves,  the  committee  does  not  accept  your  rea- 
sons for  failure  to  comply  with  this  subpena,  and  accordingly,  as 
chairman  of  this  subcommittee,  I  order  and  direct  you  to  produce  those 
documents  at  this  time. 

Mr.  Ree\t:s.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee 
the  documents  therefore  ordered — heretofore  ordered  by  the  chairman, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  I  further  give  you  the  opportunity  to  present  any 
reason  to  this  committee  why  you  may  be  unable  to  produce  the  docu- 
ments identified  and  described  in  that  subpena. 

Absent  a  response,  proceed  to  the  next  paragraph. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Reeves,  paragraph  2  calls  upon  you  to  produce : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  in  your  i>os- 
session,  custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  or  available  to  you,  in  your  capacity 
as  present  or  former  Exalted  Cyclops,  Eastview  Klavern  #13  of  the  United 
Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Kniglits  of  tlie  Ku  Klux  Klan,  which  the  "Constitution 
and  Laws"  of  said  organization  authorize  and  require  to  be  maintained  by  you 
and  any  other  officer  of  said  organization,  the  same  being  in  your  possession, 
custody  or  control. 

In  the  representative  capacity  set  forth  in  paragraph  2,  I  ask  you 
to  produce  the  documents  called  for. 

Mr.  Reeves.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  chairman 
that — to  the  committee  the  documents  heretofore  ordered,  based  upon 
the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  AVeltner.  Do  we  have  the  same  two  stipulations,  Mr.  Chalmers? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Reeves,  I  order  and  direct  you  to  produce  the 
documents. 

Mr.  Reeves.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee 
the  documents  heretofore  ordered  by  the  chairman,  based  upon  the 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Reeves,  committee  investigation  establishes  you 
to  be  the  exalted  cyclops  of  Eastview  Klaveni  No.  13.  Is  the  result 
of  the  committee's  investigation  factual  ? 


3086  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Eeeves.  I  respectively  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
reason  that  I  honestly  feel  my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate  me  in 
violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  in  amendments  5,  1,  4. 
and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Reeves,  within  the  membership  of  Eastview 
Klavem  No.  13,  is  there  William  Holt,  who  is  the  grand  kligrapp  of 
the  Realm  of  Alabama  at  the  present  time;  Albert  Peake,  the  grand 
night-hawk;  Leroy  Rutherford,  holding  the  rank  of  major  in  the 
State  security  guard;  Glenn  Wheeler,  secretary  of  Province  No.  5? 

Mr.  Reeves.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  When  and  where  were  you  born? 

Mr.  Reeves.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr,  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  in  view  of  the  witness'  claimed  privi- 
lege and  his  consistent  refusal  to  answer  my  questions,  I  present  to 
the  committee  the  results  of  our  investigation  as  they  pertain  to  Mr. 
Reeves. 

Mr.  Reeves  was  bom  on  September  11, 1929,  in  Huntsville,  Alabama. 
He  has  a  9th  grade  education  and  has  been  employed  generally  as  a 
printer  since  he  left  school,  his  most  recent  employment  being  a  bind- 
mg  foreman  with  the  Commercial  Printing  Company  of  South  Bir- 
mingham, Alabama. 

According  to  a  news  account  of  June  9,  1963,  in  an  article  over  the 
byline  of  Tom  Lankford,  captioned  "JeflPerson  men  arrested  with 
weapons  near  U  of  A,"  there  is  contained  the  following  information : 

Six  men  from  Jefferson  County  were  arrested  just  outside  tlie  University— 

and  this  is  bylined  from  Tuscaloosa — 

just  outside  the  Universiity  campus  Saturday  night  with  an  assortment  of  pistols, 
nifeiiLoLi^u-o,  uiiu  i^ayuucts  in  tiieir  autos. 

******* 

Arrested  were  William  Ross  Keith,  34,  201  11th  St.,  Robinwood ;  Herman  F. 
Cash,  44,  804  Tuscaloosa  Ave.,  Birmingham;  Herbert  Reeves,  33,  5728  33rd  St. 
North,  Birmingham ;  Gary  Rowe,  Jr.,  23,  of  Ninth  Court  West,  Birmingham ; 
Charles  Cagle,  22,  Birmingham  Rt.  9,  and  Ellis  R.  Denesmore  [D-e-n-e-s-m-o-r-e] , 
61,  1864  16th  St.  North,  Birmingham. 

C.  W.  Russell,  assistant  public  safety  director,  quoted  the  men  as  saying  they 
were  KKK  officials  *  *  *. 

(Document  marked  "Herbert  Reeves  Exhibit  No.  1"  follows:) 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX   KLAN    IN   THE    U.S. 


3087 


Herbert  Reeves  Exhibit  Nc.  1 
[Birmingham,  Ala.,  News.  }une  9,  1963] 


Jefferson  inen  arrested 
with  weapons  near  U  of  A 


BV  TOM  LANKFORD 

Nfw.  nUd  •riU-r 
TUSCALOOSA.  .Iiiiif  »-Six  men 
(mm  .IcUcrsnn  Cnunly  were  ar- 
rrslcd  ju^l  oulsiric  Ihc  I'nivcrMly 
rompun  Saliirday  nighl  wilh  an 
•  vMirtmcnl  of  pi>^lols  mchlMiclu 
and  hH)oncU  in  Iht-ir  aulos 

Slnlc  Public  Safety  Director  Al 
Linen  .laid  the  men  were  en  route 
lo  a  Klan  rally  He  said  they  were 
charged  with  violating  the  State 
Firearms  Act. 


KfHh, 


(etf  were  William  Ko^i 
M.  Ml  nth  "St..  Robin- 
nSo3-.  Herman  F.  Cash.  U.  M* 
Tuiic«l<H>«r^ve.riftlrnilni(tiBm: 
UetlKrl  Rfe%r».  OJ,  JTM  Urd 
.Si.  .^orm.  itirmlnKham;  Gary 
Rowp  Jr..  23.  o(  NInUi  ^ourl 
T^fir.  RirmlnKham:  Charles 
Caclr.  tt.  nirmingham"T[T.  I, 
tnJ  (jllii  Vnyiesmajf.  *l.  iet4 
16lh  sl.~N'orlh,  Btrminfham. 

C  W.   RUSSELL.   assisUnt   pub- 


tafety  director,  quoted  th« 
men  a«  saying  they  wcie^KKK 
offirials      and      were     Koing      lo 

police"  the  rally  held  on  the  U.  S. 
HiRhw.iy  II  bypann  50uthwe«l  irf 
Tuscaloosa 

Russell  s.tid  state  trooperi>  had 
prior  information  that  the  armed 
men  were  on  their  way  hfre  and 
rwidblock.s  were  set  up  Two  of  the 
were  wearing  pistols  and  two 
(her  pistoU  wert  found  in  the 


STATE  TROOPERS  SEIZE  WEAPONS  FROM  BIRMINGHAM  MEN 
MaJ.  Bankhead  Bates,  left,  and  C.  W.  Russell,  assistant  director  of  public 

»atet>,  survey  arsenal       ^aiso  found  were  four  bayonfts. 
niphtslick5.  and  a  cotton  hook 


■^\ 


^r 


it 


Clie  arrested  men  were  traveling 
a  two  cars,  hearing  .Jefferson 
couiily  license  plates. 
<  Two  M  the  oeeupania  In  one 
jl  the  can  sere  wearinK  while 
^nilormt  l>e«riiig^JQaa.".l«ii>«t« 
>ilh  epaulettes  wi 


JjCrofx  burned 

!{ ABOUT  3,000  persons  attended 
lie  Klan  rally  held  on  private 
property  just  off  the  bypass. 
Many  of  the  spectators  were 
^men  and  small  children. 
-iA  gigantic  cross,  about  60  feet 
tall  with  40  foot  arms,  enwrapped 

2  burlap  baps,  was  Ignited  lo 
ckotf  the  rally 
.•About  fiO  newsmen,  some  of 
t{iem  with  elaborate  sound  gear 
wid  cameras,  were  wnrmly  wel- 
turned  by  RofaeU  Shallan.  grand 
(kagon  of  Ate  KKK  In  Alabanw 


KKAN  Bl'RNS  HUGE  CROSS  NftAR  TUSCALOOSA 
.  .  .  Robrd  Klansmcn  circle  flaming  60-fuot  cross 


behiad  •  fUl  bed  semi  traclor- 
tnller  truck  and  gave  them 
•ogiesltoDS  on  possible  pbo«*- 
graiihs  ahd  other  Instnictioiis. 
He\sked  Ihem  not  lo  take  pic 
lures   of   faces,    only    backs. 

About  200  robed  Klansmen, 
many  of  Ihem  wearing  hoods  over 
their  faces,  were  present. 

Calvin  Craig,  head  of _  Ihe  At- 
lanlaTCtan.  w<is  opening  speaker. 
CfflHTTxtended  thanks  to  the 
"greatest  man  in  Alabama"— 
Ckiv  George  C  Wallace— for  his 
r  aland. 


59-222  O— 67— pt.  4- 


3088  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  ArPELL.  On  April  30,  1964,  Robert  Thonicas,  the  province  titan, 
appointed  Gene  Eeeves  as  the  new  exalted  cyclops  of  Eastview  Klavern 
No.  13,  replacing  Ronald  Tidwell  in  that  position. 

Mr.  Weltner.  One  minute. 

Is  the  Gene  Reeves  referred  to  Herbert  E.  Reeves,  the  witness? 

Mr.  Appell.  Herbert  E.  Reeves,  witness,  and  Gene  Reeves  are  the 
same  individual. 

On  May  14, 1964,  it  was  known  that  Gene  Reeves,  together  with  four 
or  five  members  of  the  Bessemer  Klavern,  went  to  Rickwood  Field  in 
Birmingham,  Alabama,  in  order  to  do  some  "missionary  work"  with 
Negroes  who  were  attending  a  baseball  game  at  the  integrated  pai4^.  A 
Birmingham  policeman  had  his  gini  taken  away  from  him  by  Klans- 
men  during  this  activity,  but  the  gun  was  later  returned  to  him  at  his 
home. 

At  a  weekly  meeting  of  the  Eastview  Klavern  held  July  9, 1964,  Bob 
Morgan  and  Gene  Reeves  brought  22  pounds  of  mackerel  and  placed 
tw^o  mackerel  each  in  a  jar  and  left  all  the  jars  in  a  field  behind  Reeves's 
residence  to  sit  in  the  sun. 

The  ingredient  to  be  developed  w^as  to  be  used  as  a  stink  bomb  ingre- 
dient with  the  Alabama  theater  the  only  specified  location  mentioned 
where  the  ingredient  might  be  used. 

At  the  weekly  meeting  of  the  Eastview  Klavern  held  on  June  11, 
1964,  it  was  announced  that  the  city  of  Birmingham  would  be  broken 
into  four  sections,  with  a  squad  assigned  to  each  section. 

Lowell  Rogers  would  handle  the  western  section;  Gene  Reeves 
would  handle  the  eastern  section;  Harry  Walker  would  handle  the 
northern  section;  and  Ronald  Tidwell,  the  southern  section.  Each 
squad  leader  would  have  three  men  assigned  to  him.  Gene  Reeves 
would  continue  to  handle  the  "action  group." 

At  a  meeting  in  August  of  .1964,  Gene  Reeves  and  Ronald  Tidwell 
announced  that  they  were  instructing  students  at  Phillips,  Ramsey, 
and  Woodland  high  schools  in  the  art  of  jujitsu  on  Tuesdays  and 
Wednesday  nights  at  the  Klavern  hall. 

On  December  14,  1964,  new  officers  of  the  Eastview  Klavern  were 
elected,  and  Gene  Reeves  was  reelected  as  exalted  cyclops. 

This  information,  Mr.  Chairman,  indicates  that  Mr.  Reeves  possesses 
additional  information  which  is  both  pertinent  and  relevant  to  this 
inquiry  and  would  materially  aid  the  Congress  in  enacting  remedial 
legislation. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Reeves,  you  now  have  the  opportunity,  having 
heard  the  sworn  statement  of  "the  investigator  as  to  the  result  of  this 
committee's  investigation,  to  reply  to  any  portion  of  that  statement. 
You  may  confirm  or  challenge  the  accuracy  of  the  information  or 
explain  any  part  of  it  or  any  other  matters  that  this  committee  deems 
relevant.    You  have  that  opportunity  now. 

Absent  any  rebuttal  on  your  part  or  further  evidence  coming  to 
this  committee,  we  will  rely  upon  the  accuracy  of  that  investigation. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Reeves,  the  counnittee's  investigation  establishes 
that  you  were  a  part  of  the  Imperial  Klokann  Committee,  along  with 
Ralph  Roton,  Cecil  Henson,  Eugene  Thomas,  Madison  Hill,  and  Ron- 
ald Tidwell.     Is  that  information  factual? 

Mr.  Reeves.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3089 

Mr.  Appell.  As  a  member  of  the  Imperical  Klokann,  were  you  ever 
ordered,  and  did  you  in  fact  carry  out  an  order,  wliicli  related  to  acts 
of  intimidation  or  violence  on  the  part  of  any  citizen  or  property  of  a 
citizen  of  tlie  State  of  Alabama  i 

Mr.  Beeves.  Sir,  I  respectively  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previous  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  the  language  of  the  Klan,  is  "missionary  work"  used 
to  designate  acts  of  intimidation  or  violence  ? 

Mr.  Reeves.  Sir,  I  respectively  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previous  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Is  the  cover  name  of  the  Eastview  Klavern  No.  13  the 
Benevolent  Brotherhood  ? 

Mr.  Reeves.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previous  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Any  further  questions  by  the  staff  ? 

Mr.  Reeves,  are  you  a  member  of  any  organization  known  as  the 
Benevolent  Brotherhood  ? 

Mr.  Reeves.  Sir,  I  respectively  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previous  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  What  is  tlie  action  group  referred  to  in  the  investi- 
gator's statement,  of  which  you  were  a  member  ? 

Mr.  Reeves.  Sir,  I  respectively  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previous  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  One  or  two  questions  to  the  investigators. 

The  klokann  committee  under  the  United  Klaus  of  America  is  a 
group  within  the  Klan  organization  whose  function  it  is  to  carry  out 
directives.     Is  that  correct,  Mr.  Appell  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  sir,  it  is.  It  compares  with  what  we  established 
to  be  the  "wrecking  crews"'  in  the  State  of  Louisiana.  Their  functions 
are  identical. 

Mr.  Weltner.  And  the  Imperial  Klokann  Committee  for  the  State 
of  Alabama  is  that  group  of  members,  Klansmen,  who  are  charged  to 
carry  out  the  directions  of  the  imperial  office,  headed  by  the  Imperial 
Wizard,  Robert  M.  Shelton  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  It  is  our  information,  Mr.  Chairman,  that  this  Im- 
perial Klokann  Committee  was  available  for  assignments  any  place 
that  they  might  be  needed. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Well,  let  me  ask  the  witness:  The  sworn  testimony 
indicates,  Mr.  Reeves,  that  you  have  served  as  a  member  of  the  Im- 
perial Klokann  Committee.  Did  you  ever  carry  out  any  directives  or 
instructions  from  Robert  M.  Shelton,  the  Imperial  Wizard  of  the 
United  Klans  of  America? 

Mr.  Reeves.  Sir,  I  respectively  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previous  stated. 

Mr.  Buchanan.  No  questions. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Any  further  questions  by  the  staff  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  This  witness  will  be  excused.  And  the  subcommittee 
will  stand  in  recess  until  10  a.m.  on  Monday,  next  week,  to  meet  in  this 
same  place. 

(Whereupon,  at  12:30  p.m.,  Friday,  February  4,  1966,  the  subcom- 
mittee recessed,  to  reconvene  at  10  a.m.,  Monday,  February  7. 1966.) 


ACTIVITIES  OF  KU  KLUX  KLAN  ORGANIZATIONS  IN 
THE  UNITED  STATES 

Part  4 


MONDAY,  FEBRUARY  7,  196$ 

United  States  House  of  Representatives, 

Subcommittee  of  the 
Committee  on  Un-American  Activities, 

Washington^  D.C. 
public  hearings 

The  subcommittee  of  the  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities, 
as  reconstituted  for  the  February  Y  hearings,  met,  pursuant  to  recess, 
at  10:15  a.m.  in  the  Caucus  Room,  Cannon  House  Office  Building, 
Washington,  D.C,  Hon.  Charles  L.  Weltner  (chairman  of  the  sub- 
committee) presiding. 

(Subcommittee  members:  Representatives  Charles  L.  Weltner, 
of  Georgia,  chairman;  John  M.  Ashbrook,  of  Ohio;  and  John  H. 
Buchanan,  Jr.,  of  Alabama.) 

Subcommittee  members  present:  Representatives  Weltner  and 
Buchanan. 

Staff  members  present:  Francis  J.  McNamara,  director;  William 
Hitz,  general  counsel;  Alfred  M.  Nittle,  coimsel;  Donald  T.  Appell, 
chief  investigator;  and  Philip  R.  Manual,  investigator. 

Mr.  Weltner.  The  subcommittee  will  be  in  order. 

The  Chair  would  like  to  make  a  part  of  the  record  of  today's  pro- 
ceedings the  direction  of  the  chairman  of  this  committee,  the  Honor- 
able Edwin  E.  Willis,  designating  as  a  subcommittee  to  sit  for  today 
myself  as  chairman,  Messrs.  Ashbrook  and  Buchanan. 

(The  order  of  appointment  of  the  subcommittee  follows:) 

Febeuary  2,  1966. 
To  Me.  Francis  J.  McNamara, 
Director.  Coiumittcc  on  Vn-Amcrican  Activities: 

Pursuant  to  the  provisions  of  the  law  and  the  Rules  of  this  Committee,  I 
hereby  appoint  a  subcommittee  of  the  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  con- 
sisting of  Honorable  Charles  L.  Weltner  as  Chairman,  and  Honorable  John  M. 
Ashbrook  and  Honorable  John  Buchanan  as  associate  members,  to  conduct  hear- 
ings in  Washington,  D.C.  on  Monday,  February  7,  196G,  as  contemplated  by  the 
resolution  adopted  by  the  Committee  on  the  30th  day  of  March,  1965,  authorizing 
hearings  concerning  the  activities  of  the  various  Ku  Klux  Klan  organizations 
in  the  United  States. 

Plea.se  make  this  action  a  matter  of  Committee  record. 

If  any  member  indicates  his  inability  to  serve,  please  notify  me. 

Given  under  my  hand  this  2nd  day  of  February,  1966. 

/s/    Edwin  E.  Willis 
Edwin  E.  Willis 
Chairman,  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities 

3091 


3092  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    TJ.S. 

Mr.  Weltner.  The  first  witness  today  is  Mr,  James  McCroskey. 

Mr.  McC^roskey,  will  you  come  forward,  please? 

Do  you  solemnly  swear  the  testimony  you  shall  give  in  this  hearing 
will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth,  so  help 
you  God? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  I  do. 

TESTIMONY  OF  JAMES  W.  McCROSKEY 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  McCroskey,  will  you  state  your  full  name  for  the 
record  ? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  James  W.  McCroskey. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  appearing  here  today  in  accordance  with  a 
subpena  served  upon  you  on  the  3d  day  of  January  1966  by  John  D. 
Sullivan,  an  investigator  of  this  committee? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  I  am. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  McCroskey,  when  and  where  were  you  born  ? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  March  27,  1909,  in  Birmingham,  Alabama. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  McCroskey,  what  is  your  present  employment? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  I  am  the  plant  manager  for  the  W.  S.  Dickey 
Clay  Manufacturing  Company. 

Mr.  Appell.  How  long  have  you  been  associated  with  the  W.  S. 
Dickey  Clay  Manufacturing  Company? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  Twenty-eight  years. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  McCroskey,  during  the  committee's  investigation 
it  was  determined  that,  starting  in  February  of  1965  up  to  September 
or  August  of  1965,  a  series  of  acts  of  violence  against  individuals  and 
property  of  the  Dickey  Clay  Manufacturing  Company  was  carried 
out. 

Do  you  possess  knowledge  of  these  acts? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Can  you  tell  the  committee  in  a  brief  word  what  led 
up  to  these  acts,  and  also  if  you  have  a  chronology  of  the  acts  by  dates 
and  type  of  acts  which  have  been  carried  out  against  the  Dickey  Clay 
Manufacturing  Company  ? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  I  do  have  the  listing,  and  it  was  a  labor  dispute 
with  some  of  our  employees  that  led  up  to  this  strike  situation. 

Mr.  Appell.  How  many  local — trade  union  locals  represent  em- 
ployees of  the  W.  S.  Dickey  Clay  Manufacturing  Company  ? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  Prior  to  that  time,  only  one.  Currently,  there 
are  two. 

Mr.  Appell.  And  what  are  the  two  locals  now  represented  there? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  United  Steelworkers  and  the  United  Brick  and 
Clay  Workers. 

Mr.  Appell.  The  labor  dispute  to  which  you  referred— was  this 
between  the  Dickey  Clay  Manufacturing  Company  and  the  Steelwork- 
ers or  the  United  Brick  and  Clay  Workers  ? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  The  Ignited  Brick  and  C'lay  Workers. 

Mr.  Appell.  Without  going  into  great  detail,  can  you  briefly  ex- 
plain to  tlie  committee  tlint  wliich  led  up  to  the  strike  to  which  you 
referred  ? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  A  small  group  of  our  employees  identified  as  in- 
spectors petitioned  the  NLRB  for  an  election,  for  representation  by 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3093 

the  United  Brick  and  Clay  Workers.  An  election  was  held,  and  the 
group  certified  by  NLRB,  and  a  union  local  was  established.  After 
this  local  was  established,  the  Dickey  Company  met  with  representa- 
tives of  this  local  and  their  international  representatives  in  an  effort  to 
draw  up  a  contract  for  working  conditions  and  hourly  rates. 

We  had  several  meetings  during  the  latter  part  of  November,  during 
December,  and  in  January,  being  unable  to  come  to  an  agreement  on  the 
terms  of  the  contract. 

On  February  8,  1965,  the  Brick  and  Clay  Workers  established  a 
picket  line  in  front  of  our  plant. 

Mr.  Appell.  The  inspectors  that  petitioned  for  a  bargaining  elec- 
tion, prior  to  their  petitioning  for  an  election,  were  they  considered  as 
supervisory  personnel  and  therefore  not  within  the  contract  entered 
into  between  the  W.  S.  Dickey  Clay  Manufacturing  Company  and  the 
United  Steelw^orkers  local  ? 

Mr.  McCroskp:y.  That  is  correct.  They  had  been  excluded  in  our 
contract  with  the  Steelworkers, 

Mr.  Appell.  What  was  the  date  that  the  strike  vote  was  taken  and 
the  actual  date  when  a  picket  line  was  thrown  across  Dickey  Clay 
property  'I 

Mr.  McCroskey.  I  don't  know  the  date  that  the  vote  was  taken, 
but  it  was  probably  prior,  a  few  days  prior  to  February  8.  The  picket 
line  was  established  at  6  a.m.  on  February  8. 

Mr.  Appell.  Starting  with  February  8,  can  you  give  to  the  com- 
mittee a  listing  of  acts  taken  against  the  Dickey  Clay  Pipe  Company  ?  ^ 

Mr.  McCroskey.  Yes.  Would  you  like  me  to  furnish  a  copy,  or 
shall  I  read  it? 

Mr.  Appell.  Well,  I  would  prefer  that  you  read  the  items  into  the 
record  and,  if  you  have  with  you  any  photographic  evidence  of  the 
extent  of  damage  against  either  Dickey  Clay  property  or  property 
of  employees  of  Dickey  Clay,  that  you  produce  them  in  evidence  as 
a  part  of  your  testimony. 

Mr.  McCroskey.  I  do  have  such  evidence. 

This  listing  does  not  cover  all  of  the  incidents,  but  it  covers  most  of 
those  major  incidents  that  involved  j^roperty  damage. 

Thursday,  February  18 — I  will  just  read  these  as  I  have  them  here — 
damage  to  -SG-inch  pipe  couplings,  switch  pulled  on  a  stack  fan,  one 
automobile  shot  at  4  :oO  p.m.,  and 

Mr.  Appkll.  Now  this  automobile  that  was  shot — this  was  an  auto- 
mobile of  an  enemy  of  Dickey  Clay,  Avhich  employee  was  not  on 
strike? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  Yes. 

Mr.  AVeltxer.  All  right,  that  was  a  car  that  belonged  to  a  non- 
striking  employee? 

Mr.  ^McCroskey.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltxer.  All  right,  proceed,  Mr.  McCroskey. 

Mr.  ]\IcCroskey.  I  do  not  have  a  photograph  of  this  particular 
incident.    I  have  a  sheriff's  report  as  to  what  did  occur. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  think  that  if  Mr.  McCroskey  can 
supply  the  sheriff's  reports,  which  go  into  some  detail,  that  we  ac- 

^  Correct  name  W.  S.  Dickey  Clay  Manufacturing  Co. 


3094  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

cept  them  and  make  tliem  a  part  of  t'lie  record  of  Mr.  McCroskey's 
appearance. 

Mr.  Weltnkr.  The  report  of  tlie  slieriff  will  be  entered  into  the 
record  at  this  point. 

(Document  marked  "James  McCroskey  Exhibit  No.  1-A"  and  re- 
tained in  committee  files.) 

Mr.  McCitosKEY.  On  Friday,  February  19,  there  was  an  automo- 
bile shot  at  12:15  a.m.  This  automobile  belonged  to  a  nonstriking 
employee.    His  name  was  Tom  Cotton. 

(Document  marked  "James  McCroskey  Exhibit  No.  1-B"  and  re- 
tained in  committee  files.) 

Mr.  McCroskky.  On  "Wednesday,  February  24,  we  discovered  sugar 
in  the  gasoline  tank  of  one  of  our  dump  trucks. 

On  Sunday,  February  28,  there  was  an  explosion  occurred  at  11 
p.m.  adjacent  to  our  main  building  and  just  outside  the  wall  of  the 
electrical  power  control  room. 

Mr.  Appell.  May  I  ask  you  there  that  if  this  exj^losion  of  dynamite 
had  been  placed  closer  to  your  electric  power  control,  what  damage 
would  the  plant  have  encountered  ? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  Well,  the  plant  would  probably  have  been  out  of 
operation.  This  was  the  main  control  system  adjacent  to  the  substa- 
tion, and  all  of  the  switch  gear  was  just  inside  this  wall. 

Mr.  Appell.  What  was  the  extent  of  damage  ? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  Relatively  small.  There  was  a  drain  pipe  lead- 
ing from  the  roof  that  was  completely  destroyed,  two  or  three  sheets 
of  the  transite  (?)  siding  of  the  building  was  broken  and  damaged, 
there  was  a  small  hole  blown  in  the  ground  against  the  side  of  the 
building,  and  an  area  about  2  feet  square  of  the  brick  wall  at  the  base 
of  the  building  was  damaged. 

(Document  marked  "James  McCroskey  Exhibit  No.  1-C"  and  re- 
tained in  committee  files.) 

Mr.  Appell.  At  the  time  that  explosion  took  place,  was  any  part 
of  the  Dickey  Clay  property  immediately  accessible  to  anyone  who 
would  enter  its  grounds? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  Yes,  even  though  the  plant  was  remote  from  the 
nearest  roadways,  there  was  no  fencing  around  the  property  at  any 
area. 

Mr.  Appell.  So  that  anyone  could  have  come  up  to  the  property  it- 
self and  lobbed  a  charge  of  dynamite  that  could  have  detonated  at  al- 
most any  place  that  person  cared  to  destroy. 

Mr.  McCroskey.  That  is  correct. 

Mr.  Appell.  Getting  a  little  bit  ahead  of  ourselves,  because  of  this 
and  subsequent  acts  of  vandalism  or  bombings  against  the  property, 
did  Dickey  Clay  surround  its  property  with  fencing? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  Yes,  we  diet. 

Mr.  Appell.  And  when  did  you  approximately  do  that  ? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  This  was  completed  the  latter  part  of  July. 

Mr.  Appell.  Now  picking  up  with  February  the  28th,  would  you 
continue  with  the  acts  of  vandalism  or  other  acts  against  your  prop- 
erty or  the  property  of  employees  ? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  On  that  same  date  of  the  2Sth,  in  addition  to  the 
explosion,  there  were  two  tires  cut  on  one  of  the  trucks  or  truck 
trailers  that  was  parked  at  our  loading  dock. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3095 

On  March  the  2d,  one  of  our  employees,  as  he  left  the  property, 
reported  that  someone  hit  his  car  with  rocks — and  followed  him  down 
the  highway,  and  what  he  thought  was  shots  were  fired,  but  they  did 
not  hit  his  car. 

On  Wednesday,  March  3,  there  w^ere  two  power  shovels  apparently 
shot  at  with  a  shotgun  and  the  fuel  lines  cut  on  the  engines.  This 
equipment  belonged  to  a  contractor  who  stored  his  equipment  on  our 
property. 

Saturday,  March  6,  one  of  our  employee's  cars  was  shot  at  as  he 
left  our  property,  and  he  found  one  hole  in  the  trunk  of  his  car.  This 
occurred  around"^  midnight. 

(Document  marked  "James  McCroskey  Exhibit  No.  1-D"  and  re- 
tained in  committee  files.) 

Mr.  McCroskey.  On  Monday,  March  8,  another  employee's  car  was 
shot  as  he  left  the  plant  property.  This  particular  occasion  was 
rather  severe;  inasmuch  as  the  shot  was  apparently  buckshot,  it  punc- 
tured seven  holes  in  this  automobile,  in  the  left  front  fender,  as  well 
as  puncturing  the  tire  on  the  left  front  of  his  car. 

(Document  marked  "James  McCroskey  Exhibit  No.  1-E."  See 
p.  3126.) 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  McCroskey,  I  would  like  to  interrupt  you  at  this 
point.  You  have  talked  about  Robert  Smith's  car  being  shot,  Tom 
Cotton's  car  being  shot,  J.  Macon's  car  being  shot. 

Are  these  employees  Negro  or  white  employees  ? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  These  particular  ones  are  colored.     Thus  far. 

Mr.  Appeli..  Would  you  please  continue  and  when  you  deal  with 
an  employee,  would  you  advise  the  committee  as  to  whether  or  not  he 
was  a  white  or  Negro  employee  ? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  Yes.  Wednesday,  March  10,  one  of  our  em- 
ployees, who  was  colored,  was  using  the  company's  station  wagon  to 
run  an  errand,  w^as  stopped  on  the  road,  the  glass  was  broken  in  the 
door,  the  road  was  blocked,  but  this  employee  was  able  to  get  around  the 
vehicle  and  reenter  the  plant. 

(Document  marked  "James  McCroskey  Exhibit  No.  1-F."  See 
p.  3120.) 

Mr.  Weltner  What  road  was  blocked? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  The  highway  in  front  of  our  property. 

Mr.  Weltner.  The  entrance  to  the  plant  was  blocked? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  Not  with  reference  to  this  incident.  It  was  away 
from  the  plant  entrance,  maybe  500  yards. 

Mr.  Weltner.  All  right. 

Mr.  McCroskey.  On  this  same  date,  March  10,  some  of  A.  F.  James 
Truck  Lines  trucks  as  they  entered  the  plant  had  windshields  and  side 
glasses  broken  with  rocks  or  bottles  being  thrown  from  the  picket  line. 

This  is  not  listed  on  my  schedule  but  this  is  the  sheriff's  report  of 
an  incident  that  occurred  involving  two  of  A.  F.  James  Truck  Lines 
and  a  house  trailer  or  automobile  trailer  that  was  parked  in  our  plant 
entrance. 

Mr.  Appell.  Does  this  refer  to  an  incident  whereby  the  trucks  were 
attempting  to  leave  and  they  w^ere  attacked  with  rocks,  and  in  an  at- 
tempt to  return  to  the  property  that  they  struck  a  trailer  which  was 
being  used  as  the  strike  headquarters? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  That  is  right. 


3096  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  ArPELL.  Is  this  the  incident  which  resulted  in  a  complaint  being 
made  against  the  truck  drivers,  accusing  them  of  an  attack  upon  the 
individuals  in  the  trailer  with  an  intent  to  kill  ? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  And  was  one  of  the  people  in  the  trailer  at  that  time 
Collie  Leroy  Wilkins? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell,  Was  Collie  Leroy  Wilkins  ever  an  employee  of  the 
Dickey  Clay  Manufacturing  Company? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Was  this  the  first  time,  to  your  knowledge,  of  partici- 
pation in  the  activity  by  Collie  Leroy  Wilkins? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Would  you  continue,  Mr.  McCroskey? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  Pursuing  this  same  subject,  I  will  go  following 
the  list. 

Mr.  Appell.  Well,  you  pursue  this,  if  I  have  not  carried  it  further. 

Mr.  McCroskey.  Well,  in  answer  to  your  last  question,  there  were 
several  occasions  in  which  Wilkins  was  present  on  our  picket  line. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Prior  to  this  incident? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  Yes. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Well,  we  will  put  that  copy  of  the  sheriff's  report 
concerning  the  trailer  incident  in  the  record  at  this  point. 

(Document  marked  "James  McCroskey  Exhibit  No.  1-G"  and  re- 
tained in  committee  files.) 

Mr.  Weltner.  Would  you  move  on  to  your  next  list,  please,  sir? 

Mr.  McCroskey,  On  Thursday,  March  11,  around  2:40  a.m.,  the 
main  gas  valve  was  turned  off  that  supplies  our  plant,  and  this  gas 
meter  is  located  near  the  road  and  was  also  near  the  plant  entrance  in 
which  the  picket  line  was  established.  This  necessitated  contacting  the 
utility  company  and  having  them  to  send  someone  out  to  turn  the  meter 
back  on. 

Mr,  Appell,  Was  any  damage  sustained  to  kilns  or  other  Dickey 
property  while  this  gas  was  turned  off  ? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  Inasmuch  as  there  was  only  about  a  4-hour  delay, 
there  was  not  any  severe  damage.  It  could  have  been,  if  it  were  not 
handled  properly.  That  was  the  reason  for  the  necessity  of  having  the 
gas  company  to  turn  it  back  on, 

Mr,  Appell,  All  right,  sir. 

Mr,  McCroskey,  This  is  a  high-pressure  system,  and  a  hundred 
pounds  of  pressure  on  this  line  at  that  meter,  and  it  is  rather  dangerous 
for  someone  that  don't  know  what  they  are  doing  to  handle  it. 

On  Friday,  March  12,  our  company  was  able  to  obtain  an  injunction 
against  these  proceedings,  these  things  that  had  happened,  acts  of 
violence,  blocking  of  driveways,  and  multiple  pickets. 

Mr.  Appell,  Did  the  injunction  result  in  a  termination  of  these  acts 
of  violence  and  other  acts  ? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  Unfortunately,  no. 

Mr.  Appell.  Would  you  continue  Avith  your  list  ? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  On  Wednesday,  March  17,  I  was  advised  of  an 
explosion  in  the  area  of  our  plant,  and  upon  my  arrival  at  the  plant 
area,  I  investigated  and  found  that  an  explosive  charge  had  been 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3097 

dropped  in  gas  line,  some  half  a  mile  from  our  property.  This  gas 
valve  led  to  a  plant  in  our  area,  the  Zimmer  plant,  and  it  stopped  their 
operations  temporarily,  but  did  not  affect  ours. 

We  assumed  that  the  effort  was  toward  our  gas  supply. 

On  Friday,  March  19,  about  4  p.m.,  three  cars,  the  property  of  our 
employees,  left  the  plant,  and  all  three  of  them  were  shot  with  shotgun 
blasts.^  The  owner  of  one  car  was  Joe  Jones,  who  was  a  Negro ;  another 
car  was  Oscar  Hinton,  who  was  a  Negro ;  the  third  car  was  Bob  New, 
N-e-w,  who  was  a  white  man. 

All  of  these  cars  were  shot  with  apparent  shotgun  blasts  that  pitted 
and  damaged  the  paint  and,  in  some  instances,  broke  glasses. 

(Docunients  marked  "James  McCroskey  Exhibit  No.  1-H"  and  re- 
tained in  committee  files.) 

Mr.  McCroskey.  On  Saturday,  March  20,  there  was  an  explosion 
on  the  east  side  of  our  kiln  building  which  occurred  about  10 :30  p.m. 
1  have  a  report  and  photograph  of  the  damage. 

Mr.  Weltxer.  That  will  be  entered  in  the  record  at  this  point. 

(Documents  marked  "James  McCroskey  Exhibit  No.  l-I"  and  re- 
tained in  committee  files.) 

Mr.  McCroskey.  That  is  true  on  most  of  these  instances,  I  have 
the  sheriff's  report  on  them. 

On  Monday,  March  22,  there  were  two  explosions.  One  occurred 
on  our  property,  one  occurred  on  the  power  company's  right-of-w^ay 
property,  a  short  distance  from  our  plant  area. 

There  is  a  report  and  one  photograph  of  this  incident. 

(Documents  marked  "James  McCroskey  Exhibit  No.  1-J."  See 
p.  3121.) 

Mr.  Appell.  Was  the  explosion  on  the  power  company  right-of- 
way — was  this  an  attempt  to  destroy  the  poles  which  were  carrying 
power  into  your  plant  ancl  to  other  plants  in  that  area  ? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  We  have  to  assume  that  it  was.  It  did  occur, 
and  we  do  get  our  source  of  power  from  that  line. 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  McCroskey.  On  Friday,  April  the  2d,  it  w^as  reported  that  ap- 
parent rifle  shot  was  shot  from  the  road  toward  our  building,  making 
a  small  hole  through  the  transite  siding  of  the  wall. 

(Document  marked  "James  McCroskey  Exhibit  No.  1-K"  and  re- 
tained in  committee  files.) 

Mr.  McCroskey.  On  Friday,  April  9,  there  was  two  explosions  that 
occurred  on  our  property,  just  a  few  seconds  apart.  One  was  thrown 
through  a  window  and  landed  on  top  of  our  large  continuous  kiln, 
doing  some  damage  to  the  kiln,  and  some  slight  damage  to  the  building. 
The  other  charge  was  placed  in  a  hack  of  8-inch  pipe  and  destroyed 
and  damaged  quite  a  number  of  pieces  of  the  same. 

(Document  marked  "James  McCroskey  Exhibit  No.  1-L"  and  re- 
tained in  committee  files.) 

Mr.  McC^RosKEY.  On  Wednesday,  May  26,  there  was  an  explosion 
that  occurred  inside  of  this  large  continuous  kiln.  We  assumed  that 
this  charge  was  placed  on  one  of  the  cars  that  traveled  through  the 
kiln  and  did  not  explode  until  such  time  it  reached  the  hotter  area, 
wliich  was  around  300  degrees,  before  it  exploded. 


3098 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 


It-  did  considerable  damage  to  the  cars  and  to  the  kihi  structure  it- 
self, as  well  as  the  product  on  the  cars. 

(Document  marked  "James  McCroskey  Exhibit  No.  1-M'"  and  re- 
tained in  committee  files.) 

Mr,  McCroskey.  On  Thursday,  June  13,  our  most  severe  explosion 
occurred,  and  we  think  that  this  charge  was  also  thrown  through  a 
window  of  the  building.  It  went  under  the  kiln,  did  extensive  dam- 
age to  the  kiln  and  to  the  kiln  building. 

(Document  marked  "James  McCroskey  Exhibit  No.  1-N"  and  re- 
tained in  committee  files.) 

(Several  photographs  attached  to  various  of  the  sheriff's  reports. 
Exhibits  1-A  through  1-N,  showing  damage  done  at  various  times 
follow :) 


Photos  From  James  McCroskey  Exhibits  Nos.  1-A— 1-N 


Photographs  showing  damage  to  cars  of  four  Dickey  Clay  employees  as  result  of  shot- 
gun blasts  on  dates  indicated  on  photos. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S.  3099 

Photos  From  James  McCroskev  Exhibits  Nos.  1-A—l-N— Continued 


y/Q^  6S 


S/2,e/^^ 


Photographs  showing  some  of  damage  done  at  Dickey  Clay  plant  as  result  of  explosions 
on  dates  indicated  on  photos. 

Mr.  McCroskey.  As  a  result  of  this  continued  violence  that  had 
been  goin^  on  for  several  months,  the  Dickey  Company  employed  some 
special  off-duty  deputy  sheriffs  from  our  area  and  used  them  con- 
tinuously at  night  for  the  purpose  of  security,  until  they  were  recently 
released. 

As  we  mentioned  earlier,  because  of  this  violence  also,  we  felt  it  nec- 
essary to  enclose  our  plant  property  wdth  a  fence,  and  we  did,  com- 
pleting it  during  the  later  part  of  July. 

Mr.  Appell.  AVhat  did  it  cost  Dickey  Clay  Manufacturing  Com- 
pany to  erect  this  fence  around  its  property  ? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  Approximately  $10,000. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  that  erection  of  the  fence  eliminate  the  damage  to 
Dickey  property  ? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  I  don't  know  if  it  was  the  comj^letion  of  the  fence 
or  whether  it  was  the  employment  of  the  deputies,  but  except  for  one 
other  incident,  the  violence  did  stop. 

And  that  other  incident  occurred  on  August  9.  And  as  mentioned 
earlier,  this  gas  meter  that  supplies  our  plant  is  located  near  the  road- 
way that  runs  in  front  of  our  plant,  which  is  a  county  road,  and  an 


3100  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

explosive  charge  was  thrown  from  a  ))assing  automobile  toward  the 
meter  and  apparently  struck  the  fence  and  dropped  to  the  ground. 
There  was  some  explosion  that  knocked  a  hole  about  2  feet  in  diameter 
in  the  ground. 

The  deputies  that  investigated  found  three  sticks  of  dynamite  that 
had  not  been  exploded  and  pieces  of  what  they  determined  were  four 
more  sticks  that  were  not  exploded.  How^  many  were  actually  ex- 
ploded, we  don't  know. 

Mr.  ArPELL.  Did  it  appear  from  the  investigation  conducted  by  the 
sheriff's  department  that  a  package  of  sticks  of  dynamite,  when  thrown 
apparently  for  the  purpose  of  clearing  the  fence,  struck  the  fence,  and 
the  package  broke  apart,  which  resulted  in  not.  all  of  the  sticks 
exploding? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  That  is  correct. 

Mr.  Appell.  Does  tliat  com])lete  the  listing  of  acts  against  the 
property  or  employees  of  the  Dickey  Clay  Manufacturing  Company  ? 

Mr.  McCroskeiy.  Yes,  it  does. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  addition  to  this,  were  you  advised  from  time  to  time 
of  threats,  telephone  threats,  against  employees  or  management  dur- 
ing this  period  of  labor  dispute? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  Yes,  as  this  matter  progressed,  some  of  the  em- 
ployees that  were  involved  with  the  Brick  and  Clay  Workers  took  the 
position  that  tliey  were  willing  to  resign  from  the  local  union,  and 
requested  reinstatement.    They  did  this  on  two  or  more  occasions. 

On  one  occasion,  I  decided  that  we  would  reinstate  several  of  these 
employees  and  advised  them  to  report  for  work  at  such-and-such  a 
time.  Some  of  this  contact  was  by  telephone.  These  employees  had 
phoned  me  and  stated  that  they  would  return  and,  later  in  the  night, 
phoned  me  and  said  that  they  had  received  numerous  telephone  calls 
from  women,  stating  to  them  that  if  they  did  return  to  work  that  their 
homes  would  be  bombed. 

And  as  a  result  of  that,  none  of  these  employees  that  had  requested 
reemployment  or  reinstatement  returned  to  work. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  McCroskey,  tJie  committee's  investigation  estab- 
lished that,  during  the  time  that  this  Avas  going  on,  James  AVliitefield, 
an  employee  of  the  Dickey  Clay  Manufacturing  Company,  was  the 
exalted  cyclops  of  the  Klavern  known  as  Bessemer  Klavern  IS^o.  20  and 
known  further  by  a  cover  name  of  the  Young  Men's  Social  Club. 

Was  James  Whitefield  covered  by  either  the  United  Steel  contract 
or  by  the  contract  of  the  Brick  and  Clay  Workers? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Was  James  Whitetield  employed  during  this  period  of 
time  ? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  he  remain  continually  employed  from  the  start  of 
tlie  strike  until  its  termination  ? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  No. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  he  go  out  or  leave  his  employment  in  sympathy 
with  the  strike,  even  though  he  was  not  a  member  of  either  of  the 
locals  ? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  He  told  me  that  he  would  prefer  not  to  cross  the 
picket  line. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3101 

Mr.  Appell.  Is  his  brother,  William  Whitefield,  also  employed  by 
the  Dickey  Clay  Manufacturing  Company  ? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  Was  he  covered  by  either  the  Steelworker  contract  or 
the  Brick  and  Clay  Worker  contract? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  Pie  was  covered  by  the  Brick  and  Clay  Workers. 

Mr.  Appell.  What  part  did  William  Whitefield  play  in  the  activi- 
ties against  either  employees,  nonstriking  employees  of  the  plant,  or 
the  plant  of  the  Dickey  Clay  Manufacturing  Company? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  He  was  present  quite  often  on  the  picket  line.  It 
had  been  reported  on  several  occasions  that  he  had  thrown  rocks  at 
employees,  that  he  had  followed  trucks  and  employees'  automobiles 
down  the  roadways. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  ever  have  discussion  with  those  who  were  lead- 
ing the  strike  with  respect  to  the  acts  of  violence  against  nonstriking 
workers  or  the  company  plant? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  I  did  during  the  early  stages  of  this  work  stop- 
page, discussing  with  both  International  Brick  and  Clay  Worker  rep- 
resentatives, stating — I  stating  to  them  that  even  though  they  denied 
any  connection  with  these  acts  of  violence  that  it  was  my  opinion  that 
they  were  still  responsible. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  they  take  the  position  that  they  were  responsible, 
or  did  they  deny  responsibility  of  these  acts  that  were  taking  place? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  They  denied  responsibility. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  they  discuss  with  you  who  they  thought  might 
be  responsible  for  these  acts  ? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  No. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  ever  have  a  conversation  with  any  of  these 
people  as  to  the  role  that  members  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  were  playing 
in  this  act  of  violence  ? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  No. 

Mr.  Appell.  Has  the  W.  S.  Dickey  Company  come  to  terms  with 
tlie  United  Brick  and  Clay  Workers  local  over  its  dispute? 

ISIr.  McCroskey.  Yes.  This  contract  Avas  signed  on  Friday,  Febru- 
ary 5, 1966. 

Mr.  Appell.  What  were  the  terms  of  settlement  as  compared  to  the 
terms  available  for  settlement  at  the  start  of  the  contract? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  The  contract  was  finally  settled  on  the  basis  of 
our  offer  that  was  made  on,  possibly  in  Febiiiary  or  March  of  1965. 
Also  that  we  reinstate  1  of  these  16  employees. 

Mr.  Appell.  l^Hiat  four  will  be  reinstated  ? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  Larry  Mason,  Dale  Mason,  Norman  Davis,  and 
Elder  White. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  staff  has  no  further  questions  to  ask 
of  the  witness. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  McCroskey,  how  many  employees  were  included 
in  the  designation  of  the  bargaining  unit  represented  by  the  Brick  and 
Clay  Workers? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  Sixteen. 

Mr.  Weltner.  And  how  many  in  the  unit  represented  by  the  United 
Steelworkers  ? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  Approximately  150. 


3102  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Weltner.  And  how  many  employees  did  you  have  during  this 
period  of  time,  all  together  ? 

Mr.  McCroskey.  About  190.  That's  counting  the  supervisor  group, 
office  employees,  and  so  on. 

Mr.  Weltner.  I  see. 

Mr.  Buchanan.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  would  like  to  thank  this  witness 
for  his  testimony.    You  have  been  very  helpful. 

Mr.  McCroskey.  Thank  you. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  McCroskey,  the  committee  does  appreciate  your 
coming  here  today  and  assisting  us.  And  at  this  point,  I  Mould  like 
to  direct  into  the  record  those  official  reports  from  the  sheriff's  de- 
partments and  other  documents  which  are  relative  to  the  incidences 
and  acts  previously  testified  to  by  this  witness. 

(All  documents  available  included  in  James  McCroskey  Exhibit 
Nos.  1-A  through  1-N. ) 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  McCroskey,  you  are  excused.  Thank  you  very 
much. 

Mr.  McCroskey.  Thank  you,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  woud  like  to  call  Mr.  Robert  N. 
Washington. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Do  you  solemnly  swear  that  the  testimony  you  shall 
give  in  this  hearing  will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but 
the  truth,  so  help  you  God  ? 

Mr.  Washington.  I  do. 

TESTIMONY  OF  ROBERT  N.  'WASHINGTON,  ACCOMPANIED  BY 
COUNSEL,  MICHAEL  H.  GOTTESMAN 

Mr.  Appell.  Would  you  state  your  full  name  for  the  record,  Mr. 
Washington  ? 

Mr.  Washington.    Robert  N.  Washington. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  represented  by  counsel  ? 

Mr.  Washington.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  Would  counsel  identify  himself  for  the  record? 

Mr.  Gottesman.  Yes,  Michael  H.  Gottesman,  G-o-t-t-e-s-m-a-n. 

Mr.  Appell.  Where  do  you  have  offices,  Mr.  Gottesman  ? 

Mr.  Gottesman.  In  Washington,  D.C. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Washington,  are  you  a]>pearing  here  today  in 
accordance  with  a  subpena  served  on  you  on  January  -3,  1066,  by  John 
T).  Sullivan,  an  investigator  of  this  committee  ? 

Mr.  Washington.  I  am. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Washington,  when  and  wliere  were  you  born  ? 

Mr.  Washington.  Augusts,  1911. 

Mr.  Appell.  Where,  sir  ? 

Mr.  Washington.  Where? 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes. 

Mr.  Washington.  Selma,  Alabama.     That  is  in  Dallas  County. 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Washington,  are  you  currently  president  of  a  local  of  the  United 
Steelworkers  of  America  at  the  W.  S.  Dickey  Clay  Manufacturing 
Company  in  TTopewell,  Alabama? 

Mr.  Washington.  That  is  correct. 

Mr.  Appell.  And  how  long  have  you  held  the  office  of  president? 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3103 

Mr.  Washington.  About  16  years. 

Mr.  Appell.  Up  to  November  1964,  was  the  United  Steelworkers 
local,  of  Avhich  you  are  the  president,  the  only  local  representative  of 
employees  at  the  Dickey  Clay  Manufacturing  Company? 

Mr.  Washington.  That  is  correct. 

Mr.  Appell.  Was  the  United  Steelworkers  membership  available  to 
the  16  employees  that  petitioned  the  XLRB  for  a  bargaining  election 
in  behalf  of  the  United  Brick  and  Clay  Workers  ? 

Mr.  Washington.  We  gave  them  cards,  I  gave  one  Charles  Gram- 
mar 16  cards  to  sign,  and  he  promised  to  sign  those  cards  and  give 
them  back  to  me,  that  we  would  get  these  fellows  in  our  union,  but  he 
didn't  do  it. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  the  United  Steelworkers  participate  in  the  bar- 
gaining election,  or  was  the  issue  United  Brick  and  Clay  or  no  union? 

Mr.  Washington.  The  Ignited  Steelworkers  did  not  participate  in 
the  election  of  this  group. 

Mr.  Appell.  Under  the  terms  of  the  contract  between  Dickey  Clay 
Manufacturing  Company  and  the  United  Steelworkers,  the  United 
Steelworkers  could  not  support  the  strike  of  the  United  Brick  and 
Clay  Workers.     Is  that  t rue,  sir  ? 

Mr.  Washington.  That  is  correct. 

Mr.  Appell.  Was  this,  in  fact,  known  by  the  people  who  had  called 
a  strike  against  the  Dickey  Clay  Manufacturing  Company  ? 

Mr.  Washington.  It  was  known  by  them. 

Mr,  Appell.  Therefore,  if  your  employees  would  have  struck,  then 
they  would  not  have  been  available — would  not  have  had  available  to 
them  either  strike  benefits  funds  of  the  United  Steelworkers  nor  would 
they  have  been  eligible  for  unemployment  compensation  under  State 
1  aw.     Is  that  correct  ? 

Mr.  Washington.  That  is  correct. 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Appell.  Therefore,  your  employees  that  continued  to  work  con- 
tinued to  work,  in  effect,  without  choice  on  their  part. 

Mr.  Washington.  That  is  correct. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  employees  w^ho  were  members  of  your  local  have 
acts  pulled  against  them  by  members  on  the  picket  line  of  the  Brick 
and  Clay  Workers  ? 

Mr.  Washington.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  Were  you  ever  involved  or  were  you  ever  in  an  auto- 
mobile upon  which  an  act  was  taken  against? 

Mr.  Washington.  Yes.  On  Friday,  March  the  19th,  I  was  riding 
with  Oscar  Hinton,  and  the  car  tliat  he  was  driving  was  shot  at,  shot 
upon  with  apparently  a  shotgun,  at  Sparks  Gap  Road,  and  of  course 
we  stopped  and  we  didn't  see  anyone  after  the  shot  was  made,  but  we 
did  go  to  the  sheriff's  office  in  Bessemer  and  report  it. 

Mr.  Appell.  How  far  from  the  plant  site  was  this  automobile  when 
it  was  fired  upon  ? 

Mr.  Washington.  Approximately  three  blocks. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  have  discussion  with  any  of  the  leaders  of  the 
strike  of  the  Brick  and  Clay  Workers  about  these  acts  against  your 
employees  ? 

Mr.  Washington.  No. 

Mr.  Appell.  As  president  of  the  local,  was  there  justification  for 
these  acts  against  your  employees  ? 


3104  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KL.UX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Washington.  We  don't  think  so, 

Mr.  Appell.  In  addition  to — in  your  opinion,  were  these  acts  against 
your  employees  designed  to  keep  tliem  from  working  ? 

Mr.  Washington.  I  think  it  was. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  these  acts  against  these  employees  result  in  other 
employees  giving  up  their  employment  with  the  Dickey  Company,  out 
of  fear  or  any  other  reason  ? 

Mr.  Washington.  We  had  no  one  in  our  union  to  give  up  employ- 
ment. There  was  one  man,  Tom  Cotton,  he  asked  for  a  transfer  to  an- 
other department  that  was  in  the  north  Birmingham  area,  but  no  one 
gave  up  employment  because  of  the  acts. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  possess  any  knowledge  that  among  the  strikers 
were  individuals  who  held  membership  in  the  Unitwi  Klans  of 
America,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  ? 

Mr.  Washington.  I  do  not  know  of  anyone  that  was  in  the  United 
Klans,  that  were  a  Klansman.  Personally,  I  don't  know  of  any  of 
them  being  Klansmen  as  such. 

Mr.  Appell.  As  president  of  the  local,  did  you  believe  that  any  of 
these  acts  grew  out  of  activities  on  the  part  of  members  of  the  Ku 
Klux  Klan? 

Mr.  Washington.  Speaking  personally,  some  of  our  members  of 
our  union  said  they  saw  some  of  them  at  midnight  around  the  picket 
line,  but  I  did  not  see  any  of  them. 

Mr.  Appell,  And  who  were  some  of  those  that  were  observed  around 
the  picket  that  your  members  reported  to  you  ? 

Mr.  Washington.  They  didn't  say  that  anyone  individually  by 
name,  because  they  were  all  dressed  in  their  regalias. 

Mr.  Weltner.  You  mean  to  say  that  Klansmen  in  robes  and  masks 
were  on  the  picket  line,  according  to  what  was  told  you  ? 

Mr.  Washington.  That  was  reported  to  me.     I  did  not  see  them, 

Mr.  Weltner.  And  during  what  period  of  time  would  that  be? 

Mr.  Washington.  That  was  the  fellows  that  worked  the  midnight 
shift  said  they  saw  them  up  there  on  the  picket  line,  near  the  trailer 
that  they  had  on  the  picket  line. 

Mr.  Weltner.  And  this  strike  lasted  for  about  a  year.  And  refer- 
ring to  the  acts  of  violence,  they  started  on  February  the  8th  and  con- 
tinued through  August  the  9th  of  last  year,  and  during  that  6-month 
period,  what  portion  of  time  was  it  that,  as  reported  to  you,  Klansmen 
in  regalia  were  attending  the  strike  headquarters  in  the  trailer? 

Mr.  Washington.  Oh,  that  was  in  about  April,  I  believe  it  was, 

Mr.  Weltner.  And  how  many  times  Avas  it  reported  to  you  that 
some  of  your  members  liad  observed  Klansmen  in  their  regalia  ? 

Mr.  Washington.  Only  twice. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Two  times. 

Mr.  Washington.  Tliat  is  right. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Were  those  two  times  close  together,  or  were  they 
spread  apart? 

Mr.  Washington.  I  think  it  was  around  about  a  week  or  two  apart 
that  the  reports  came  to  me.    I  don't  know  the  date  specifically. 

Mr.  Weltner.  All  right. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  addition  to  the  shotgun  blasts  fired  into  automo- 
biles, did  your  members  report  to  you  receipt  of  anonymous  telephone 
calls,  threatening  them  with  respect  to  continued  employment? 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3105 

Mr.  Washington.  None  of  our  members  reported  to  me  anonymous 
telephone  calls  with  respect  to  their  going  back  to  work. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  ever  receive  any  telephone  calls  ? 

Mr.  "Washington.  I  received  only  one.  I  didn't  attach  too  much 
importance  to  it,  because  I  had  received  several  before  that. 

Mr.  Appell.  What  was  the  content  of  this  call  that  you  received  ? 

Mr.  Washington.  The  only  thing  the  man  said  was,  and  I  assume 
he  handed  the  telephone  to  another  person,  because  he  said,  "Here  he 
is."  He  said,  '*You  had  better  not  cross  the  picket  line,"  and  that  was 
all. 

Mr.  Appell.  Do  you  possess  any  knowledge  of  other  acts,  other 
than  those  that  were  described  by  Mr.  McCroskey,  involving  members 
of  your  union  ? 

Mr.  Washington.  No.  I  have  the  list  of  acts  here.  The  ones  that 
he  stated  are  the  same  ones  that  I  know  of.  As  far  as  I  am  concerned, 
I  have  only  seen  the  results  of  the  dynamite  or  explosive.  But  as  far 
as  seeing  anyone  doing  it,  I  didn't  see  them. 

Mr.  Appell.  Has  any  of  your  members  made  any  positive  identifica- 
tion against  anyone  who  did  carry  out  an  act  against  them  ? 

Mr.  Washington.  Only  on  directly  on  the  picket  line,  there  were 
rock-throwing.     That  was  directly  on  the  picket  line. 

Mr.  Appell.  And  to  your  knowledge,  to  the  information  you  received 
from  your  employees,  were  any  of  these  rocks  and  things  thrown  by 
people  not  striking  employees  of  the  Dickey  Clay  Manufacturing 
Company  ? 

Mr.  Washington.  No. 

Mr.  Appell.  Were  you  familiar  with  the  presence  on  the  picket  line 
of  Collie  Leroy  Wilkins? 

Mr.  Washington.  No. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  staff  has  no  further  questions  to 
of  Mr.  Washington. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Washington,  what  percentage  of  your  member- 
ship in  the  local  union  of  the  SWU  is  Negro  ? 

Mr.  Washington.  Oh,  it  is  about,  close  to  about  90  percent. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Are  there  any  Negro  members  of  the  United  Brick 
and  Clay  Workers  Union  ? 

Mr.  Washington.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Washington,  we  wish  to  thank  you  for  assist- 
ing us  today.     You  may  be  excused. 

Mr.  Washington.  All  right. 

Mr.  Weltner.  We  Avill  take  about  a  3-minute  recess. 

(Whereupon,  a  brief  recess  was  taken.  Present  at  time  of  recess 
and  when  hearing  resumed  :  Representatives  Weltner  and  Buchanan.) 

Mr.  Weltner.  The  subcommittee  will  come  to  order. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  James  R.  AVliitefield. 

James  R.Whitefield? 

Mr.  Chamlers.  Mr.  Whitefield,  come  up,  please. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Do  you  solemnly  swear  that  the  testimony  you  will 
give  in  this  hearing  will  be  tlie  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but 
the  truth,  so  help  you  God  ? 

Mr.  James  Whitefield.  I  do. 


3106  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

TESTIMONY  OF  JAMES  R.  WHITEFIELD,  ACCOMPANIED  BY 
COUNSEL,  LESTER  V.  CHALMERS,  JR. 

Mr.  Appell.  AVill  you  state  you  full  name  for  the  record  ? 

Mr.  James  Whitefield.  James  R.  AVhitefield. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  represented  by  counsel  ? 

Mr.  James  Whitefield.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  Would  counsel  identify  himself  for  the  record? 

Mr,  Chamlers.  Lester  V.  Chalmers,  Jr.,  attorney  at  law,  Room 
501,  First  Federal  Building,  Raleigh,  North  Carolina. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Whitefield,  are  you  appearing  here  today  in  ac- 
cordance with  a  subpena  served  upon  you  on  October  26,  1965,  2 
miles  south  of  the  McCalla  Post  Office  on  old  Tuscaloosa  Highway, 
McCalla,  Alabama? 

Mr.  James  Whitefield.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  When  and  where  were  you  born,  Mr.  Whitefield  ? 

Mr.  James  Whitefield.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  ques- 
tion for  the  reason  that  I  honestly  feel  that  my  answer  might  tend  to 
incriminate  me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  the 
amendments  5,  1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of 
America. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Whitefield,  the  subpena  served  upon  you  contained 
an  attachment,  which  was  made  a  part  of  the  subpena.  Under  the 
conditions  of  the  subpena,  you  were  ordered  to  bring  with  you  and  to 
produce  documents  called  for  in  two  paragraphs.     Paragraph  1  reads : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  relating  to  the 
organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  business  and  affairs  of  the  Invisible  Empire, 
United  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also  known  as 
the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  and  affiliated 
organizations,  namley,  the  Alabama  Rescue  Service  and  Bessemer  Klavern  #20, 
Realm  of  Alabama,  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  you 
or  available  to  you  as  present  or  former  Exalted  Cyclops,  Bessemer  Klavern  #20, 
Realm  of  Alabama  of  the  Invisible  Empire,  United  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku 
Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also  known  as  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc., 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan. 

In  the  representative  capacity  set  forth  in  paragraph  1.  Mr.  White- 
field,  I  ask  you  to  produce  the  documents  called  for. 

Mr.  James  Whitefield.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  this 
committee  any  and  all  documents  as  demanded  by  the  committee  in  a 
subpena  dated  on  October  14,  1965,  for  the  reason  that  I  honestly  feel 
that  to  do  so  might  tend  to  incriminate  me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as 
guaranteed  to  me  by  the  amendments  5, 1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution 
of  the  United  States  of  America. 

I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any  and  all  records 
as  requested  by  this  committee  under  subpena  dated  October  14,  1965. 
for  that  information  is  not  relevant  and  germane  to  the  subject  under 
investigation  and  the  same  would  not  aid  the  Congress  in  the  considera- 
tion of  any  valid  remedial  legislation,  nor  is  such  inquiry  within  the 
scope  of  that  authorized  to  be  investigated  by  Rule  XI  of  the  rules 
adopted  by  the  89th  Congress,  by  House  Resolution  8,  adopted 
January  4, 1965. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Chalmers,  may  we  stipulate  that  the  witness  has 
been  furnished  a  copy  of  the  chairman's  opening  statement  and  that 
he  is  familiar  with  the  contents  ? 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3107 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  All  right,  cand  that  the  directions  of  the  subpena  to 
produce  the  documents' called  for  are  made  to  the  witness  in  the  official 
representative  capacity  described  in  the  subpena  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  I  stipulate. 

Mr.  "Weltxer.  Mr.  Whitefield,  the  committee  does  not  accept  your 
reasons  for  refusing  to  produce  these  docmnents,  and  accordingly,  as 
chairman  of  the  subcommittee,  I  order  and  direct  you  to  produce  those 
documents  at  tliis  time. 

Mr.  James  Whitefield.  Sir,  I  respectively  decline  to  deliver  to  the 
committee  the  documents  heretofore  ordered  by  the  chairman,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltxer.  Mr.  Whitefield,  I  offer  you  an  opportunity,  if  you 
so  desire  at  this  point,  to  present  to  the  committee  any  reason  whereby 
you  might  be  unable  to  comply  with  the  mandate  of  this  subpena. 

Hearing  no  response,  Mr.  Appell,  proceed  to  the  next  paragraph. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Wliitefield,  paragraph  2  called  upon  you  to  pro- 
duce: 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  in  yonr  pos- 
session, custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  or  available  to  you,  in  your  capacity 
as  present  or  former  Exalted  Cyclops.  Bessemer  Klavern  #  20,  Realm  of  Alabama 
of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  which  the 
"Constitution  and  Laws"  of  said  organization  authorize  and  require  to  be  main- 
tained by  you  and  any  other  officer  of  said  organization,  the  same  being  in  your 
possession,  custody  or  control. 

Mr.  James  Whitefield.  Sir 

Mr.  Appell.  In  the  representative  capacity  set  forth  in  paragraph 
2,  I  ask  you  to  produce  the  documents  called  for. 

Mr.  James  Whitefield.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the 
committee  the  documents  heretofore  ordered,  based  upon  the  grounds 
previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltxer.  Do  we  have  the  same  stipulations  on  this  paragraph  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltxer.  Mr.  Whitefield,  I  order  and  direct  that  you  produce 
the  documents. 

Mr.  Ja:mes  Whitefield.  Sir.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the 
committee  the  documents  heretofore  ordered  by  the  chairaian,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Whitefield,  on  March  17, 1965,  were  you  the  exalted 
Cyclops  of   Bessemer  Klavern  No.  20? 

Mr.  Ja3ies  Whitefield.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question  for  the  reason  that  I  honestly  feel  that  my  answer  might  tend 
to  incriminate  me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by 
the  amendments  5,  1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States 
of  America. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Whitefield,  I  hand  you  a  copy  of  a  signature  card 
filed  witli  tlie  Bessemer  l)ranch  of  the  First  National  Bank  of  Birming- 
ham, Birmingham,  Alabama,  whicli  is  a  signature  card  filed  in  connec- 
tion Avith  the  ''Young  Mens  Social  Club,"  P.O.  Box  3093,  Hueytown, 
.Vlabama. 

In  putting  it  to  you  as  a  fact  that  this  is  an  account  of  Bessemer 
Klavern  No.  20,  I  hand  you  this  document,  and  ask  you  if  it  is  your 
signature  shown  on  the  card  as  president? 


3108  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  James  Whitefield.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Document  previously  marked  "Myrtie  Stephens  Exhibit  No. 
2-C."  See  p.  3083.) 

Mr.  Appell.  I  ask  you  if  you  knew  Eobert  M.  Creel  to  be  Grand 
Dragon;  Eugene  Thomas  to  be  the  Klaliff  or  vice  president;  Melvin 
Sexton  to  be  treasurer;  and  James  R.  Whitefield,  yourself,  to  be  the 
kligrapp  or  secretary  of  the  Realm  of  Alabama,  United  Klans  of 
America  ? 

Mr.  James  Whitefield.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  hand  you  a  document  entitled  "Resolution  of  Lodge, 
Association,  or  Other  Like  Organization  Designating  Depository,'' 
executed  on  the  11th  day  of  March  1965,  signed  "James  R.  Whitefield, 
Secretary,''  which  designates  the  bank  [Birmingham  Trust  National 
Bank]  as  the  depository  and  designates  Robert  M.  Creel,  Grand 
Dragon,  Melvin  Sexton,  klabee,  to  be  the  new  signers  to  that  account. 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Appell.  In  handing  you  the  document,  I  ask  you  if  that  is 
your  signature  on  that  document? 

Mr.  James  Whitefield.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Document  marked  "James  Whitefield  Exhibit  No,  1"  follows:) 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  3109 

James  VVhitefiei.d  Exhibit  No.  1 
RESOLUTION  OF  LODGE,  ASSOCIATION,  or  OTHER  LIKE  ORGANIZATION  DESIGNATING  DEPOSITORY 

r«..nty   0  Z-  ff^/C.SclJ State A' t^'.T' 

/!   //_JA^^.Ji^,   the  Secretary  nf  ■»4«>-«<^<^  ^^-»i  ■  j/J     S'  •  r"  <M. 
,  do  hereby  certify  that  at  a  meeting 


of of  the 

duly  held  on  the . day  of IT^^A/     ^/     .  ^9^,  at '?  ^^7 

whereat  was  present  a  quorum,  the  following  resolutions  were  unanimously  adopted,  all  as  appear  on 
the  minutes  of  that  meeting: 

"RESOLVED:  That  Birmingham  Trust  Naf.ional  Bank,  located  at  Birmingham,  Alabama,  is  here- 
by designated  as  a  depository  of  this ^^^W^^^>1       '^^^^^y^ *"**  that  a^checking  or  deposit 

account  be  opened  and  maintained  in  the  name  of  this "^^^K^^^C^  Z^--*^^-*^-^ — with  said 

depository  and  that,  as  and  when,  in  the  opinion  of  its  Secretary  the  needs  of  this  i'f^jf^i^y.c  i^-H^-^Y-^ 
require  it,  a  safe  deposit  box  be  rented  from  said  depository; 

"FURTHER  RESOLVED:  That  all  checks,  drafts  or  other  orders  for  the  payment  of  money  from 

said  account  shall  be  signed  by  the ■y2i'^^*^-<:-^^^:W        /cS-^-,^<g*-'^''-<— 

_^ ,  and  all  notes  of  this 

shall  be  signed  by  thp  ^^/CtK-^^^/  /''^^^-<!-tg«^---^V^nd  the  right  to  enter  the  safe  deposit  box  shall  be 
in       y-^'./l-fi  x^<^    ^(LC^%,A.-t^^  g„j  gny  ong  of  such  officers  is  authorised  to  endorse  aU  notes, 

drafts,  checks,  bills,  certificates  of  deposit  or  other  instrument,  owned  or  held  by  this-^^i^iiSciL 

for  deposit  in  said  account;  /^^-*-<»~^~<^ 

"FURTHER  RESOLVED:  That  the  depository  is  hereby  directed  to  accept*  and  pay,  without 
further  inquiry,  any  draft,  or  check  against  said  account,  bearing  the  signature  or  signatures  of  such 
officers  as  so  required,  even  though  drawn  or  endorsed  to  the  order  of  any  officer  signing  the  same  or 
tendered  by  such  officer  for  cashing,  or  in  payment  of  the  individual  obligation  of  such  officer,  or  for 
deposit  to  his  personal  account,  and  said  Bank  shall  not  be  required,  or  be  under  any  obligation  to 
inquire  as  to  the  circumstances  of  the  issuance,  or  use  of  any  instrument  signed  in  accordance  with  the 
foregoing  resolution,  or  the  application,  or  disposition  of  such  instrument,  or  the  proceeds  thereof; 

"FURTHER   RESOLVED:   That   the   Secretary   shall    certify    to   said    Bank    the   names   of   the 

presently  duly  elected  and  qualified  officers  of  this i^^xt-^^^j^c^  ^^^^^'^~'~'^-^' — and  shall  from 

time  to  time  hereafter,  as  changes  in  the  personnel  of  said  officers  are  made,  immediately  certify  such 
changes  to  the  Bank,  and  said  Bank  shall  be  fully  protected  in  relying  on  such  certifications  of  the 
Secretary  and  shall  be  indemnified  and  saved  harmless  from  any  claims,  demands,  expenses,  loss  or 
damage  resulting  from,  or  growing  out  of,  honoring  the  signature  of  any  officer  so  certified,  or  re- 
fusing to  honor  any  signature  not  so  certified; 

"FURTHER  RESOLVED:  That  the  foregoing  resoultions  shall  remain  in  full  force  and  effect 
until  written  notice  of  their  amendment  or  recission  shall  have  been  received  by  said  Bank,  and  that 
receipt  of  such  notice  shall  not  affect  any  action  taken  by  the  Bank  prior  thereto;  and 

"FURTHER  RESOLVED:  That  the  Secretary  be,  and  he  hereby  is,  authorized  and  directed  to 
certify  to  said  Birmingham  Trust  National  Bank  the  foregoing  resolutions  and  that  the  provisions 
thereof  are  in  conformity  with ^ ^ ■•" 

I  further  certify  that  the ^ffC^^^^^^^^*-^ — ^  ' is  the  body  of  the_ 

■  ■'    ■  "  '  "ionsand  pjjwMs  therein  gr 


authorized  to  adopt  such  resolutions  and  that  the  resolutionsand  pjjwMs  therein  granted  conform  to 

the  rules,  by-laws,  constitution  and  articles  of  this '^^•^*'^"*-^*r  ^'^^^^'<^*-'^  now  in  force  and 

effect. 

I  further  certify  that /he  following  are  the  names  and  official  signatures  of  the  present  officers 

of  this ^<><>^^7^C>r  .f^^^^-'^-'*-^. 

Name  Title 

^^^^,  ^u.^  ^..^'jA^ — 

IN   WITNESS   WHEREOF,   I   have   hereunto  subscribed  my  name  and  affixed  the  seal  of  this 
.this .^ <^ day  of  -    ^fA^^e-f^-JlC^     ,  x^AX^ 


^^^..v..^  >ff  ^>€^^4^^^-^ 


^BeewUry 


Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or 
deny  (he  fact,  that  tlie  Eugene  Tliomas  listed  on  this  account  as  the 
vice  president  is  the  man  who  was  involved,  along  wath  Collie  Leroy 
Wilkins  and  W.  O.  Eaton,  in  the  Viola  Liuzzo  murder? 

Mr.  James  Wiiitefield.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 


3110  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  iis  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or 
deny  the  fact,  that  Collie  Leroy  ^^'ilkins,  p]ut!:ene  Thomas,  and  "\V.  O. 
Eaton  were  members  of  Bessemer  Klavern  No.  20,  known  as  the 
Young  Men's  Social  Club,  of  which  you  were  the  exalted  cyclops? 

Mr.  James  Wiiitefield.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Whitefield,  do  you  know  Mr.  James  INIcCroskey, 
who  has  testified  this  morning? 

Mr.  James  Wiiitefield.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Do  you  know  Mr.  Robert  N.  Washington,  who  testified 
immediately  prior  to  yourself? 

Mr.  James  Wiiitefield,  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Whitefield,  as  the  exalted  cyclops  of  Bessemer 
Klavern  No.  20,  did  you  order  members  of  that  Klavern  to  participate 
in  acts  of  violence  against  Dickey  Clay  Pipe  Company  or  its  striking 
employees  ? 

Mr.  James  Wiiitefield.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  groimds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  As  the  exalted  cyclops,  did  you  order  Donald  Smither- 
man,  Collie  Leroy  Wilkins,  W.  O.  Eaton,  Eugene  Thomas,  to  partici- 
pate in  acts  of  violence  against  the  Dickey  Clay  Pipe  Company  or  its 
striking  employees  ? 

Mr.  James  Whitefield.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  gromids  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  What  purpose  was  there  in  petitioning  the  NLRB  for 
a  bargaining  election  on  behalf  of  the  United  Brick  and  Clay 
Workers  ? 

Mr.  James  Wiiitefield.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Was  the  strike  which  was  called  designed  to  economi- 
cally affect  the  employees  of  Dickey  Clay  Pipe  Company  who  were 
predominantly  Negro? 

Mr.  James  Whitefield.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  in  view  of  the  witness'  claim  of  privi- 
lege and  his  consistent  refusal  to  answer  my  questions,  I  present  to  the 
committee  the  results  of  our  investigation  as  they  pertam  to  James 
R.  Whitefield. 

James  R.  Whitefield  was  born  on  November  27,  1936,  at  Texarkana, 
Arkansas. 

Committee  investigation  establishes  him  to  be  the  exalted  cyclops  of 
Bessemer  Klavern  No.  20,  which  is  known  as  the  Young  Men's  Social 
Club,  Box  3093,  Huey  town,  Alabama. 

This  Klavern  has  been  in  existence  since  1956  and  has  been  affili- 
ated with  the  U.S.  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  Incorporated ; 
the  Alabama  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  Incorporated ;  and,  since 
1962,  with  the  United  Klans  of  America. 

Authorized  signatures  on  the  bank  account  maintained  at  the  Bes- 
semer branch  of  the  First  National  Bank  of  Birmingham  have  been : 
On  July  28,  1956,  L.  J.  Praytor,  R.  R.  Fields,  and  George  Houston 
(Myrtie  Stephens  Exhibit  No.  2-A,  p.  3082). 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 


3111 


November  9,  1960,  Henry  G.  McDaniel,  Myrtie  E[ii^ene]  Stephens, 
Oscar  T.  Syx  (Myrtie  Stephens  Exhibit  No.  2-B,  p.  3082). 

The  subsequent  card,  although  undated,  Henry  G.  McDaniel, 
M[yrtie]  Eugene  Stephens,  E.  A.  Harrell,  H-a-r-r-e-1-1;  the  follow- 
ing imdated  card,  Leonard  L.  Goff,  C.  O.  McCullough  or  McCullaugh, 
and  Bob  Harrell. 

(Documents  marked  ''James  Whitefield  Exhibits  Nos.  2-A  and 
2-B,"  respectively,  follow :) 

James  Whitefield  Exhibit  No.  2-A 


FORM  45.B-1.M-3.59-97.C  BESSEMER    BRANCH 

THE  First  National  bank  of  Birmingham, Birmingham,  ala. 


The    haodling    by    ihi.    office    of    check-.,  ilrafi. 
the  revcr»e  »ido  hwcof.  and  the  depositor  hercbv  «ck 
»nd  agrcM  to  bo  bound  thereby. 

and  other 
.owleti^c. 

iii-in^will  be  subject   to  the  toriditionj  shown  on 
rcceipV  of  notice  of  said   conditions    and    conaents 

Title     ^Acr^y,..-^,!  ^'  -             '    ^^ 

.     .     "^       • 

f  r  \ '^<-.- ,(_y           Incorporated 

Home  Office  AddrLs 

'    i^r. /"-;■/ J'^/.'-j'^^"^ 

Local  Address                   .         .^           // 

\              ■  <^Date 

SIGNATURES/ 


COUNTERSIGNATURES 


21. 


1/ 


12 


_1_^' 
\__/. 


ikiJ 


-fy/.  -"Pox.^-^ 


SJ}.:^ 


Trelis.  \ 


'  ■  The  sienatui  lo^this  side  of,  this  card,  are  the  duly  authorized  sit^natures  of 
this  Corporation  H  lecosuaize  in  Dayraent  of  funds  and  the  transaction  of  other 
business  for  our  ulluuhu           %   \                             ^  .•       ,    . 

(^liecks.  drafts,  acccDtunces  and  not^s  must  bear  ^^'^-^ ^of  the  within'mentioned  signatures. 


/ 


Pres.-Secty. 


James  Whitefield  Exhibit  No.  2-B 


FORM  4S-Q-I-M-3.37-53.A  BESSEMER  BRANCH  ' 

THE  FIRST  National  bank  of  birmingham.birmingham.  ala. 


The  haudliiig  by  this  office  of  checks,  dr.-ift«  and  other 
the  reverse  side  hereof,  and  tljo  depositor  hereby  ocknowlcdi^cs 
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COUNTERSIGNATURES 


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The  sinnaturcs  appearing  on  this  side  of  this  cnril.  are  the  duly  authorized  siiniaturcs^  of 


this  Corporation  which  yoiTwril  recoKiiricln  Vayiricnt'of  funds  and  tlie  transaction  of  other 
uces  and  notes  must  lignr  ^\  J^    ff  the  within  mentioned  signatures. 


business  for  our  account 
Checks,  drafts,  acccu 


3112  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  And  the  current  signature  card  at  the  time  of  the  com- 
mittee subpena  duces  tecum,  James  K.  Whitefield,  Cecil  E.  Davenport, 
Oscar  T.  Syx  (Myrtie  Stephens  Exhibit  No.  2-C,  p.  3083). 

The  Grand  Dragon,  Robert  M.  Creel,  as  well  as  his  predecessor,  Hu- 
bert A.  Page,  both  held  membership  in  this  Klavern.  The  member- 
ship also  included  W.  O.  Eaton,  Collie  Leroy  Wilkins,  and  Eugene 
Thomas,  who  were  involved  in  the  Liuzzo  murder, 

Eugene  Thomas  was  Grand  Klaliff  or  vice  president  of  the  Realm 
of  Alabama,  and  an  authorized  signatory  on  an  account  maintained  by 
the  realm  in  the  name  of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  which  account 
was  maintained  at  the  Birmingham  Trust  National  Bank. 

The  realm  account  w^as  opened  on  October  28, 1964,  with  the  author- 
ized signatures  of  Robert  M.  Creel  and  Cecil  E.  Davenport,  These 
signatures  were  changed  in  1965  to  Robert  M.  Creel,  president;  Eugene 
Thomas,  vice  president;  Melvin  Sexton,  treasurer;  and  James  R. 
Whitefield,  secretary. 

(Documents  marked  "James  Wliitefield  Exhibits  Nos.  3-A  and  3-B," 
respectively,  appear  on  p.  3113.") 

Mr,  Appell.  On  March  11,  1965,  James  R,  Whitefield,  as  secretary, 
filed  with  the  bank  a  certificate  designating  the  Birmingham  Trust 
National  Bank  as  a  depository  for  the  United  Klans. 

In  this  document,  Whitefield  certified  that  at  a  meeting  held  on 
January  4,  1965,  that  Robert  M.  Creel,  Grand  Dragon,  and  Melvin 
Sexton,  klabee,  Avere  designated  signatories  to  the  account. 

In  1965,  James  R.  Whitefield,  together  with  his  brother,  William 
Whitefield,  was  among  the  leaders  in  the  forming  within  the  W,  S. 
Dickey  Clay  Manufacturing  Company,  Local  827  of  the  United  Brick 
and  Clay  Workers. 

This  group  voted  to  call  a  strike  against  the  Dickey  Company  in 
February  1965.  During  the  strike,  beginning  on  February  18,  1965, 
close  to  25  acts  of  violence  have  been  carried  out  against  the  buildings 
and  property  of  the  Dickey  Company  or  against  nonstriking  employees 
who  are  members  of  the  United   Steel  workers,  Local  No.   1631. 

James  R.  Whitefield,  the  exalted  cyclops  of  the  Klavern,  has  utilized 
members  of  his  Klavern  to  carry  out  these  acts  of  violence  and  has 
used  them  for  picket  activities,  even  though  they  are  not  employees 
in  the  Dickey  Company, 

Committee  investigation  established  that  in  addition  to  James  R. 
Whitefield  and  liis  brother,  William  Whitefield,  both  striking  em- 
ployees who  are  Klansmen,  the  following  nonstriking  Klansmen  have 
engaged  in  strike  activities:  Collie  Iveroy  Wilkins,  W,  O,  Eaton, 
Eugene  Thomas,  Calvin  Green,  Jolmnie  Lee  Burnette,  Donald 
Smitherman.  Other  unknown  members  of  the  Bessemer  Klavern  have 
been  likewise  used  in  this  activity. 

Bessemer  Klavern  has  a  membership  of  about  65  violence-prone  mem- 
bers. Members  are  heavily  armed  when  attending  Klavem  meetings, 
and  this  resulted  in  Grand  Dragon  Creel  announcing  at  a  meeting  in 
April  1964  that,  thereafter,  Klansmen  would  not  be  allowed  to  bring 
firearms  into  the  meetings.  He  told  the  majority  of  the  members 
who  objected  that  the  reason  beliind  his  announcement  related  to  a 
possible  raid  by  the  FBI.  He  stated  that  it  would  not  appear  too 
well  if  the  FBI  collected  sa wed-oft'  shotguns,  pistols,  and  chains.  How- 
ever, in  spite  of  the  announcement,  members  continued  to  come  to  the 
Klavern  meetings  heavily  armed. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3113 

James  Whitefield  Exhibit  No.  3-A 


TRADE  NAME- 


:OMMERCtAL  ACCOUNT  OF 


-^^//ec/  /r/f^Ars  ^/^/Afc', 


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BESSEMER  OFFICE 


BIRMINGHAM  TRUST  NATIONAL  BANK 

WILL  RECOr.MlZE  ONLY  THE  AUTHORHEO  SIGNATURES  BELOW.  IN  THE  PAYMENT  OF  FUNDS  OR  THE 
TRANSACTION  OF  ANY  OTHER  BUSINESS  RELATING  TO  THE  ACCOUNT  OF  THE  UNDERSIGNED  DEPOSITOR. 
WHO  HEREBY  AGREES  WITH  SAID  BANK  THAT  THE  CONDITIONS  PRINTED  ON  THE  BACK  OF  THIS  CARD 
SHALL    APPLY    TO    TRANSACTIONS    RELATING    TO    THE    ACCOUNT. 

YOU  ARE  HEREBY  AUTHORIZED  TO  MAIL  STATEMENT  OF  THIS  ACCOUNT  AS  RENDERED  TO  THE  ADDRESS 
AS  SHOWN.  


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.  of  the  within  siRnatureH. 


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Address  P*    0>    Box3093,   Hueytown  ,y^   Pho„,     l|91-3636 


Signature  of  Owner 
authorliinn  the  above 


PATE  OPENED lQ-28 '-614  FIBIT  DFPnmT  ■    126»fl0 DEPOaiT  RKCEIVtP  lY      aklng 


James  Whitefield  Exhibit  No.  3-B 


ICORPOKATION 


BESSEMER  OFFICE 


UNITED  CLANS  01?  AMERICA 


XA 


BIRMINGHAM  TRUST  NATIONAL  BANK 

WILL    RECOGNIZE    ONLY     THE     AUTHORIZED    SIGNATURES    BELOW.    IN    THE    PAYMENT    OF    FUNDS    OR    THE 

TRANSACTION   OF   ANY   OTHER    BUSINESS    RELATING   TO  THE  ACCOUNT  OF  THE  UNDERSIGNED  DEPOSITOR. 

WHO   HEREBY   AGREES   WITH   SAID  BANK   THAT  THE  CONDITIONS    PRINTED    ON    THE    BACK    OF    THIS    CARD 

SHALL    APPLY    TO    TRANSACTIONS    RELATING    TO    THE    ACCOUNT. 

SEE   REVERSE   SIDE   FOR   TERMS  OF  COLLECTION   AGREEMENV    UNDER    WHICH    THIS    BANK    ACCEPTS    ITEMS 

FROM    YOU    FOR    DEPOSIT. 

YOU    ARE    HERE>r>U^ORIZED   TO    MAIL   STATEMENT  OF  THIS  ACCOUNT  AS   RENDERED  TO  THE  ADDRESS 

AS   SHOWN. 


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INSTRUCTIONS  AS  TO  SIGNATURE  O  K'D  BY 


DATE  OPENED 


Q^k-  t:?^  PI RST  DEPOSIT  $   '^fc  S^ DEPOSIT  RECEIVED  BY  c\h^' 


FORM  B-7 


James  R.  Whitefield  and  his  brother  William  traveled  to  Jackson- 
ville, Florida,  for  the  purpose  of  protecting  UKA  officers  and  leaders 
who  planned  a  rally  in  Jacksonville,  Florida,  in  November  1964  and 
who  expected  trouble  from  the  United  Florida  Ku  Klux  Klan 
organization. 


3114 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 


The  Alabama  Klansmen,  included  members  of  the  Imperial  Klo- 
kann  Committee — Robert  Thomas,  Ralph  Roton — as  well  as  Wilkins, 
Thomas,  and  Eaton.  While  in  Florida,  they  discussed  the  elimination 
of  William  Rosecrans,  the  United  Florida  Ku  Klux  Klan  member 
who  bombed  the  Godfrey  residence  in  Jacksonville  and  who  confessed, 
implicating  other  members  of  the  United  Florida  Klan  in  this  action. 

This  infonnation,  Mr.  Chairman,  indicates  that  Mr.  AVhitefield 
possesses  additional  information  which  is  both  pertinent  and  relevant 
to  this  inquiry  and  would  materially  aid  the  Congress  in  enacting 
remecli.al  legislation. 

Mr.  Weltner,  Mr.  Whitefield,  you  have  the  opportunity  at  this 
point  to  reply  to  any  portion  of  the  statement  of  the  investigator. 
You  may,  if  you  desire,  confirm  or  challenge  the  accuracy  of  any  part 
of  it  or  offer  any  additional  matter  that  the  committee  deems  relevant. 
The  Chair  gives  you  that  opportunity  at  this  point. 

Hearing  no  response,  you  .are  advised  that,  absent  your  rebuttal  or 
any  other  facts  which  come  to  the  committee,  we  will  rely  upon  the 
accuracy  of  this  investigation. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Whitefield,  I  hand  you  a  copy  of  a  registration 
card  at  the  Capri  Motel,  Jacksonville,  Florida,  dated  November  21, 
1964,  indicating  that  Mr.  and  Mrs.  J.  R.  Whitefield  were  assigned 
Room  335.  I  hand  you  this  document,  .and  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact, 
and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny  the  fact,  that  you  did  register  at  the 
Capri  Motel  in  Jacksonville,  Florida,  as  indicated  on  that  registration 
form. 

Mr.  James  Whitefield.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Document  marked  "James  Whitefield  Exhibit  No.  4"  follows:) 


James  Whitefield  Exhibit  No.  4 


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CAPRI  MOTEL  RESTAURANT 


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ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 


3115 


Mr.  Appell.  ]Mr.  Whitefield,  Avere  members  of  the  United  Klans  of 
America  that  traveled  to  Jacksonville,  Florida,  along  with  yourself, 
lieavily  armed  with  rifles,  pistols,  and  even  hand  grenades  ? 

Mr.  James  Wiiitefield.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Whitefield,  a  report  of  the  Jefferson  Comity 
sheriff's  department  dated  March  26, 1965,  states  that  Randle  Strozier, 
S-t-r-o-z-i-e-r,  an  employee  of  the  Dickey  Clay  Manufacturing  Com- 
pany, filed  a  complaint  against  Harry  Findley,  F-i-n-d-1-e-y,  and  Jo- 
seph Higginbotham,  because  they  had  surveilled  him  from  the  plant 
to  his  home. 

The  report  states  that  upon  arrival  of  law  enforcement  officers 
the  vehicle  was  searched  and  that  charges  were  placed  against  Harry 
Findley  for  violating  the  Uniform  Firearms  Act. 

Do  you  possess  knowledge  of  this  event? 

Mr.  James  Whitefield.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Document  marked  "James  Whitefield  Exhibit  No.  5"  follows:) 


James  Whitefield  Exhibit  No.  5 


^if-c^o3-^C<^^ 


MISCELLANEOUS  mClOENl  REPORT 


-JLA-^M 


^<JX1^    a^^Sc'a.    ^<LiA^  a/ Jlfi^^t^ 


ToG^.:J}£l^ 


Mr.  Appell.  Were  Harry  Findley  and  Joseph  Higginbotham  mem- 
bers of  Bessemer  Klavern  No.  20  ? 

Mr.  James  Whitefield.  Sir,  I  i-espectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  staff  has  no  further  questions  to  ask 
of  this  witness. 


3116  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Whitefield,  wliat  interest  did  the  Bessemer 
Klavern  No.  20  of  the  United  Klans  of  America  liave  in  the  labor 
dispute  between  the  Dickey  Clay  Pipe  Manufacturing  Company  and 
Local  827  of  the  United  Brick  and  Clay  Workers? 

Mr.  James  Whitefield.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Well,  were  any  members  of  the  Bessemer  Klavern 
No.  20  involved  in  the  picketing  activities  or  any  other  activities  con- 
ducted by  the  striking  workers  at  the  Dickey  Clay  Pipe  Company? 

Mr.  James  AVhitefield.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated, 

Mr.  Weltner.  Did  you  use  your  position  as  exalted  cyclops  of  the 
Klavern  to  recruit  members  of  the  Klavern  to  participate  in  strike 
activities? 

Mr.  James  Wiiiit.field.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Buchanan  ? 

Mr.  Buchanan.  I  don't  think  so. 

Mr.  Weltner.  The  witness  will  be  excused. 

The  subcommittee  will  now  stand  in  recess  until  2  p.uL  this 
afternoon. 

The  meeting  is  adjourned. 

(Subcommittee  members  present  at  time  of  recess:  Representatives 
Weltner  and  Buchanan.) 

(Whereupon,  at  11 :45  a.m.,  Monday,  February  7,  1966,  the  subcom- 
mittee recessed,  to  reconvene  at  2  p.m.  the  same  day.) 

AFTERNOON  SESSION— MONDAY,  FEBRUARY  7,  1966 

(The  subcommittee  reconvened  at  2:35  p.m.,  Hon.  Charles  L.  Welt- 
ner, chairman  of  the  subcommittee,  presiding.) 

(Subcommittee  members  present:  Representatives  Weltner  and 
Buchanan . ) 

Mr.  Weltner.  The  committee  will  come  to  order. 

The  Chair  will  note  that  the  meeting  is  beginning  shortly  after  2  :30 
rather  than  2  o'clock,  because  of  the  intervention  of  a  rollcall  vote 
requiring  attendance  of  the  members  on  the  floor. 

Call  your  next  witness,  Mr.  Appell. 

Mr.AppELL.  William  P.  Whitefield. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Do  you  solemnly  swear  that  the  testimony  you  will 
give  in  this  hearing  will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing 
but  the  truth,  so  help  you  God  ? 

Mr.  William  Whitefield.  I  do. 

TESTIMONY  OF  WILLIAM  P.  WHITEFIELD,  JE.,  ACCOMPANIED  BY 
COUNSEL,  LESTER  V.  CHALMERS,  JR. 

Mr.  Appell.  State  your  full  name  for  the  record,  Mr.  Whitefield. 
Mr.  William  Whitefield.  William  P.  Whitefield,  Jr. 
Mr.  Appell.  You  are  represented  by  counsel  ? 
Mr.  William  Whitefield.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Would  counsel  identify  himself  for  the  record? 
Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir;  Lester  V.  Chalmers,  Jr.j  attorney  at  law, 
Room  501,  First  Federal  Building,  Raleigh,  North  Carolina. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3117 

Mr.  Appell,  might  I  find  out  the  date  of  this  subpena?  Not  the 
date  of  service,  but  the  date  of  issuance? 

Mr.  Appell.  27  October. 

Mr.  Whitefield,  are  you  appearing  before  the  committee  today  in 
accordance  with  a  subpena  served  upon  you  on  November  1,  1965,  at 
618  North  15th  Street,  Bessemer,  Alabama,  by  a  deputy  United  States 
marshal  ? 

Mr.  William  Whitefield.  Yes,  sir,  I  am. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Whitefipld,  when  and  where  were  you  born  ? 

Mr.  AViLLiAM  Whitefield.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question  for  the  reason  that  I  honestly  feel  that  my  answer  might  tend 
to  incriminate  me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by 
amendment  5,  1,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of 
America — 5,  1,  4,  and  14.  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of 
America. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Whitefield,  are  you  acquainted  with  Mr.  James 
McCroskey ,  who  was  the  first  witness  this  morning  ? 

Mr.  William  Whitefield.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer 
that  question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  acquainted  with  Robert  "N.  Washington,  pres- 
ident of  the  Local  1631  of  the  United  Steelworkers  ? 

Mr.  William  Whitefield.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  On  March  10,  1965,  in  the  course  of  a  strike  against 
the  Dickey  Clay  Manufacturing  Company,  were  you  in  a  trailer 
being  used  for  strike  headquarters  with  James  W.  Bullock,  Leroy 
Wilkins,  and  Larry  Mason  ? 

Mr.  William  Whitefield.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  A\niitefield,  as  a  result  of  the  trailer  being  struck, 
did  you  and  others  bring  a  complaint  against  the  driver  of  the  trailer 
truck,  charging  him  with  assault  with  the  intent  to  kill? 

Mr.  William  Whitefield.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Whitefield,  Collie  Leroy  Wilkins  testified  in  the 
preliminary  hearing  in  that  matter  and,  in  the  course  of  direct  exam- 
ination, he  testified  that,  and  I  will  quote  from  his  testimony: 

Q.  Were  you  inside  the  trailer,  or  where  were  you? 

A.  Yes,  sir,  I  was  inside  the  trailer. 

Q.  What  were  you  doing  inside  tlie  trailer? 

A.  Sitting  down  playing  a  game  of  cards. 

Q.  Who  all  was  inside  the  trailer? 

A.  Bill  Whitefield  and  J.  W.  Bullock. 

Is  Collie  Leroy  Wilkins'  testimony,  as  given  in  that  pretrial  exam- 
ination, truthful? 

Mr.  William  Whitefield.  Sir,  1  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Docmnent  marked  "William  Whitefield  Exhibit  No.  1'"  and  re- 
tained in  committee  files.) 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Whitefield,  I  i)ut  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you 
to  affirm  or  deny  the  fact,  that  at  the  time  of  the  strike  action  you 
were  a  member  of  Bessemer  Klavern  Number  20  of  the  United  Klans 
of  America. 


3118  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  William  Whitefield.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Whitefield,  did  you  know  an  employee  of  the 
Dickey  Company,  Hughie  Maxwell  Bloodsworth? 

Mr.  William  Whitefield.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  connection  with  an  injunction  brought  against  the 
union  and  its  members  with  respect  to  the  picketing  and  the  violence 
at  the  plant,  Hughie  Maxwell  Bloodsworth  gave  a  statement  to  the 
effect  that  he  left  the  company  plant  on  March  8,  was  followed  by  a 
white  1960  Ford,  accompanied  by  three  men  and  a  woman,  and  that 
he  was  told  that  he  should  not  return  to  work,  and  in.  the  course  of 
stopping  his  car  and  talking  to  him,  one  of  the  men  in  the  1960  white 
Ford  noticed  that  he  had  some  shotgun  shells  lying  on  the  floor. 

They  remarked  to  him  that,  "I  see  you've  got  a  shotgun.  That 
don't  worry  me.     I've  got  a  gun,  too." 

Then  Mr.  Bloodsworth  said  he  pulled  back  the  left  side  of  his 
jacket — 

and  I  could  see  a  revolver  in  a  shoulder  holster.  I  could  see  the  handle  and 
the  cylinder.  The  handle  appeared  to  be  brown  wood.  There  was  a  ring  at  the 
butt  of  the  handle,  like  those  on  some  policemen's  and  MP's  pistols,  to  tie  a 
string  or  a  lanyard  to.  *  *  * 

Wlio  were  the  occupants  of  the  1960  white  Ford  that  followed  Mr. 
Bloodsworth,  Mr.  Whitefield? 

Mr.  William  Whitefield.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer 
that  question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Whitefield,  do  you  know  Wallace  A.  Swanson,  an 
employee  of  the  Dickey  Clay  Manufacturing  Company? 

Mr.  William  Whitefield.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Do  you  possess  knowledge  of  whether  or  not  persons 
supporting  the  strike  action  of  the  United  Brick  and  Clay  Workers 
did,  in  fact,  fire  shotguns  into  the  vehicles  of  nonstriking  workers? 

Mr.  William  Whitefield.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer 
that  question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  a  sworn  statement,  signed  statement,  Mr.  Swanson 
related  a  story  that  he  heard  a  shotgun  go  off  and  looked  in  the  direc- 
tion of  where  the  shotgun  blast  came  from  and  stated  in  his  signed 
statement  as  follows : 

I  saw  a  man  in  this  direction  whom  I  recognized  as  Jackie  C.  Gamble 
[G-a-m-b-1-e]  an  inspector  who  is  on  strike  against  W.  S.  Dickey.  When 
I  first  saw  him,  he  was  lowering  a  firearm  from  the  firing  position.  As  he  was 
lowering  it,  it  was  pointed  in  a  northwesterly  direction,  over  across  the  Road 
and  in  the  vicinity  of  the  employees'  cars  which  were  still  passing.  Gamble 
was  slightly  crouched  over  and  was  hidden  from  direct  view  from  the  portion 
of  Sparks  Gap  Road  that  the  employees'  cars  were  passing  by  on,  by  some  fallen 
trees  and  underbrush.  From  the  point  I  was,  however,  it  so  hapi>ened  that  I 
could  see  him  clearly.  I  observed  Gamble  there  for  approximately  10  to  20 
seconds.  He  then  cut  back  into  the  woods,  retracing  part  of  his  route,  and 
then  circled  around  further  east  to  get  back  to  Sparks  Gap  Road.  He  appeared 
to  be  still  carrying  the  firearm.  I  never  did  lose  sight  of  Gamble  as  he  circled 
through  the  woods.  The  point  he  came  out  of  the  woods  was  about  100  feet 
further  east  than  the  picket  trailer.  At  that  time,  Smitherman  and  "Whitefield 
got  into  Whitefield's  car,  a  1960  white  Ford,  and  drove  down  the  road  to  the 
point  where  Gamble  was  just  coming  out  of  the  woods  and  picked  him  up. 
They  then  drove  east  down  Sparks  Gap-Hopewell  Road. 

Is  this  story  factual  ? 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3119 

Mr.  William  Wiiitefield.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer 
that  question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Do  you  know  an  employee,  William  Palmer  of  the 
W.  S.  Dickey  Clay  Manufacturing  Company  ? 

Mr.  William  Wiiitefield.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Palmer  in  a  signed  statement  said  that  on  March  9, 
1965,  he  was  working  at  the  plant,  and  three  pickets  named  W.  P. 
Wiiitefield,  Jr.,  Charles  Grammer,  and  Jimmy  Wiiitefield,  threw  rocks 
at  him. 

Is  his  statement  truthful  ? 

Mr.  William  Wiiitefield.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Document  marked  "William  Wiiitefield  Exhibit  No.  2"  and  re- 
tained in  committee  files. ) 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Whitefield,  Mr.  McCroskey  testified  that  one  of 
his  employees  went  out  on  an  errand  in  a  1959  station  wagon,  and  was 
stopped  by  a  roadblock.  Was  a  car  owned  by  you  and  driven  by 
you  involved  in  the  roadblock  against  the  company  station  wagon? 

Mr.  William  Wiiitefield.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  The  sheriif 's  report  says : 

59  Chev.  station  wagon  belonging  to  Dickey  Clay  driven  by  Elmer  Lee  Skin- 
ner *  *  *  left  plant  to  pick  up  parts.  On  way  back  near  plant — 60  white  Ford, 
IB308.34,  driven  by  Wm.  P.  Whitefield  WM  &  2  other  men  blocked  road  &  broke 
window  in  station  wagon — 58  Chev.  IB10432  driven  by  James  Howell  WM  stopped 
behind  station  wagon — Negro  driver  was  scared  &  trying  to  get  away  backed  into 
James  Howell's  car  &  bent  grill  &  bumper. 

Who  were  the  other  occupants  of  the  car  which  you  were  driving? 

Mr.  William  Wiiitefield.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Document  previously  marked  "James  McCroskey  Exhibit  No. 
1-F"  appears  on  p.  3120.) 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Whitefield,  on  March  22,  1965,  two  bombings  oc- 
curred at  the  Dickey  plant.  A  report  of  the  sheriff's  department 
reads  that : 

After  the  two  bombings,  [P.  L.]  Misso  [M-i-s-s-o]  &  I  [H.  M.  Johnson,  Besse- 
mer sheriff's  office]  stopped  a  '62  Chevrolet  in  the  area  of  Dickey  Clay  with  two 
WM's  [white  males]  in  it.  (1)  Raymond  C.  Myers,  the  driver  &  (2)  Collie  L. 
Wilkins,  4005  10th  Way,  Fairfield  *  -  *. 

Did  these  two  participate  in  any  way  with  those  bombings,  to  your 
knowledge  ? 

Mr.  William  Wiiitefield.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Document  previously  marked  "James  McCroskey  Exhibit  No. 
l-J"  appears  on  p.  3121.) 


59-222  O— 67— pt.  4- 


3120  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

James  McCroskey  Exhibit  No.  1-F 


CONTINUATION  SHEET      (FIELD)  JiffERSOK  COUHn  SHERIFF'S  OEPARTHEKT 


.i^-OL 


1^    ^.^^.   p„.„,..,..,..„„„..      x^^'ii^g.ui: 


^-C  few^    ^  V  ^  ^^  -^     ;  ^  r'Xc. .  /  A"  /.-■  ^..  ?  -i-  /^.  v>~.  A 


,Qt^^^^.//^^-^^^  /^,  /^^^^^^/    AV^./     frC/^^-,.    -y"'^'  ^     /    - 


-./r/-/A^^^- 


Mr.  iVppELL.  The  report  further  states  that  at  11 :  45  p.m.  they 
stopped  and  checked  a  green  '58  Chevrolet,  I.B.-37863,  with  two 
passengers  in  it,  one  W.  P.  Whitefield,  Jr.,  and  the  other  Charles 
Grammer. 

Did  you  participate  in  either  of  the  bombings  at  the  Dickey  Clay 
plant  that  night  ? 

Mr.  William  Whitefield.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Whitefield,  was  your  brother  the  exalted  cyclops 
of  the  Kla veni  at  the  time  of  the  Dickey  Clay  strike  ? 

Mr.  William  WnirEFiELD.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Do  you  know  the  composition  of  the  klokann  commit- 
tee appointed  by  Bessemer  Klavern  No.  20  '\ 

Mr.  William  Whitefield.  Sir,  1  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  \\\)0\\  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Were  any  of  the  acts  of  violence  taken  against  the 
Dickey  Clay  Pipe  Company  or  personnel  employed  by  the  Dickey 
Clay  Pipe  "Company,  or  Clay  Manufacturing  Company,  rather,  by 
members  of  tlie  Bessemer  Klavern  No.  20  klokann  committee? 

Mr.  WiLLiA3i  Whitefield.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  on  November  21,  1964,  accompany  your  broth- 
er and  other  Klansmen  from  the  Alabama  area  to  Jacksonville, 
Florida? 

Mr.  William  Whitefield.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  hand  you  a  registration,  copy  of  a  registration  card, 
Capri  Motel,  Jacksonville,  Florida,  signed  Bill  Whitefield,  dated  No- 
vember 21,  1904,  whicli  reflects  that  Bill  Whitefield  was  assigned  Room 
No.  166. 


OCWTIKUOWWI  »ICW      (FIELD1 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3121 

James  McCroskev  Exhibit  No.  1-J 


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CONTINUATIOH  WEET      (FIELOt 


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Thr.    /^/. 


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I  ask  you  if  the  signature  that  appears  on  that  card  is  your 
signatured 

Mr.  William  AViiitofield.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Document  marked  "William  Whitefield  Exhibit  No.  3"  follows:) 


r3122  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

William  Whitefield  Exhibit  No.  3 


We/come 


All  valuoblM 
mu«t  b«  cl«pe*itMl 


Iherwis* 
we  are  not 


'^  """     Capri  Motel   S 

—  are  i 
ponti 
1  loii 

'A4. 


IIOV  2  1   1954^^  0/  Tke  South's  Largest  and  Finest  Motels    r«,p«n«b!e  for 
— — — — — -^^^^ 7X    /.^/ 


s^J^^HX 


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-^M-U^u^c/^ 


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DAVS  Occupied 


CmCK  OUT  TIJME— Y2.-00  NOON 

for  #fc«  B*sf  in  Food 

CAPRI  HOTEL  RESTAllRAri' 


Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  staff  has  no  further  questions  to 
ask  of  Mr.  Whitefield. 

Mr.  Buchanan.  No  questions. 

Mr.  Weltner.  The  witness  will  be  excused. 

Call  your  next  witness,  please. 

Mr.  Appell.  Johnnie  Lee  Burnette. 

Mr.  Weltnpzr.  Do  you  solemnly  swear  that  the  testimony  you  will 
give  in  the  hearing  will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but 
the  truth,  so  help  you  God  ? 

Mr.  BiTRNETTE.  I  do. 

TESTIMONY  OF  JOHNNIE  LEE  BURNETTE,  ACCOMPANIED  BY 
COUNSEL,  LESTEE  V.  CHALMERS,  JR. 


Mr. 
Mr. 
Mr. 
Mr. 
Mr. 
Mr. 
Mr. 


Burnette? 


Appell.  State  your  full  name  for  the  record,  Mr. 
Burnette.  Jolmnie  Lee  Burnette. 
Appell. 

BuRNET^n:.  They  spell  it  both  ways. 
Appell.  Well,  how  do  you  spell  it? 
Burnette.  J-o-h-n-n-i-e. 
Appell.  Thank  you. 
Are  you  represented  by  counsel  ? 
Mr.  Burnette.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  counsel  identify  himself  for  the  record' 
Mr.  Chalmers.  Lester  V.  Chalmers,  Jr.,  attorney  at  law, 
501,  First  Federal  Building,  Raleigh,  North  Carolina. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Burnette,  are  you  appearing  here  today  in  accord- 
ance with  a  sub])ena  served  upon  you  on  November  3,  1965,  at  2529 
22d  Street,  Hueytown,  Alabama  ? 
Mr.  Burnette.  Yes,  sir. 


Room 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3123 

Mr.  Appell.  When  and  where  were  you  born,  Mr.  Burnette  ? 

Mr.  Burnette.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question 
for  the  reasons  that  I  honestly  feel  that  my  answer  might  tend  to 
incriminate  me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by 
amendment  5,  1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States 
of  America. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Burnette,  as  a  member  of  Bessemer  Klavern  No. 
20,  did  you  render  any  aid  and  assistance  to  the  strikers  at  the  Dickey 
Clay  Manufacturing  Company  plant  in  Hopewell,  Alabama? 

Mr.  Burnette.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  that  are  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Let's  ask  the  witness  first  if  he  is  a  member  of  Bess- 
emer Klavern  No.  20,  United  Klans  of  America. 

Mr.  Burnette.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Burnette,  do  you  possess  knowledge  of  the  bomb- 
ing of  the  16th  Street  Baptist  Church  in  Birmingham,  Alabama,  in 
1963? 

Mr.  Burnette.  Sir 

Mr.  Weltner.  Is  that  the  date  of  September  15, 1963  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Burnette.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  At  a  klonvokation  of  the  United  Klans  of  America 
held  at  the  Dinkler-Tutwiler  Hotel  in  Birmingham,  Alabama,  on 
September  5-6,  1964,  did  you  receive  four  electric  blasting  caps  from 
the  exalted  cyclops  of  the  Marietta,  Georgia,  Klavern  of  the  United 
Klans  of  America  ? 

Mr.  Burnette.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  As  you  left  that  Klavern,  or  that  klonvokation,  were 
you  accompanied  by  Eugene  Thomas  ? 

Mr.  Burnette.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Were  you  for  a  short  period  of  time  surveilled  by 
agents  of  the  FBI? 

Mr.  Burnette.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Thinking  tliat  those  agents  were  going  to  continue  to 
surveille  you  to  a  parking  lot  where  3'our  veliicle  was  parked,  did  you 
and  Thomas  pull  pistols  in  preparing  to  fire  on  the  FBI  agents  that 
were  surveilling  you? 

Mr.  Burxp:tte.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  in  view  of  the  witness'  claim  or  priv- 
ilege and  his  consistent  refusal  to  answer  questions,  I  present  to  the 
committee  the  resuUs  of  our  investigation  as  they  pertain  to  Mr. 
Burnette. 

Mr.  Burnette  was  born  on  August  10,  1925,  at  Piper,  P-i-p-e-r, 
Alnl)aniu.    He  resides  at  2529-22d  Street,  Hueytown,  Alabama. 

Committee  investigation  establishes  Mr.  Burnette  to  be  a  member 
of  Bessemer  Klavern  No.  20,  known  as  the  Young  Men's  Social  Club, 
and  a  delegate  to  the  1964  Klonvokation  held  at  the  Dinkler-Tutwiler 
Hotel  on  September  5-6,  1964. 


3124  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

During  tliis  kknivokation,  Burnotte  was  furnished  four  electric 
blasting  caps  by  the  EC  of  the  Marietta,  Georgia,  Klavern.  As 
Burnette,  accompanied  by  Eugene  Thomas  and  another  Klansman, 
left  the  hotel,  they  vrere  followed  by  agents  of  the  FBI.  The  Klansmen 
drew  pistols  and  were  preparing  to  fire  on  the  agents  after  the 
Klansmen  had  reached  a  dark  section  of  a  lot  where  they  had  parked 
their  car.  However,  the  agents  discontinued  their  surveillance  prior 
to  this,  unbeknownst  to  the  Klansmen. 

Burnette  is  known  to  possess  knoAvledge  of  acts  of  violence  carried 
out  by  members  of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  including  the  16th 
Street  Bajjtist  Church  bombing  in  September  1963  and  the  bombings 
at  the  Dickey  Clay  Manufacturing  Company. 

This  information,  Mr.  Chairman,  indicates  that  Mr.  Burnette  pos- 
sesses additional  information  which  is  both  ])ertinent  and  relevant  to 
this  inquiry  and  would  materially  aid  the  Congress  in  enacting  re- 
medial legislation. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Burnette,  you  have  heard  the  sworn  statement 
of  the  investigator.  You  now  have  an  opportunity  to  confirm  or 
qualify  or  explain  any  portion  of  that  testimony  or  offer  any  further 
information  that  the  committee  deems  relevant. 

Do  you  wish  to  offer  any  further  matter  for  this  committee's 
consideration  ? 

Hearing  no  response,  I  must  advise  you  that,  absent  other  evidence 
which  will  come  to  the  committee,  we  will  rely  upon  the  accurary  of 
this  investigation. 

I  would  like  to  inquire  of  the  witness  as  to  whether  or  not,  Mr. 
Burnette,  do  you  have  knowledge  of  the  bombing  of  the  church  in 
Birmingham  on  September  15,  1963? 

Mr.  Burnette.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Appell,  the  record  does  not  indicate  that  this 
witness  is  or  has  been  employed  by  the  clay  pipe  company.  Is  that 
correct  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  To  the  best  of  the  committee's  investigation,  the  witness 
has  never  been  employed  by  Dickey  Clay  Manufacturing  Company. 

Mr.  Weltner.  There  being  no  further  questions,  the  witness  will 
be  excused. 

Call  your  next  w^itness,  please. 

Mr.  Appell.  Donald  A.  Smitherman. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Do  you  solemnly  swear  that  the  answers  you  will 
give  in  this  hearing  will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but 
the  truth,  so  help  you  God  ? 

Mr.  Smitherman.  I  do. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3125 

TESTIMONY  OF  DONALD  ANDREW  SMITHERMAN,  ACCOMPANIED 
BY  COUNSEL,  LESTER  V.  CHALMERS,  JR. 

Mr.  Appell.  State  your  full  name  for  the  record,  Mr.  Smitherman, 

Mr.  Smitiiermax.  Donald  A.  Smitherman. 

Mr.  Appell.  Does  the  "A"  stand  for  Andrew  ? 

Mr.  Smitherman.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  represented  by  counsel  ? 

Mr.  Smitherman.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Counsel,  will  you  identify  yourself  for  the  record  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Lester  V.  Chalmers,  Jr.,  attorney  at  law.  Room  501, 
First  Federal  Building,  Raleigh,  North  Carolina. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Smitherman,  are  you  appearing  before  the  com- 
mittee today  in  accordance  with  a  subpena  served  upon  you  on  October 
25,  1965,  at  the  Pullman-Standard  Company,  in  Bessemer,  Alabama? 

Mr.  Smitherman.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Smitherman,  are  you  a  member  of  Bessemer  Kla- 
vern  No.  20  of  the  United  Klans  of  America  ? 

Mr.  Smitherman.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  ques- 
tion for  the  reason  that  I  honestly  believe  that  my  answer  might  tend 
to  incriminate  me  in  my  violation  of  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  the 
amendments  5,  1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Smitherman,  have  you  ever  been  employed  by  the 
Dickey  Clay  Manufacturing  Company  in  Hopewell,  Alabama  ? 

Mr.  Smitherman.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  ques- 
tion for  the  reason  that  I  honestly  feel  that  my  answer  might  tend 
to  incriminate  me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  the 
amendments  5,  1,  4,  and  14  of  the' Constitution  of  the  United  States 
of  America. 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Smitherman,  on  March  8,  1965,  Alfonza  Ragland, 
Jr.,  an  employee  of  the  Dickey  Clay  Manufacturing  Company,  at 
3:20  p.m.  was  leaving  the  plant.  And  according  to  a  report  of  the 
sherilT's  department,  wlien  he  reached  the  picket  line,  rocks  and  bottles 
were  throAvn  by  pickets  and  a  shot  was  fired  which  struck  the  left  front 
fender,  just  above  the  wheel,  part  of  the  charge  striking  the  tire. 

What  knowledge  do  you  possess  of  that  incident,  Mr.  Smitherman? 

Mr.  Smitherman.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previous  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  The  supplementary  report  from  the  sheriff's  depart- 
ment wliich  I  read  to  you  stated  that  after  this  incident  happened  a 
check  was  made  of  the  picket  line,  and  a  report  says  that : 

One  man  present  was  not  an  employee  of  Dickey  Clay  but  stated  that  he  belonged 
to  the  same  Union.  This  man  was  employeed  [sic]  at  the  Pullman  Plant,  Bes- 
semer. His  name  and  address  are:  Donald  A.  Smitherman,  lOi  Park  Ave.  or 
306  Terrace  Court.  *  *  *  Ala.  Driver's  License  No.  1875725. 

Is  the  report  of  the  sheriff's  department  factual,  Mr.  Smitherman? 

Mr,  Smitherman.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previous  stated. 

(Document  previously  marked  "James  McCroskey  Exhibit  No. 
1-E"  follows:) 


3126  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

James  McCroskey  Exhibit  No.  1-E 


I 


Shooting   Into   Auto    -   Labor  tr-juble 
Sparks   Cap  Road-Dicky   Clay   Plant 
Alfonza   RACLAND  Jr 


3-?-65        3:20   PM 

#6   Shades   Street 


3-8-65 
i.25    1278 


RAOLAND  reported   by   phone   to   this   office   that   l.ls  autonobile   had   been   shot  as   he   was    leaving 
the  W.   3.    Dickey   Clay  Mfr   Plant  where   he    is   employed.  RAGLAND  had   worked   the   day   shift  and   Juat 

as   h»   reached   the   picket   line   rocke  and   bottles   were   thrown   by   PlcVets  and  a   shot  w=s    fire  which 
struck  the    left   front   fender    lust  above   the  wheel,    part   of  the   charge   striking   the   tire.      Shot 
labedded    In   the   tire  were  buck   shot  apnarfntly  00.      RAGLAND  was   driving   a   1956   Pontiac,    i-door, 
white   over  blue,    license  #   IB  27599.      RAGLAND  did  not  know  who   fired   the   shot  but   thought  that 
it  was   fired    from   the    trailer  used  by   the   pickets.      Photo,^ranhs   taken   by  Sheriff  J.  >.Thoranson 


J.   W,   Thoapson     Ae 


the  Sheriff 


March   8     1965 


SIIPPI  EHENTARY  OFFENSE  REPORT 


JEFFERSOW   COUNTY   SHERIFF'S   [i,EPARTNENT 


Shooting   Into  Auto 


44-OO3-B65 


Labor   Disturbance 


Alfonza   RAGLAND  Jr     #6   Shades   Street   Bessemer     425    127^ 


After   checking  auto   of  Victim  a    check   was   made   of   the   picket    line  and   the 

nanies   obtained   of  all    present.      List    is   attached.      One   man    nresent   was  not 

an    emcloyee   of   Dickey   Clay   but   stated    t^iat   he    belonged   to   the    same   Union. 

This   man   was    emoloyeed  at   the    Pullman   Plant,    Bessemer.    His   name   and   address 
are  : 

Donald  A   Snitherman 

1C4    Park  Ave   or 

306   Terrace   Court  * 

HA!»    49A7 

Ala    Driver's   License   Nol    1875725 

Even    tho  Mr  S'-'.ITH£.Ri>.AN    is   not   an   employee   of   Dickey   Clay  he   ar.pearred    to   be 
taking  a    very  active    -lart   in   the    picket    line.      He   was   advised   that    it   would 

be   to    the    best    interest   of   the   men    on    strike    for   him    to    leave. 

Sec.    Eng.    Guard   B.    R.    WRIGHT,    111    Pine   Ave,    Hueytown,    P,.one    491   3127, 

wa      on    duty  at   the    tL-ne   of   the   shooting   of  RAGLAND'S   auto  and    stated   that 

the    shot    came    from   the    wooded   area   across   the    road   from   the    picket    line. 

Mr.    WRIGHT   further   stated   that   he    saw   and    identified   a   white   male   as   being 

across    the   road  at   the   tirr-e   the    shot,    in    fact,    this    white   male   wss    the   only 

per  on    to   rejoin    the   picket    line    from  across   tlie    road.      Tiiis   man  was 

Jackie    Clyde   GA.VBLE,    Rt   2    Box  619,    Rt   3    Box  o7G,    Alabama    Driver's    License 

No.    1647012. 


□  no 


J«    B.    Sexton     Jr 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  3127 

Mr.  Appell.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  as  an  employee  of  Pullman- Stand- 
ard, you  could  not  be  a  member  of  the  United  Brick  and  Clay  Workers, 
because  they  have  no  baro-aining  rights  at  Pullman-Standard,  do  they  ? 

Mr.  Smitherman.  Sir,'  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previous  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Was  your  participation  in  the  acts  there  as  a  result  of 
orders  which  you  had  received  as  a  member  of  the  Bessemer  Klavern 
No.  20  of  the  United  Klans  of  America  ? 

Mr.  Smitherman.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answ^er  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previous  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Smitherman,  can  you  advise  the  committee  as  to 
what  that  pin  is  in  your  left  lapel  ? 

Mr.  Smitherman.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  j^revious  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  That  is  the  lapel  pin  of  a  member  of  the  United  Klans 
of  America ;  is  it  not  ? 

Mr.  Smitherman.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  ques- 
tion, based  upon  the  grounds  previous  Stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Smitherman,  as  a  member  of  the  Bessemer  Klavern 
participating  in  the  strike  at  the  Dickey  Clay  Pipe  Company,  have  you 
ever  fired  a  shotgini  into  the  car  of  a  nonstriking  worker,  or  have  you 
ever  engaged  in  placing  of  any  of  the  explosives  which  have  exploded 
at  the  plant  property  ? 

Mr.  Smitherman.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previous  stated. 

Mr.  Appell,  Mr.  Smitherman,  have  members  of  Bessemer  Klavern 
No.  20  been  active  in  a  campaign  against  the  integration  of  schools, 
the  Bessemer  High  School  in  Bessemer,  Alabama  ? 

Mr.  Smitherman.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previous  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  participate  in  any  Klan  activity  against  that, 
in  the  accompaniment  of  Eugene  Thomas  ? 

Mr.  Smitherjvian.  Sir,  I  respectfully — — 

Mr.  Weltner.  Wait  just  a  minute."    Kepeat  that  question,  please? 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  he  participate  in  any  Klan  activity  in  the  Bessemer 
area,  accompanying  Eugene  Thomas  ? 

Mr.  Smitherman.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previous  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Smitherman,  the  Birmingham  Post-Herald,  Fri- 
day, September  3,  1965,  contains  a  story  with  respect  to  enrollment  at 
the  Bessemer  High  School.  On  page  2  of  the  continuation  of  the  story, 
I  read  this : 

Another  Klansman,  Eugene  Thomas,  one  of  the  three  men  charged  in  the  death 
of  a  Detroit  woman  in  Lowndes  County  last  Spring,  removed  his  son  from  Besse- 
mer High  School  yesterday,  second  day  of  school. 

A  white  man  accompanying  Thomas  at  the  time,  Donald  Smitherman,  28,  of 
1004  Park  Av.,  Raimund,  was  arrested  by  Bessemer  Police  Chief  George  Barron 
and  charged  with  disorderly  conduct  and  driving  without  a  license.  He  was 
released  under  $1.50  bond. 

Is  tliat  account  as  I  read  to  you  factual,  Mr.  Smitherman? 
Mr.  Smitherman.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previous  stated. 

(Document  marked  "Donald  Smitherman  Exhibit  No.  1"  follows:) 


3128 


ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 


Donald  Smitherman  Exhibit  No.  1 

{Bnmini>ham  (Ala.)  Posl-HemU.  September  3,  196.")] 


in  Birmingham — 

,  Enrollment 
In  Schools 
At  65,373 

BY  LILLIAN  FOSCUE  VANN 

New  books  and  homework  as- 
signment.s  were  the  order  'of 
business  la.sl  nisht  for  studcnls 
in  five  school  systems  in  Jef- 
ferson County  after  the  first 
complete  day  of  classes  yester- 
day. 

Birmingham  schools,  opening 
a  day  later  than  other  systems, 
scheduled  first  day  of  complete 
classes  today.  Enrollment  at 
the  end  of  the  day  yesterday  ^j 
was  65,373  in  Birmingham . 
schools,  a  drop  of  1060  from  the  , 
first  day's  enrollment  in  1964.    j 

Enrollment  by  the  end  of  the. 
first  month  last  year  in  Bir- . 
mingham  city  schools  topped , 
71,000,  however,  and  authorities 
predict  the  end  of  the  next 
month  wilt  see  enrollment  near- ; 
ly  at  this  mark.  I 


William   P.   Whitfield   Jr..  23. 
Rt.  1,  Box  284.  McCalla,  was  ar- 
rested   Monday   near   Bessemer 
High  School  for  refusing  to  obey 
students   ^f,g  lawful  command  of  a  police 


said  several  applicalioiis  for 
transfer  to  while  firs!  grades 
were  made  by  parents  of  Negro 
children  yesterday. 

At     Fairfield.     3834 
were    enioUed    overall,    a    drop;  officer 

from  3980  students  enrolled  the  j^  Jefferson  Count v  schools  a 
first  day  of  .school  m  1964  the  total  of  23  Negroes  were  approv- 
supeiintendent  s  office  said  ^ .  j^^   ,,.3,^^^^,.   j,^    ^^    ^^.p^.^^,, 

Negro  students  approved  for  enrollment  of  61.911,  an  increase 
transfer  included  eight  in  the ,  ^^  ^2.04.5  over  first  dav  enroll- 
seventh  grade,  13  in  the  eighth  j^^^^  j^^^  y^y,. 
grade,  four  in  the  10th  grade  ;  j^^^  Jefferson  '  Count v  Board 
and  three  m  the  senior  cla,ss  I  of  Education  met  in"  special 
,  Bessemer  schools  reported'  ^^^^^^^  yesterday  to  consider 
about  90  per  cent  complete  en-  applications  for  transfer  by  first 
rollment  on  the  first  day  of  the  graders  and  four  were  approv- 
expected    8100    students.    Some    ^^ 

4700  of  the  expected  5200  Negro  school  authorities  said  it  was 
students  were  registei-ed  in  Bes-  up  ,0  parents  whether  first 
semer  the  first  day,  include  13 1  graders  whose  transfers  were 
at  the  white  junior  and  senior,  approved  would  start  at  deseg- 


high  schools,  four  in  the  seventh 
grade,  six  in  the  10th  and  three 
in  the  12th  grades. 
State-provided   textbooks,    for 


the  most  part,  were  adequate, 
but  some  additional  books  would 
have  to  be  purchased  with  local 
funds,  authorities  said. 

Bessemer  school  lunch  pro- 
gram, once  thought  to  be  in- 
eligible this  year  for  Federal 
assistance,  does  qualify  and  will 
operate  as  it  did  last  year. 
•    The  system  is.  in  compliance 


Birmingham   E  1  e  m  e  n  t  a  ry  ,\^i^^  Health,  Education  and  Wei 


school  enrollment  totaled  47,302 
students  and  high  schools  re- 
ported 18,071.  Included  in  the 
totals  were  49  Negro  students 
attending  predominately  white 
schools.  First  grade  transfers 
by  Negro  students  were  not 
compiled  last  night. 

Fairfield  reported  28  Negro  . 
students  enrolled  in  previously  ^ 
all-white  schools  and  Bessemer 
13.  Jefferson  County  schools 
reported  24,  making  a  total  to 
date  in  all  county  systems  of  114 
Negro  students  in  19  desegregat- 
ed schools. 

Desegregated  Birm  i  n  g  h  a  m 
city  schools  and  number  of 
Negro  students  attending  each 
include:  Giaymont  Elementary, 
1;  Ensley  High,  12;  Jones  Val- 
ley High,  5;  Phillips  High.  9; 
•Ramsay  High,  13;  West  End 
High,  2';  and  Woodlawn  High,  6. 
One  Negro  special  student  was 
admitted  to  Charlanne  part  of 
Elyton   Elementary   School. 

Applications  for  transfer  are 
still  being  processed  for  Negro 
fi  r  s  t  -  g  r  a  d  ers.  Birmingham 
schools    attorney    Reid    Barnes 


fare  Dept.  and  Department  of 
Agriculture  requirements,  the 
superintendent.  Dr.  James  0. 
Knuckles,  said,  while  the  Civil 
Rights  Act  is  tested  in  Federal 
Court  in  a  suit  filed  by  the 
Sfemer  board. 
•Another  Klansman 
Thomas,  one  of  three  men 
charged  in  the  death  of  a 
Detroit  woman  in  Lowndes 
County  last  Spring,  removed  his 
son  from  Bessemer  High  School 
yesterday,  second  day  of  school. 
A  white  man  accompanying 
Thomas  at  the  time,  Donald 
Smitherman.  28,  of  1004  PaiK-av, 
Raimiind,  was  arrested  by 
Bessemer  Police  Chief  George 
Barron  and  charged  with  disor- 
iderly  conduct  and  driving  with- 
out a  license.  He  was  released 
i  under  $150  bond. 
;  Wednesday  William  J)..  laUm, 
another  of  the  KKK  members 
accused  in  the  fatal  shooting  of 
Mrs.  Viola  Liuzzo,  removed  his 
son  from  desegregated  Huey- 
towh  High  School, 
week  in  connection  with  viola- 
tions at  the  opening  of  school. 


regated  schools  today  or  wait 
until  after  Monday's  Labor  Day 
holiday  and  start  classes  Tues- 
day. 

Fourteen  seventh  graders  and 
four  first  graders  were  ap- 
proved  for   transfer   yesterday, 

:  which  added  to  the  eight  stu- 
dents previously  approved  for 
transfer      in      higher      grades 

1  brought     the    total    in     county 

i  schools  to  26,  but  two  were  not 

I  in  school. 

Desegregated  county  schools 
and  number  of  Negro  students 
attending  included  McDonald's 
Chapel— 3  first  graders;  McNeil. 
1  first  grader  and  1  seventh 
grader;  Gra.vsviUe.  2  seventh, 
graders  and  1  ninth  grader; 
--  '  Dixie,  11  seventh  graders  and  3 
Eugene  i  ninth    graders.    Hueytown,    two 


senior  high  students. 

Mountain  Brook  schools  re- 
ported an  increase  in  enrollment 
at  three  of  the  city's  four 
Only  Crestline  School  showed  a 
drop,  registering  682  students  as 
compared  to  735  last  year  the 
first  day  of  school. 

Other  Mountain  Brook  schools 
and  registration  the  first  day  in- 
I eluded  Junior  High,  1019  stu- 
Idents,  compared  to  981  last  year; 
Elementary,  533  as  compared  to 
.408:.iiasL_5;eai'.  iand  BrooJcwaod 
I  Forest,  673  compared  to  381  last 
i  year. 

Tarrant  school  authorities  said 
school  enrollment  the  first  day 
Jived  up  to  the  expected  figure 
of  2000, 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3129 

Mr.  Appell,  Mr.  Smitherman,  that  arrest — was  that  the  only  arrest 
that  you  have  ever  had  during  your  lifetime  ? 

Mr.  Smithermax.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previous  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  1957,  were  you  arrested  by  the  Jefferson  County 
sheriff's  office  as  a  Naval  deserter  ? 

Mr.  Smitherman.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previous  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Ghainnan,  the  staff  has  no  further  questions  of  this 
witness. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Smitherman,  we  are  endeavoring  to  determine 
what  function  Bessemer  Klavem  No.  20  of  the  United  Klans  of  Amer- 
ica had  in  the  strike  of  Dickey  Clay  Pipe  Company.  And  of  course 
this  committee  is  not  concernecl  with  the  implementation  of  the  Labor- 
Management  Relations  Act  or  of  the  terms  of  the  strike  or  the  griev- 
ances that  might  have  led  to  it  or  the  union  that  might  ultimately  repre- 
sent any  of  the  employees  of  that  company,  nor  are  we  concerned  with 
the  details  of  the  negotiations  or  the  basis  for  any  contract  settlement 
of  that  labor  dispute. 

We  are  concerned  with  discerning  whether  or  not  there  is  any  con- 
nection between  the  long  train  of  violent  acts  that  took  place  during 
last  year  and  the  United  Khms  of  America.  That  is  our  only  concern, 
and  I  would  ask  you  to  tell  this  committee,  if  you  will,  just  what 
function  or  what  position  tlie  Bessemer  Klavem  No.  20  took  in  that 
labor  dispute  last  year. 

Mr.  Smitherman.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previous  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Questions? 

Mr.  Buchanan.  Only  one,  Mr.  Chairman. 

Mr.  Smitherman,  do  you  feel  that  when  a  group  carries  out  acts  of 
bombings,  firing  shotguns  in  automobiles,  and  rocking  and  threaten- 
ing people,  they  are  doing  something  to  help  organized  labor? 

Mr.  Smitherman.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Buchanan.  No  further  questions. 

Mr.  Weltner.  All  right,  this  witness  Avill  be  excused. 

Call  your  next  witness. 

Mr.  Appell.  Curtis  O'Neil  Doles. 

Mr.  AVeltner.  Do  you  solemnly  swear  the  testimony  you  will  give 
in  this  hearing  will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the 
truth,  so  help  you  God? 

Mr.  Doles.  Yes,  sir. 

TESTIMONY  OF  CURTIS  O'NEIL  DOLES,  SR.,  ACCOMPANIED  BY 
COUNSEL,  LESTER  V.  CHALMERS,  JR. 

Mr.  Appell.  State  your  full  name  for  tlie  record,  Mr.  Doles. 
Mr.  Doles.  Curtis  O'Neil  Doles,  Sr. 
Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  represented  by  counsel  ? 
Mr.  Doles.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Would  counsel  identify'  himself  for  the  record? 
Mr.  Chalmers.  Lester  V.  Chalmers,  Jr.,  attorney  at  law.  Room  501, 
First  Federal  Building,  Raleigh,  North  Carolina. 


3130  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Doles,  are  you  appearing  before  the  committee  to- 
day in  accordance  with  a  subpena  served  upon  you  on  October  25, 1965, 
at  1820  Alemeda  Avenue,  Birmingham,' Alabama? 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Doles.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  "Wlien  and  where  were  you  born,  Mr.  Doles? 

Mr.  Doles.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
reason  that  I  honestly  feel  that  my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate 
me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendment  5, 1,  4, 
and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Doles,  are  you  a  member  of  the  United  Klaus  of 
America,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  ? 

Mr.  Doles.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Doles,  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact  that  you  are  a  mem- 
ber of  Bessemer  Klavern  No.  20,  United  Klans  of  America,  and  ask 
you  to  affirm  or  deny  the  fact. 

Mr.  Doles.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Doles,  last  week,  the  committee  had  as  a  w^itness  a 
one-time  member  of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  McComb,  Missis- 
sippi, Emery  Allen  Lee. 

Are  you  acquainted  with  Emery  Allen  Lee  ? 

Mr.  Doles.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Within  the  United  Klans  of  America,  in  McComb, 
Mississippi,  Emery  Allen  Lee  was  the  Klan's  demolition  man.  Are 
you  the  Klan's  demolition  man  for  the  State  of  Alabama  ? 

Mr.  Doles.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Appell,  so  the  record  might  be  clear,  in  your 
q^uestion,  would  you  kindly  state  what  is  meant  by  the  term  "demoli- 
tion man"  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  A  man  wdio  is  an  expert  in  the  preparation  of  imple- 
ments of  demolition — bombs  and  other  implements. 

Mr.  Weltner.  I  must  ask  the  witness,  Mr.  Doles,  are  you  familiar 
with  the  construction  of  explosive  devices  and  means  of  setting  them 
off? 

Mr.  Doles.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  October  1964,  Mr.  Doles,  were  you  in  charge  of  the 
United  Klans  of  America  booth  at  the  Alabam  State  Fair  at  Birming- 
ham, Alabama  ? 

Mr.  Doles.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Doles,  do  you  have  an  arrest  record  in  the  States 
of  Alabama,  Louisiana,  and  Texas  ? 

Mr.  Doles.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  October  1964,  did  Imperial  Wizard  Robert  Shelton 
praise  you  for  being  a  dedicated  Klansman  ? 

Mr.  Doles.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  3131 

Mr.  Appell.  Was  your  arrest  record  known  to  Imperial  Wizard 
Shelton  at  the  time  he  praised  you  as  a  dedicated  Klansman? 

Mr.  Doles.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  prepare  any  of  the  explosive  devices  used 
against  the  Dickey  Clay  Manufacturing  Company? 

Mr.  Doles.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  staff  has  no  further  questions  to  ask 
of  this  witness. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Does  the  investigation  indicate  this  witness  to  be  an 
employee  of  the  Dickey  Clay  Pipe  Company  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  The  record,  Mr.  Chairman,  reflects  that  Mr.  Doles  is 
employed  with  the  Doles  Home  Improvement  Company,  Midfield, 
Alabama. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Doles,  you  have  an  opportunity  at  this  time  to 
offer  any  matter  that  you  feel  might  be  of  assistance  to  this  committee 
and  to  respond  in  any  way  you  see  fit  to  some  of  the  questions  or  the 
statements  that  were  put  to  you. 

Do  you  wisli  to  avail  yourself  of  that  opportunity  ? 

The  witness  remaining  silent,  the  record  will  so  reflect. 

The  witness  is  excused. 

Call  your  next  witness. 

Mr.  Appell.  Eugene  Curtis  Vann,  Jr. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Do  you  solemnly  swear  the  testimony  you  will  give 
in  this  hearing  will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the 
truth,  so  help  you  God  ? 

Mr.  Vann.  I  do. 

TESTIMONY   OF  EUGENE  CURTIS  VANN,   JR.,   ACCOMPANIED  BY 
COUNSEL,  LESTER  V.  CHALMERS,  JR. 

Mr.  Appell.  State  your  full  name  for  the  record,  please,  sir. 

Mr.  Vann.  My  name  is  Eugene  Curtis  Vann,  Jr. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  represented  by  counsel  ? 

Mr.  Vann.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  counsel  identify  himself  for  the  record? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Lester  V.  Chalmers,  Jr.,  attorney  at  law,  Room  501, 
First  Federal  Building,  Raleigh,  North  Carolina. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Vann,  are  you  appearing  here  today  in  accordance 
with  a  subpena  served  upon  you  on  October  25,  1965,  at  Vann  &  John- 
son Electric  Service,  323  Molton  Street,  Montgomery,  Alabama  ? 

Mr.  Vann.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Vann,  the  subpena  served  upon  you  had  an  attach- 
ment, which  was  made  a  part  of  the  subpena,  and  under  the  terms  of 
the  subpena,  you  were  commanded  to  bring  with  you  and  to  produce 
documents  set  forth  in  the  attachment  which  reads  as  follows  : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  relating  to  the 
organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  business  and  affairs  of  the  Invisible  Empire, 
United  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also  known  as  the 
United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  and  affiliated 
organizations,  namely,  the  Alabama  Rescue  Service,  and  Lawrence  Lodge  #610. 
Klavern,  Realm  of  Alabama,  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control,  or  main- 
tained  by   you   or   available   to   you   as    present    or   former    Exalted    Cyclops, 


3132  ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX   KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Lawrence  Lodge  #610,  Realm  of  Alabama  of  the  Invisible  Empire,  United 
Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also  known  as  the  United 
Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan. 

In  the  representative  capacity  set  forth  in  paragraph  1,  I  ask  you 
to  produce  the  documents  called  for. 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Vann.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee 
any  and  all  documents  as  demanded  by  the  committee  in  a  subpena 
dated  October  14,  1965,  for  the  reason  that  I  honestly  feel  that  if  I 
do  so,  might  tend  to  incriminate  me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as 
guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments  5,  1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution 
of  the  United  States  of  America. 

I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any  and  all  rec- 
ords as  requested  by  the  committee  under  subpena  dated  October  the 
14th,  1965,  for  the  information  is  not  relevant  and  germane  to  the 
subject  under  investigation  and  the  same  would  not  aid  the  Congress 
in  the  consideration  of  any  valid  remedial  legislation,  nor  is  such 
inquiry  within  the  scope  of  the  authorized  to  be  investigated  by  Eule 
XI  of  the  rules  adopted  by  the  89th  Congress  of  the  House  of  Repre- 
sentatives, No.  8,  adopted  January  4, 1965. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Chalmers,  do  we  have  the  stipulation  that  this 
witness  has  been  furnished  a  copy  of  the  chairman's  opening  statement 
and  is  familiar  with  the  contents  thereof  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  And  that  the  directions  of  the  subpena  to  produce 
documents  are  made  to  the  witness  in  the  official  representative  ca- 
pacity described  in  the  subpena  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  As  stated  in  the  subpena ;  yes. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Vann,  the  committee  does  not  accept  your 
reasons  for  refusal  to  comply  with  the  subpena,  and  as  chainnan  of 
the  subcommittee,  I  order  and  direct  you  to  furnish  the  documents 
called  for  therein. 

Mr.  Vann.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee 
the  documents  therefore  ordered  by  the  chairman — heretofore  ordered 
heretofore  by  the  committee — ordered  by  the  chairman,  based  upon 
the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  You  have  at  this  point,  Mr.  Vann,  an  opportunity 
to  place  into  this  record  any  reason  why  you  are  unable  to  comply 
with  the  terms  of  that  subpena. 

There  being  no  response,  proceed  with  paragraph  2,  Mr.  Appell. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Vann,  paragraph  2  called  upon  you  to  produce: 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  in  your  pos- 
session, custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  or  available  to  you,  in  your  capacity 
as  present  or  former  Exalted  Cyclops,  Lawrence  Lod.ce  #610,  Realm  of  Alabama, 
of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  which  the 
"Constitution  and  Laws"  of  said  organization  authorize  and  require  to  be  main- 
tained by  you  and  any  other  officer  of  said  organization,  the  same  being  in  your 
possession,  custody  or  control. 

In  the  representative  capacity  set  forth  in  paragraph  2, 1  ask  you  to 
produce  the  documents  called  for. 

Mr.  Vann.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee 
the  documents  heretofore  ordered,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously 
stated. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3133 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Chalmers,  we  have  the  same  two  stipulations 
with  refjard  to  this  paragraph? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltxer.  Mr.  Vann,  I  order  and  direct  you  to  produce  the  doc- 
uments called  for  by  the  subpena. 

Mr.  Vaxx.  Sir,  I'respectf  ully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  the 
documents  heretofore  ordered  by  the  chairman,  based  upon  the  grounds 
previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Vann,  are  you  the  exalted  cyclops  of  a  Klavern  of 
the  United  Klans  of  America  whicli  is  known  by  the  name  Lawrence 
Lodge  No.  610  ? 

Mr.  Vann.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  for  the 
reason  that  I  honestly  feel  that  my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate 
me  in  the  violation  of  any  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  the  amend- 
ments 5,  1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of 
America. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Vann,  does  this  Klavern  of  the  United  Klans  of 
America  maintain  a  bank  account  at  The  Union  Bank  &  Trust  Com- 
pany, Montgomery,  Alabama,  under  the  name,  "White  Patriots,  P.O. 
Box  7094,  Montgomery,  Alabama"? 

Mr.  Vann.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Vann,  the  committee  obtained  the  records  of  this 
account  through  subpena  duces  tecum,  and  the  signature  cards  filed 
with  this  account  reflect  that  an  account  was  opened  November  29, 
1963,  with  the  authorized  signatures  of  this  account  being  Gene  Mims 
and  Eaymond  C.  Howard ;  that  these  signatures  were  changed  on 
February  10,  1965,  to  the  authorized  signatures  or  signers  Gene  Vann 
and  Gene  Mims. 

I  hand  you  the  signature  cards  for  your  examination,  and  put  it  to 
you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny  the  fact,  that  the  Gene 
Vann  whose  signature  appears  on  the  signature  card  is  yourself. 

Mr.  Vann.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Documents  marked  "Eugene  Vann  Exhibits  Nos.  1-A  and  1-B," 
respectively,  appear  on  p.  3134.) 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Vann,  do  you  act  as  a  liaison  officer  for  the  United 
Klans  of  America  with  the  State  Government  in  Montgomery, 
Alabama? 

Mr.  Vann.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  in  view  of  the  witness'  claim  of  privi- 
lege and  his  consistent  refusal  to  answer  my  questions,  I  present  to  the 
committee  the  results  of  our  investigation  as  they  pertain  to  Mr.  Vann. 

Eugene  Curtis  Vann,  Jr.,  is  known  as  Gene  Vann.  He  is  con- 
nected with  Vann  &  Johnson  Electric  Service,  Montgomery,  Ala- 
bama. He  is  the  exalted  cyclops  of  Lawrence  Lodge  No.  610,  which 
has  maintained  a  bank  account  at  The  Union  Bank  &  Trust  Company 
since  1963  in  the  name  of  the  White  Patriots.  The  officers  authorized 
to  sign  checks  against  the  account,  effective  November  29,  1963,  were 
Gene  Mims  and  Raymond  C.  Howard,  and  on  February  10, 1965,  Gene 
Vann  and  Gene  Mims. 


3134  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Eugene  Vann  Exhibit  No.  1-A 

CAPITOL  HEIGHTS  BRANCH 

Xccoun.  Number SIGNATURE  CARD         Clubs,  Associations,  Etc, 

THE  UNION  BANK  &  TRUST  CO.,  Montgomery,  Alabama 

T)ie  handling  by  this  Bank  of  checks,  drafts  and  other  Items  will  be  subject  to  the  conditions  shown 

1  the  reverse  side  hereof,  and  the  depositor  •        " "^  '    '     *         ■         "       

and  consents  and  agrees  to  be  l^owpd  hereby. 


Title 


lenta  and  agrees  to  be  l^ownd  hereby. 


Home  Office  Address 


T-  O.    :&p^    7^^  ?</  Date    |\|QV  p  Q  ^qf^'^ 


Local  Address 


__f__. SIGNATURES __J COUNTERSIGNATURES ^_ 


QAjj?.. 


Nature  of  Business  .Wr.~.._v^-'^ _ Introduced  by 


Eugene  Vann  Exhibit  No.  1-B 

CArr;  ^v  j:;.;^;t-  branch 

Account  Number 


^      -  _ 

SIGNATURE  CARD         Clubs,  Associations,  Etc. 


THE  UNION  BANK  &  TRUST  CO.,  Montgomery,  Alabama 

The  handling  by  this  Bank  of  checks,  drafts  and  other  Items  will  be  subject  to  the  coneUlons  shown 
on  the  reverse  side  hereof,  and  the  depositor  hereby  acknowledges  receipt  of  noUce  of  said  conditions 
and  consents  and  agrees  to  be  bound  he 


msents  and  agrees  to  be  bound  hereby. 


Title    C/^-^w 


iHome  Office  Address     J-^Q .      A  ^y^  '7^9^/'  PhoniP^.:^^^  7^/ 

\     Local  Address  }?f c^nr^X^'->rUiyl<.  -■     /<?  ^C^^>^u^-^      Date.^^PtT^^  /^  /  9C   > 
^  SIGNATURES  J  COUNTERSIGNATURES 


Nature  of  Business Introduced   by    

See  reverse  side  which  is  part  of  this  contract 


Officers  of  the  Klavern,  in  addition  to  Gene  Vann,  are  the  khiliff, 
Paul  Dennis,  Jr.;  tlie  kli^rapp  or  secretary,  Sylvester  Trawick, 
T-r-a-w-i-c-k;  the  klabee  or  treasurer.  Gene  jAIelvin  Minis;  the  khuld 
or  chaplain,  the  Reverend  John  Mitchell ;  the  kladd  or  conductor, 
Alfred  E.  Edwards;  the  klexter,  Grady  E.  Harris;  the  night-hawk, 
Douglas  Cannon ;  and  the  chief  of  the  klokann  committee,  Raymond 
C.  Howard. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3135 

Vami  was  the  speaker,  together  with  Grand  Dragon  Creel  and  Im- 
perial Wizard  Shelton,  on  July  8,  1965,  at  a  rally  across  the  road  from 
Maxwell  Air  Force  Base.  Vann  berated  President  Johnson  and  Ala- 
bama Attorney  General  Flowers  for  their  condemnation  of  the  Klan. 
Vann  referred  to  a  Klan  committee  which  was  attempting  to  promote 
an  investigation  of  the  FBI.  There  was  distributed  a  leaflet  claiming 
that  the  FBI  was  harassing  an  81-year-old  Klansman  who  is  known 
by  the  name  of  Pop  Blanton.  Committee  investigation  reflects  that 
the  Klan  had  stationed  Blanton  in  front  of  FBI  headquarters  in  Bir- 
mingham for  the  purpose  of  embarrassing  that  agency. 

Vann  has  frequent  contact  with  Imperial  Wizard  Shelton  and  is 
believed  to  be  a  liaison  officer  for  Shelton  around  the  State  capital. 

Mr.  Vann,  are  the  officers  of  the  Klavern  that  were  just  read  to  you 
in  the  statement,  in  fact,  the  officers  of  the  Klavern  as  designated? 

Mr.  Vanx.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  This  infonnation,  Mr.  Chairman,  indicates  that  Mr. 
Vann  possesses  additional  information  which  is  both  pertinent  and 
relevant  to  this  inquiry  and  would  materially  aid  the  Congress  in  en- 
acting remedial  legislation. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Vann,  you  have  heard  the  statement  of  the  in- 
vestigator. You  have  now  an  opportunity  to  offer  any  matter  which 
you  may  desire  to  appear  in  this  record  concerning  that  statement  or 
anything  in  addition  thereto. 

Do  you  wish  to  avail  yourself  of  that  opportunity  ? 

There  being  no  response,  you  understand  tJiat  this  committee,  unless 
there  is  further  evidence  or  in  rebuttal,  will  rely  upon  the  accuracy  of 
this  investigation. 

What  is  the  White  Patriots,  Mr.  Vann  ? 

Mr.  Vann.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Any  further  questions  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  No  further  questions,  Mr.  Chairman. 

Mr.  Weltner.  The  witness  will  be  excused. 

Call  your  next  witness,  Mr.  Appell. 

Mr.  Appell.  Sylvester  Trawick. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Do  you  solemnly  swear  that  the  testimony  you  will 
give  in  this  hearing  will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but 
the  truth,  so  help  you  God  ? 

Mr.  Trawick.  I  do. 

TESTIMONY  OF  SYLVESTER  TRAWICK,  ACCOMPANIED  BY  COUNSEL, 
LESTER  V.  CHALMERS,  JR. 

Mr.  Appell.  State  your  full  name  for  the  record,  Mr.  Trawick. 

Mr.  Traw^ick.  Sylvester  Trawick. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  represented  by  counsel  ? 

Mr.  Trawick.  Yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  counsel  identify  himself  for  the  record  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Lester  V.  Chalmers,  Jr.,  attorney  at  law.  Room 
501,  First  Federal  Building,  Raleigh,  North  Carolina. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Trawick,  are  you  appearing  here  today  in  ac- 
cordance with  a  subpena  served  upon  you  on  October  26,  1965,  at  the 

59-222  O— 67— pt.  4 16 


3136  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Capital  Advertising  Company,  115  East  Jefferson  Street,  Mont- 
gomery, Alabama? 

Mr.  Trawick.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appeli..  Mr.  Trawick,  the  siibpena  served  upon  you  contained 
an  attachment,  which  was  made  a  part  of  the  subpena,  and  under 
the  conditions  of  the  subpena,  you  were  commanded  to  bring  with 
you,  and  to  produce,  documents  described  in  the  attachment,  para- 
graph 1   reading: 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  relating  to 
the  organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  business  and  affairs  of  the  Invisible 
Empire,  United  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also 
known  as  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan, 
and  affiliated  organizations,  namely,  the  Alabama  Rescue  Service  and  Lawrence 
Lodge  #610,  Klavern,  Realm  of  Alabama,  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control, 
or  maintained  by  you  or  available  to  you  as  present  or  former  Kligrapp, 
Lawrence  Lodge  #610,  Realm  of  Alabama  of  the  Invisible  Empire,  United  Klans, 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also  known  as  the  United  Klans 
of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan. 

In  the  representative  capacity  set  forth  in  paragraph  1,  I  ask  you 
to  produce  the  documents  called  for. 

Mr.  Trawick.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee 
any  and  all  different  documents  as  commanded  by  the  committee  in 
its  subpena  dated  October  14,  1965,  for  the  reason  that  I  honestly 
feel  that  to  do  so  might  tend  to  incriminate  me  in  violation  of  my 
rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments  5,  1,4,  and  14  of  the  Con- 
stitution of  the  United  States  of  America. 

I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any  and  all  records 
as  requested  by  this  committee  under  subpena  dated  October  the  14th, 
1965,  for  that  information  is  not  relevant  and  germane  to  the  subject 
under  investigation  and  the  same  would  not  aid  the  Congress  in  the 
consideration  of  any  valid  remedial  legislation,  nor  is  such  inquiry 
within  the  scojje  of  that  authorized  to  be  investigated  by  Kule  XI 
of  the  rules  adopted  by  the  89th  Congress,  by  House  Resolution  8, 
adopted  January  4,  1965. 

Mr.  Weltner.  J\Ir.  Chalmers,  can  we  have  the  stipulation  that 
this  witness  has  been  furnished  a  copy  of  the  chairman's  opening 
statement? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  And  he  is  familiar  with  the  contents  thereof? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  And  the  directions  in  the  subpena  are  directed  to 
the  witness  to  produce  the  documents  in  a  representative  capacity 
as  described  in  the  subpena? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Trawick,  the  committee  does  not  accept  your 
reasons  for  refusing  to  comply  witli  the  subpena,  and  I  hereby  order 
and  direct  you  to  produce  the  documents  identified  in  the  subpena. 

Mr.  Trawick.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee 
the  documents  heretofore  ordered  by  (lie  chairman,  based  upon  the 
grounds-  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner,  You  have  at  this  point,  Mr.  Trawick,  if  you  desire, 
the  opportunity  to  present  to  the  coiinnittee  any  reason  you  may  have 
for  being  unable  to  comply  with  the  terms  of  the  subpena. 

Mr.  Trawick.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee 
the  documents 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3137 

Mr.  Weltner.  There  being  no  response,  we  will  proceed  to  the  next 
paragraph. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Trawick,  paragraph  2  calls  upon  you  to  produce : 

AU  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  in  your 
possession,  custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  or  available  to  you,  in  your 
capacity  as  present  or  former  Kligrapp,  Lawrence  Lodge  #610,  Realm  of  Alabama 
of  the  United  Klaus  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  which  the 
"Constitution  and  Laws"  of  said  organization  authorize  and  require  to  be  main- 
tained by  you  and  any  other  officer  of  said  organization,  the  same  being  in 
your  possession,  custody  or  control. 

In  representative  capacity  set  forth  in  paragraph  2,  I  ask  you  to 
produce  the  documents  called  for. 

Mr.  Trawick.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  commit- 
tee the  documents  heretofore  ordered,  based  upon  the  grounds  previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  May  we  have  the  same  stipulation,  Mr.  Chalmers  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Trawick,  I  order  and  direct  you  to  produce  the 
documents  described  in  paragraph  2  of  the  subpena. 

Mr.  Trawick.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  commit- 
tee the  documents  heretofore  ordered  by  the  chairman,  based  upon  the 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Trawick,  the  Constitution  and  Laws  of  the  United 
Klans  of  America  sets  forth  the  responsibilities  of  the  kligrapp  or 
secretary. 

What  disposition  do  you  as  .secretary  of  this  Klavern  make  of  appli- 
cations for  membership  in  the  Unitecl  Klans  of  America  ? 

Mr.  Trawick.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for 
the  reason  that  I  honestly  feel  that  my  answer  might  tend  to  incrim- 
inate me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  my  amend- 
ments 5,  1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of 
America. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Trawick,  in  preparing  the  necessai-y  documenta- 
tion to  forward  per  capita  dues  to  the  State  of  Alabama  or  to  the 
imperial  office  in  Tuscaloosa,  do  you  report  the  identity  of  the  mem- 
bers of  Klavern  ? 

Mr.  Trawick.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  that  you  make  no  report  of  the  identity  of  members  to  the 
imperial  headquarters  and,  further,  that  the  members  within  your 
Klavern  are  known  only  by  a  number  designation. 

Mr.  Trawick.  Sir,  I  re"spectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Trawick,  in  September,  on  September  3,  1964, 
your  Klavern,  on  a  check  drawn  against  an  account  in  the  name  of 
the  White  Patriots,  The  Union  Bank  &  Trust  Company,  Montgomery, 
Alabama,  wrote  a  check  for  $32,  payable  to  Tom  Whitehead. 

Tom  Whitehead,  Mr.  Trawick,  is  the  exalted  cyclops  of  a  Klavern 
in  Athens,  Georgia ;  and  as  these  investigations  have  disclosed,  funds 
forwarded  for  the  defense  of  the  Klansmen  involved  in  the  Penn 
murder  have  been  forwarded  to  Tom  Whitehead. 

Can  you  tell  the  committee  what  knowledge  your  Klavern  possessed 
of  the  Klan  affiliation  of  these  men  at  the  time  this  check  was  drawn 
and  forwarded  to  Tom  Whitehead  ? 


3138  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Trawick.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

( Check  marked  "Sylvester  TraAvick  Exhibit  No.  1.") 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Trawick,  on  June  24,  1965,  a  check  was  drawn 
against  the  account  of  the  White  Patriots,  made  in  the  amount  of 
$56,  and  payable  to  the  White  Mans  Defense  Fund. 

I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact  that  the  White  Mans  Defense  Fund  was,  in 
fact,  an  account  whose  full  designation  was  "White  Mans  Defense 
Fund  for  the  relief  of  Collie  Leroy  Wilkins,  W.  O.  Eaton,  and  Eugene 
Thomas." 

What  knowledge  did  the  members  of  your  Klavern  possess  at  the 
time  this  check  was  written  to  the  White  Mans  Defense  Fund  in  the 
amount  of $56? 

Mr.  Trawick.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Check  marked  "Sylvester  Trawick  Exhibit  No.  2."  Exhibits  Nos. 
land  2  follow:) 

Sylvester  Trawick  Exhibit  No.  1 


/^"^ «»r..  .,.     f'J-   ^f- 


"  M  IT  1      r  ^  I  KIOT' 


VM^/ijLxJ)  i^- 


J 


Monti. «>MKK>    Ai.a 


Sylvester  Trawick  Exhibit  No.  2 


i     P.O.  i«%  in*, 

1  '  t    . 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3139 

Mr.  AppELL.  Mr.  Trawick,  are  funds  now  payable  to  the  Realm  of 
Alabama  payable  to  Melvin  Sexton  of  the  Tuscaloosa,  Alabama,  area  ? 

Mr.  Trawick.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Can  you  explain  to  the  committee  why  a  check  pay- 
able to  Mr.  Sexton  is  deposited  by  him  in  an  account  not  a  Klan  ac- 
count, but  the  account  of  the  Reid  Sexton  Corporation  ? 

Mr.  Trawick.  Sir,  I  respectfull}^  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Check  marked  "Sylvester  Trawick  Exhibit  No.  3.") 

Mr.  Appell.  Is  there  a  second  Klavern  of  the  United  Klans  of 
America  in  Montgomery,  Alabama? 

Mr.  Trawick.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Trawick,  on  March  5th  of  1964,  a  check  was  drawn 
against  the  White  Patriot  account,  payable  to  Frank  Conway,  in  the 
amount  of  $26  and  the  notation  on  tlie  check  appears  "For  Transfer." 

This  was  deposited  by  Frank  Conway  into  an  accomit,  "Confederate 
Den  #  11."  Does  the  notation  "For  Transfer"  mean  a  transfer  of 
members  of  your  Klavern  to  membership  in  Confederate  Den  No. 
11? 

Mr.  Trawick.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Check  marked  "Sylvester  Trawick  Exhibit  No.  4.") 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Trawick,  on  September  25,  1965,  a  check  was 
drawn  against  the  White  Patriots'  account,  in  the  amount  of  $319.50. 
This  check  was  made  payable  to  Confederate  Lodge  #11,  which  main- 
tains a  bank  account  in  Birmingham,  Alabama,  and  in  which  the 
signer  of  this  account  is  Grand  Dragon  Robert  Creel.  The  endorse- 
ment on  the  reverse  of  this  check  reads  "Confederate  Lodge  #11,  For 
Deposit  only  U.K.i^.  Defense  Fund.*' 

To  what  UKA  Defense  Fund  was  this  $319.50  contributed  ? 

Mr.  Trawick.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Check  marked  "Sylvester  Trawick  Exhibit  No.  5."  Exhibits  Nos. 
3, 4,  and  5  follow:) 


3140  ACTrVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KhAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Sylvestkr  Trawick  Exhibit  No.  3 


;»rv^. 


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D«rO»IT  ONLY 

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ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 
Sylvester  Trawick  Exhibit  No.  4 


3141 


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3142  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Sylvestir  Tr.\\vk:k  Exhibit  No.  5 


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Mr.  Weltner.  Was  this  check  deposited  in  an  account  under  the 
name  of  Confederate  Lod^e  #11  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  sir.  Well,  Mr.  Chairman,  there  is  an  account  in 
the  name  of  the  Confederate  Lodge  #11,  maintained  at  the  bank  in 
Birmingham;  and  in  Tuscaloosa,  Alabama,  tliere  is  also  an  account 
known  as  the  UKA  Defense  Fund  account,  and  before  giving  you  a 
definite  answer,  I  would  like  to  check  tliat  against  botli  accounts. 

Mr.  Weltner.  But  there  is  an  account  under  the  name  of  the  Con- 
federate Lodge  #11  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  sir;  there  is. 

Mr.  Weltner.  So  there  is  no  cover  name  for  the  account  of  that 
Klavern,  other  than  Confederate  Lodge  #11. 

Mr.  Appell.  Well,  we  are  talking  about  two  separate  organizations. 
Confederate  Den  No.  11,  whicli  is  a  Klavern  in  Montgomery,  and  Con- 
federate Lodge  #11,  which  is  the  name  of  a  bank  account  upon  which 
Robert  Creel  is  one  of  the  signers,  in  Birmingham,  Alabama. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3143 

Confederate  Den  and  Confederate  Lodge  are  only  similar  in  that 
both  are  instrumentalities  of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Realm  of 
Alabama. 

Mr.  Chairman,  the  staff  has  no  further  questions  to  ask  of  Mr. 
Trawick. 

Mr.  WeLiTner.  The  witness  will  be  excused. 

Call  the  next  witness. 

The  documents  used  during  the  examination  of  the  preceding  wit- 
ness will  be  introduced  into  evidence. 

Mr.  xVppell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  would  like  to  call  Mr.  Charles  Wil- 
kinson. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Do  you  solemnly  swear  the  testimony  you  will  give 
in  this  hearing  will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing 
but  the  truth,  so  help  you  God  ? 

Mr.  Wilkinson.  I  do. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Be  seated. 

TESTIMONY  OF  CHARLES  JERRY  WILKINSON,  ACCOMPANIED  BY 
COUNSEL,  LESTER  V.  CHALMERS,  JR. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  you  state  your  full  name  for  the  record,  Mr. 
Wilkinson? 

Mr.  Wilkinson.  Charles  Jerry  Wilkinson. 

Mr.  Appell.  Is  that  Jerry  ? 

Mr.  Wilkinson.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  J-e-r-r-y  ? 

Mr.  Wilkinson.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  represented  by  counsel  ? 

Mr.  Wilkinson.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  counsel  identify  himself  for  the  record  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Lester  Y.  Chalmers,  Jr.,  attorney  at  law.  Room  501, 
First  Federal  Building,  Raleigh,  North  Carolina. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Wilkinson,  are  you  appearing  liere  today  in  ac- 
cordance with  a  subpena  served  upon  you  on  the  26th  day  of  October 
1965  in  front  of  2509  North  Ripley  Street,  Montgomery,  Alabama, 
by  a  deputy  United  States  marshal  ? 

Mr.  Wilkinson.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Wilkinson,  the  subpena  contained  an  attachment 
thereto,  wliich  was  made  a  part  of  tlie  subpena,  and  under  the  con- 
ditions of  the  subpena,  you  were  commanded  to  bring  with  you  and 
to  produce  documents  described  in  the  subpena,  paragraph  1  reading: 

All  books,  records,  documents,  corresix>ndence,  and  memoranda  relating  to 
the  organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  business  and  affairs  of  the  Invisible  Em- 
pire. United  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also  known 
as  the  T'nited  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  and 
affiliated  organizations,  namely,  the  Alabama  Rescue  Service  and  Confederate 
Den,  Klavern  #11,  Realm  of  Alabama,  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control, 
or  maintained  by  you  or  available  to  you  as  present  or  former  Exalted  Cyclops, 
Confederate  Den  Klavern  #11.  Realm  of  Alabama  of  the  Invisible  Empire, 
United  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also  known  as 
the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan. 

In  the  representative  capacity  set  fortli  in  paragrapli  1,  I  ask  you 
to  produce  the  documents  called  for. 


3144  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Wilkinson.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee 
any  and  all  documents  as  demanded  by  tlie  committee  in  a  subpena 
dated  October  14, 1965,  for  the  reason  that  I  honestly  feel  that  to  do  so 
might  tend  to  incriminate  me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed 
to  me  by  amendment  5,  1,4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United 
States  of  America. 

I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any  and  all  records 
as  requested  by  this  committee  under  subpena  dated  October  14,  1965, 
for  that  information  is  not  relevant  and  germane  to  the  subject  under 
investigation  and  the  same  would  not  aid  the  Congress  in  consideration 
of  any  valid  remedial  legislation,  nor  is  such  inquiry  within  the  scope 
of  that  authorized  to  be  investigated  by  Rule  XI  of  the  rules  adopted 
by  the  89th  Congress,  by  the  House  Resolution  8,  adopted  January  the 
4th,  1965. 

Mr.  Weltnek,  Mr.  Chalmers. 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Our  same  two  stipulations. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Same  two  stipulations  with  regard  to  this  witJiess. 

Mr.  Chalmer.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Wilkinson,  the  committee  does  not  accept  your 
reasons  for  refusing  to  produce  the  documents.  Accordingly,  as  chair- 
man of  the  subcommittee,  I  order  and  direct  you  to  produce  the  docu- 
ments described  in  paragraph  1  at  this  time. 

Mr.  Wilkinson.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  commit- 
tee the  documents  heretofore  ordered  by  the  chairman,  based  upon 
the  gromids  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  And  I  now^  offer  you  an  opportunity  to  present  any 
reason  why  you  are  miable  to  comply  with  the  requirement  of  the 
subpena,  if  you  so  desire. 

There  being  no  response,  proceed  with  the  next  paragraph. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Wilkinson,  paragraph  2  called  upon  you  to  pro- 
duce: 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  in  your  pos- 
session, custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  or  available  to  you,  in  your  capacity 
as  present  or  former  Exalted  Cyclops,  Confederate  Den  Klavern  #11,  Realm  of 
Alabama  of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan, 
which  the  "Constitution  and  Laws"  of  said  organization  authorize  and  require 
to  be  maintained  by  you  and  any  other  officer  of  said  organization,  the  same  being 
in  your  possession,  custody  or  control. 

In  representative  capacity  set  forth  in  paragraph  2,  I  ask  you  to 
produce  the  documents  called  for. 

Mr.  Wilkinson.  Sir,  I  respectively  decline  to  deliver  to  the  com- 
mittee the  documents  heretofore  ordered,  based  upon  the  grounds 
previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Same  two  stipulations,  Mr.  Chalmers? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Wilkinson,  I  direct  you  to  produce  the  documents 
called  for  in  paragraph  2  of  the  subpena. 

Mr.  Wilkinson.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  commit- 
tee the  documents  heretofore  ordered  by  the  chainnan,  based  upon 
the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Wilkinson,  are  you  presently  the  exalted  cyclops 
of  Confederate  Den  No.  11,  United  Klans  of  America,  Knights  of  the 
KuKluxKlan? 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3145 

Mr.  Wilkinson.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question,  for 
the  reasons  that  I  honestly  feel  that  my  answer  might  tend  to  incrim- 
inate me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendment 
5,  1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  hand  you  copies  of  two  checks,  one  dated  March  5, 
1964,  made  payable  to  Frank  Conway,  and  another  dated  September 
24, 1964,  made  JDayable  to  "Confederate  Den  #11." 

I  ask  you  the  purpose  for  which  these  checks  were  drawn. 

Mr.  Wilkinson.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  The  check  of  March  the  5th  shows  "For  Transfer." 

Does  this  relate  to  a  transfer  of  Klansmen  from  the  LaAvrence  Lodge 
610  to  Confederate  Den  No.  11  in  Montgomery,  Alabama,  area? 

Mr.  Wilkinson.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  this  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated, 

(Check  previously  marked  "Sylvester  Trawick  Exhibit  No.  4.''  See 
p.  3141.) 

Mr.  Appell.  The  check  of  September  24,  1964,  shows  that  it  was 
reimbursement  for  a  conference.  Explain  to  the  committee  what  con- 
ference was  held  in  which  this  check  is  a  payment  of  expenses. 

Mr.  Wilkinson.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Check  marked  "Charles  Wilkinson  Exhibit  No.  1"  follows:) 

Charles  Wilkinson  Exhibit  No.  1 


NO  (^  ^— MONTOOMEPY   AlA  /'     2.    ^'    **'*/  '^ 

»Nlf  r     PATli^TS  ei  38 


Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Wilkinson,  it  is  the  duty  of  the  exalted  cyclops  to 
form  within  a  Klavern  a  klokann  committee. 

Could  you  give  the  committee  the  identify  of  the  klokann  committee 
of  Confederate  Den  No.  11  ? 

Mr.  Wilkinson.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  To  your  knowledge,  as  exalted  cyclops,  has  the  klokann 
committee  engaged  in  any  act  of  intimidation  or  violence  against  any 
citizen  in  the  State  of  Alabama  ? 

Mr.  AVilkinson.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
l)ased  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 


3146  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Wilkinson,  were  you  born  on  February  11,  1930, 
at  Georo^iana,  Alabama? 

Mr.  Wilkinson.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  g-rounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Do  you  reside  at  Apartment  208,  Hilltop  Arms  Apart- 
ments, 600  Montgomery  Street,  Monto-omery,  Alabama  ? 

Mr.  Wilkinson.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  the  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  staff  has  no  further  questions  to 
ask  of  this  witness. 

Mr.  Weltner.  The  witness  is  excused. 

Call  the  next  witness,  please. 

Mr.  Appell.  Lewis  Edward  Perkins. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Do  you  solemnly  swear  the  testimony  you  will  give 
in  this  hearing  will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the 
truth,  so  help  you  God  ? 

Mr.  Lewis  Perkins.  Yes,  sir. 

TESTIMONY  OF  LEWIS  EDWARD  PERKINS,  ACCOMPANIED  BY 
COUNSEL,  LESTER  V.  CHALMERS,  JR. 

Mr.  Appell.  State  your  full  name  for  the  record,  Mr.  Perkins, 

Mr.  Lewis  Perkins.  Lewis  Edward  Perkins. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  represented  by  counsel? 

Mr.  Lewis  Perkins.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  counsel  identify  himself  for  the  record? 

Mr.  Chx\lmers.  Lester  V.  Chalmers,  Jr.,  attorney  at  law,  Room  501^ 
First  Federal  Building,  Raleigh,  North  Carolina. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Perkins,  are  you  appearing  before  the  committee 
today  in  accordance  with  subpena  served  upon  you  on  October  26, 
1965,  at  4004  Fifth  Street,  East  Tuscaloosa,  Alabama? 

Mr.  Lewis  Perkins.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Perkins,  the  subpena  served  upon  you  contained 
an  attacliment,  which  was  made  a  part  of  the  subpena,  and  under  the 
terms  of  the  subpena,  you  were  commanded  to  bring  with  you,  and  to 
produce,  documents  called  for  in  the  attachment. 

Paragraph  1  reads  as  follows: 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  relating  to  the 
organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  business  and  affairs  of  the  Invisible  Empire, 
United  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also  known  as  the 
United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  and  affiliated  organi- 
zations, namely,  the  Alabama  Rescue  Service,  and  Klavern  #5,  Realm  of  Ala- 
bama, in  your  possession,  custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  you  or  available 
to  you  as  present  or  former  Exalted  Cyclops,  Klavern  #5,  Tuscaloosa,  Alabama, 
Realm  of  Alabama,  of  the  Invisible  Empire,  United  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku 
Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also  known  as  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc., 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan. 

In  the  representative  capacity  set  forth  in  paragraph  1,  I  ask  you 
to  produce  the  documents  called  for. 

Mr.  Lewis  Perkins.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  com- 
mittee any  and  all  documents  as  demanded  by  the  committee  under 
subpena  dated  October  14,  1965,  for  the  reason  I  honestly  feel  that  to 
do  so  might  tend  to  incriminate  me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guar- 
anteed to  me  by  amendments  5,  1,  4,  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the 
United  States  of  America. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3147 

I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any  and  all  records 
as  requested  by  this  committee  under  subpena  dated  October  the  14th, 
1965,  for  that  information  is  not  relevant  and  germane  to  the  subject 
mider  investigation  and  the  same  will  not  aid  the  Congress  in  the  con- 
sideration of  any  valid  remedial  legislation,  or  is  such  inquiry  within 
the  scope  of  that  authorized  to  be  investigated  by  Kule  XI  of  the  rules 
adopted  by  the  89th  Congress,  by  House  Kesolution  adopted  January 
the  4th,  1965. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Chalmers,  do  we  have  the  same  two  stipulations? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Perkins,  the  committee  does  not  accept  your 
reason  for  refusing  to  produce  documents.  Accordingly,  I  direct  and 
order  you  to  produce  documents  at  this  time. 

Mr.  Lewis  Perkixs.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the 
committee  the  documents  heretofore  ordered  by  the  chairman,  based 
upon  the  gromids  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Perkins 

Mr.  Weltxer.  One  minute,  please. 

Mr.  Perkins,  you  have  at  this  point  an  opportunity  to  give  to  this 
committee  any  reason  why  you  are  unable  to  produce  the  documents 
called  for  in  paragraph  1  of  the  subpena,  if  you  so  desire. 

There  being  no  response,  we  will  proceed  to  the  second  paragraph. 

Mr.  x\.ppell.  Mr.  Perkins,  paragraph  2  calls  for  you  to  produce: 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  in  your  posses- 
sion, custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  or  available  to  you,  in  your  capacity  as 
present  or  former  Exalted  Cyclops.  Klavern  #5,  Tuscaloosa,  Alabama,  Realm 
of  Alabama  of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan, 
which  the  "Constitution  and  Laws"  of  said  organization  authorize  and  require 
to  be  maintained  by  you  and  any  other  officer  of  said  organization,  the  same  being 
in  your  possession,  custody  or  control. 

In  a  representative  capacity  set  forth  in  paragraph  2,  I  ask  you  to 
produce  the  documents  called  for. 

Mr.  Lewis  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the 
committee  the  documents  heretofore  ordered,  based  upon  the  gromids 
previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  The  same  two  stipulations? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr,  Weltner.  Mr.  Perkins,  you  are  directed  and  ordered  to  pro- 
duce the  documents  called  for  in  paragraph  2. 

Mr.  Lewis  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the 
committee  the  documents  heretofore  ordered  by  the  chairman,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Perkins,  are  you  acquainted  with  the  fact  that  the 
cover  name  used  by  the  United  Klans  of  America  is  the  Alabama  Res- 
cue Service? 

Mr.  Lewis  Perkins.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question 
for  the  reason  that  I  honestly  feel  that  my  answer  might  tend  to  in- 
criminate me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amend- 
ments 5,  1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of 
America. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Perkins,  I  hand  you  Robert  M.  Shelton  Exhibit 
No.  25,  bills  of  the  telephone  com])any,  which  are  addressed  to  the  Ala- 
bama Rescue  Service,  care  of  Lewis  E.  Perkins,  Alston  Building, 
Room  401,  Tuscaloosa,  Alabama. 


3148  ACTrvrriES  of  ku  klux  klan  in  the  u.s. 

I  ask  you  if  that  Lewis  E.  Perkins  is  yourself? 

Mr.  Lewis  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  ques- 
tion, based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Perkins,  the  first  day  of  the  committee's  inquiry 
into  the  United  Klans  of  America,  it  was  established  that  the  comakers 
on  checks  drawn  against  the  account  of  the  Alabama  Rescue  Service 
were  Robert  M.  Shelton  and  T.  M.  Montgomery,  and  then  later,  Robert 
M.  Shelton  and  James  J.  Hendrix. 

Did  you  know  that  "T.  M.  Montgomery"  was  signed  by  Carol  Long, 
and  did  you  know  that  the  name  "James  J.  Hendrix"  was  signed  by 
Mrs.  Robert  Shelton? 

Mr.  Lewis  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  ques- 
tion, based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Perkins,  is  Klavern  No.  5,  of  which  you  are  the 
exalted  cyclops,  the  home  Klavern  of  the  Imperial  Wizard,  Mr.  Robert 
Shelton? 

Mr.  Lewis  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  ques- 
tion, based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Perkins,  the  committee  has  a  copy  of  a  letter  ad- 
dressed on  the  letterhead  of  the  United  States  Commission  on  Civil 
Rights,  signed  by  William  L.  Taylor,  General  Counsel. 

This  letter  states  in  part : 

It  has  come  to  our  attention  from  various  sources  that  radio-equipped  auto- 
mobiles are  being  used  by  terrorist  groups  in  various  parts  of  the  South  for  the 
purpose  of  coordinating  attaclis  on  Negroes  and  civil  rights  workers. 

In  particular,  we  have  reports  that  in  Tuscaloosa,  Alabama,  a  group  has  been 
using  radio-equipped  automobiles  to  inform  one  another  of  places  of  public 
accommodations  at  which  Negroes  attempt  tO'  ohtain  service.  *  *  * 

Listed  thereafter  are  the  call  letters  of  certain  citizens  band  radio 
stations.     One  of  the  numbers  listed  is  KDD  6965. 

(Document  marked  "Lewis  Perkins  Exhibit  No.  1"  appears  on 
p.  3149.) 

Mr.  Appell.  I  hand  you  an  application  for  a  citizens  band  radio, 
dated  May  27,  1963,  signed  Lewis  E.  Perkins,  and  ask  you  if  you  are 
the  signer  of  that  application  ? 

Mr.  Lewis  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  ques- 
rion,  based  upon  the  ground  previously  stated. 

(Document  marked  "Lewis  Perkins  Exhibit  No.  2"  appears  on 
p.  3150.) 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Perkins,  is  the  report  of  the  United  States  Com- 
mission on  Civil  Rights  to  the  effect  that  citizens  band  radios  are 
used  as  I  read  to  you  ? 

Mr.  Lewis  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Weltner.  The  question  was  wliether  or  not  that  report  is  cor- 
rect, Mr.  Perkins.  Is  this  report  contained  in  tlie  letter  from  the 
Civil  Rights  Commission  correct? 

Mr.  Lewis  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3149 

Lewis  Perkins  Exhibit  No.  1 

UNITED  STATES  COMMISSION  ON  CIVIL  RIGHTS 

WASHINGTON,  D.C.  20425 

Mr.   Henry  Geller  ^^^^3^    3^    ^9^4 

Genoral  Counsel 

Federal  Conununicatlons  Conuniasion 

New  Post  Office  Building 

12th  &  Pennsylvania  Avenue,  N.W. 

Washington,  D.C.  20260 

Dear  Mr.  Geller: 

It  has  come  to  our  attention  from  various  sources  that 
radio-equipped  automobiles  are  being  used  by  terrorist 
groups  in  various  parts  of  the  South  for  the  purpose  of 
coordinating  attacks  on  Negroes  and  civil  rights  workers. 

In  particular,  we  have  reports  that  in  Tuscaloosa, 
Alabama,  a  group  has  been  using  radio-equipped  automobiles 
to  inform  one  another  of  places  of  public  accommodations 
at  which  Negroes  attempt  to  obtain  service.  Apparently, 
when  a  person  in  one  of  the  cars  observes  Negroes  going 
into  a  restaurant  a  call  is  sent  out  to  other  cars  which 
converge  on  the  scene.   We  understand  that  these  gather- 
ings have  resulted  in  acts  of  intimidation  and  violence. 

The  following  call  letters  are  reportedly  being  used  by 
these  cars: 

Ij]    6Q  4311  (headquarters  call  number) 

L^l    KDE  1133  jjcj'   KKM  3135 

/.aj  KDD  1753  ^/jj    KDB  3776 

iv:i    KDE  0356  /y;Q-KlQi\   1017 

isl   KDB  4724  /^r^J   KDB  0071 
ILJ   KDE  1975  £,<yJKDB  0050 

0]  6Q   3434  l_/s]  KDD  2533 
[^   KDD  6965  [^y  Q  KDH  2456  ^ 

i.?jKDH  2451  IJ-^KDD   4272^ 

We  have  also  received  information  that  radio-equipped  cars 
are  or  have  been  used  by  teri'orist  groups  in  St,  Augustine, 
Florida,  Hinds  County,  Mississippi  and  in  Southwest 
Mississippi. 

We  understand  that  the  use  of  tv/o-way  radios  for  the  purposes 
indicated  would  constitute  a  violation  of  FCC  regulations. 
If  so,  wo  would  appreciate  being  advised  of  any  action  your 
agency  may  take  in  these  matters. 

Sincerely  yours, 


William  L.  Taylor 
General  Counsel 

'  Committee  footnote— Applications  for  above  citizens  band  radios  executed  by  the  following: 
[1]  Robert  M.  Shelton,  Tuscaloosa,  Ala.;  [2]  Sammy  Houston  Sexton,  Holt,  Ala.;  [3]  Silas  Seaton, 
GreeneviUe,  Tenn.;  [4]  Davis  Welding  &  Machine  Co.  (J.  R.  Davis).  Northport,  Ala.;  [5]  Alice 
E.  Perkins,  Tuscaloosa,  Ala.;  [6]  Charles  F.  Crawford,  Greenville,  S.C;  [7]  Charles  Larry  Oswalt, 
Northport,  Ala.;  [8]  Lewis  E.  Perkins,  Tuscaloosa,  Ala.;  [9]  Isadore  Pizitz,  Orlando,  Fla.;  [10]    .„.. 

......  ;  [11]  Page  Aircraft  Maintenance,  Inc.,  Fort  Rucker,  Ala.;  [12]      .,..      ,„. _.„.,    ; 

[13]  David  P,  Perkins,  Tuscaloosa,  Ala.;  [14]  James  G.  Moore,  Northport,  Ala.;  [15]  Perkins  Cab- 
inet Shop  (William  O.  Perkins),  Northport,  Ala.;  [16]  Samuel  G.  Lande,  Jacksonville,  Fla.;  [17] 
Linny  N.  Fulmer,  Tuscaloosa,  Ala. 


3150  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Lewis  Perkins  Exhibit  No.  2 


CmZENS     RADK)     LICENSE 

o^r  ap^l^  CoJln.  b.lo.,  (J)  .«»«  >„  «»  Coa>n.«slo.'.  "Riuilo  Eq.lp- 
,»<.  LW.  P.r^".    or  (.1  U>  .h.  c«.  0<  CU«  C  or  CU..  D  «.t.o»..  ^. 

"'IWii  B.  PerklM 

1    Clu>  -1  .i-iio- 

2 

roMMBSIOh  FILE  OQPi       '           1 

rOR  COMMISSION  USE  ONLY 

KDD  6965- 

CONOlTIOMiOF  GR»NT 

:r;::;^£c^rnr£u^ 

1 

"•'*--•-"•    LEWIS  E.   PEIWIM8 
40CM.5th,  St.  A* 

T„-«. n...„.«,„„. , AU0.,.2_.  1963 

„d. ,.,.)OOA«EST  AUG      ?       V>6  3      ^,...M=... 

B,  <l»ctl..  .1  *.  FEDfBAL  COMUKlCATipuS  COHIJI^ 

Tuac«leoM«  Ala. 

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' 

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Ala. 

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APPUCATION  MUST  BE  SIGNED  AND  DATED 


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n FM MB misannT.  us. code, inu ib, xcthm tmi   i 


Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Perkins,  under  orders  of  the  Klan,  have  you  used 
your  citizens  band  radio  for  the  purpose  of  participating  in  acts  of 
harassment  or  violence  upon  any  citizens  in  the  Tuscaloosa,  Ala- 
bama, area  ? 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3151 

Mr.  Lewis  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Perkins,  you  are  employed  by  Gulf  States  Paper 
Corporation.  How  does  a  citizens  band  radio  affect  that  employ- 
ment? 

Mr.  Lewis  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  groimds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  in  view  of  the  witness'  consistent  re- 
fusal to  answer  questions,  invoking  constitutional  privileges,  I  shall 
now  read  the  results  of  our  investigation  as  they  pertain  to  Mr.  Per- 
kins. 

Lewis  Edward  Perkins  was  born  on  July  30,  1924,  at  Bessemer, 
Alabama.  He  has  an  eighth-grade  education.  He  served  in  the 
Army  from  April  28,  1943,  to  November  27,  1945,  with  a  military 
specialty  of  a  cannoneer  and  truck  driver.  He  received  an  honorable 
discharge. 

He  is  employed  by  the  Gulf  States  Paper  Corporation,  Tuscaloosa, 
Alabama,  and  resides  at  4004  Fifth  Street,  Tuscaloosa,  Alabama. 

Mr.  Perkins  is  the  exalted  cyclops  of  Unit  No.  5,  Tuscaloosa,  Ala- 
bama, the  home  Klavern  of  Imperial  Wizard  Shelton,  Melvin  Sexton, 
and  Imperial  Klaliff  W.  O.  Perkins.  Lewis  Perkins  is  one  of  many 
Klansmen  belonging  to  Unit  5  that  hold  licenses  to  operate  citizens 
band  radios  who  use  them  in  connection  with  Klan  activities  in  the 
Tuscaloosa  area.  Others  holding  citizens  band  licenses  are  Robert 
M.  Shelton,  W.  O.  Perkins,  and  Sammy  Houston  Sexton. 

On  January  the  20th,  1965,  Melvin  Sexton  ordered  a  number  of 
Klavern  No.  5  members  to  report  to  the  office  of  Imperial  Wizard 
Shelton  in  the  Alston  Building.  In  addition  to  Lewis  Perkins,  Sex- 
ton ordered  Sammy  Sexton,  Ollie  Hayes,  Ray  Street,  Thomas  Estes, 
Melvin  Morris,  G.  L.  Gaddey,  Curtis  Gambel,  Joe  Hughes,  and  James 
Mosley. 

Shelton  gave  those  assembled  the  telephone  number  of  the  Reverend 
P.  Y.  Rogers,  executive  secretary  of  the  Tuscaloosa  Citizens  for  Ac- 
tion Committee.  He  instructed  them  to  call  the  Rogers  telephone 
number  all  night  long  and  further  instructed  them  not  to  say  anything 
when  the  telephone  was  answered. 

Shelton  also  ordered  them  to  be  at  Garner's  Steak  House,  starting 
at  6  a.m.  on  January  the  21st  in  order  to  keep  the  place  full  so  that 
there  would  be  no  place  for  Negroes  to  sit. 

Telephone  bills  of  the  imperial  office  in  the  Alston  Building  are 
addressed  to  Lewis  in  care  of  Lewis  Perkins.  Perkins  possesses  knowl- 
edge of  Klan  finances. 

Mr.  Chairman,  this  information  indicates  that  Mr.  Perkins  has 
knowledge  which  would  aid  the  committee  in  a  consideration  of  leg- 
islation. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Mr.  Perkins,  you  have  an  opportunity  now  to  re- 
spond to  this  statement  or  any  portion  thereof,  to  confirm  it,  or  to 
offer  any  other  matter  which  might  be  relevant. 

Do  you  wish  to  avail  yourself  of  that  opportunity  ? 

Absent  any  response,  we  will,  unless  other  evidence  comes  before 
the  committee,  rely  upon  the  accuracy  of  this  investigation. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Perkins,  are  there  any  depository  funds  of  the 
United  Klans  of  America,  to  your  knowledge,  other  than  those  main- 

59-222  O— 67 — pt.  4 17 


3152  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KDUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

tained  in  the  name  of  the  Alabama  Rescue  Service,  at  The  First  Na- 
tional Bank  of  Tuskaloosa,  Tuscaloosa,  Alabama  ? 

Mr.  Lewis  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  ques- 
tion, based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Perkins,  on  November  15,  1965,  a  check  cosigned 
by  Imperial  Wizard  Shelton  and  James  J.  Hendrix  was  drawn  in  the 
amount  of  $2,600.  The  notation  of  this  check  shows  that  it  was  pay- 
ment in  full  for  a  1963  Chrysler  Imperial. 

Was  there  a  meeting  which  authorized  the  Imperial  Wizard  to  ap- 
propriate from  the  Alabama  Rescue  Service  account  the  sum  of  $2,600? 

Mr.  Lewis  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  ques- 
tion, based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Check  marked  "Lewis  Perkins  Exhibit  No.  3''  follows:) 

Lewis  Perkins  Exhibit  No.  3 


.ri 


\. I 


JUK  FlHST  NAi.«>!»A»   BAftH 


1 


Date:  November  15,  1965 

Pay  to  the  order  of:  Claud  W.  Dent  Motors,  Inc.,  $2,600.00 

Payment:  In  full  for  1963  Chrysler  Imperial 

Signed:  Robert  M.  Shelton  and  James  J.  Hendrix 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  staff  has  no  further  questions  of 
this  witness. 

Mr.  Weltner.  The  documents  used  in  the  course  of  the  inquiry  will 
be  inserted  in  the  record  at  this  point. 

Mr.  Buchanan  ? 

Mr.  Buchanan.  Mr.  Chairman,  at  the  risk  of  sounding  like  a  broken 
record,  I  would  like  to  reiterate  to  this  witness  what  I  said  on  the 
opening  day  of  these  hearings  and  again  on  last  Friday,  the  first  day 
in  which  we  had  the  Alabama  Avitnesses  testifying  again. 

I  approach  this  investigation  from  the  point  of  view,  Mr.  Perkins,  of 
one  who  loves  the  South  and  its  people  and  who  understands  about 
them  that  an  overwhelming  majority  there  deplore  acts  of  violence 
and  terrorism. 

Indeed,  such  acts,  those  who  commit  such  acts  have  demonstrated 
themselves  to  be  the  worst  enemies  to  the  people  of  the  South,  creating 
a  false  impression  of  the  people  and  what  they  are  all  over  the  world, 
bringing  down  the  wrath  of  the  Nation  upon  our  heads,  in  legislation 
and  otherwise,  and  playing  into  the  hands  of  Communist  conspiracy 
and  thereby  serving  the  cause  of  world  communism,  both  in  fomenting 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3153 

racial  strife  and  disorder  and  in  providing  grist  for  the  Communist 
propaganda  mill. 

In  light  of  that  fact,  and  in  light  of  the  fact  that,  as  I  have  said 
several  times  previously,  also,  as  the  chairman  has  said,  he  that  has 
nothing  to  hide,  has  nothing  to  fear,  I  want  to  give  you  one  more  op- 
portunity to  tell  us  something  in  refutation  of  all  the  testimony  we 
have  heard  concerning  acts  of  violence  and  terrorism,  concerning 
bombings  and  burnings  and  beatings  and  worse,  allegedly  committed 
by  individuals  and  groups  connected  with  Klan  organizations,  in 
various  places. 

We  have  had  no  leader,  to  my  memory,  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  at  any 
level,  to  tell  us  anything  good  about  that  organization  or  to  refute  any 
of  the  charges  that  have  been  made,  any  of  the  evidence  that  has  been 
presented  in  these  hearings. 

Now  you  are  the  exalted  cyclops  of  the  home  Klavern  of  the  Imperial 
Wizard  of  the  United  Klans  of  America  and  you  ought  to  be  in  a  posi- 
tion to  refute  or  to  tell  us  something  good,  if  you  will. 

I  would  like  to  give  you  that  opportunity,  sir. 

(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Weltner.  The  record  will  show  that  there  is  no  response  from 
the  witness. 

Any  further  questions  by  the  staff  ? 

Mr.  Buchanan.  Mr.  Chairman,  one  more  then,  please. 

I  would  just  like  to  say  that  in  light  of  the  fact  that  Tuscaloosa, 
Alabama,  has  been  often  referred  to  in  these  hearings  as  the  central, 
the  home  office  of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  as  the  location  thereof, 
I  would  like  to  point  out  it  is  also  the  city  in  which  there  is  located  the 
main  campus  of  the  University  of  Alabama  and  that  the  young  men 
of  coach  Paul  "Bear"  Bryant's  first-ranking  Alabama  football  team 
are  much  more  representative  of  the  fine  people  of  Alabama  than  any 
members  of  the  United  Klans  of  America  that  I  have  met. 

Thank  you,  Mr.  Chairman. 

Mr.  Weltner.  Any  further  questions  from  the  staff  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  No  further  questions. 

Mr.  Weltner.  The  witness  is  excused,  and  the  committee  will  stand 
in  recess  until  10  a.m.  tomorrow  morning. 

( Subcommittee  members  present  at  time  of  recess :  Representatives 
Weltner  and  Buchanan.) 

(Wliereupon,  at  4:20  p.m.,  Monday,  February  7,  1966,  the  subcom- 
mittee recessed,  to  reconvene  at  10  a.m.,  Tuesday,  February  8,  1966.) 


ACTIVITIES  OF  KU  KLUX  KLAN  ORGANIZATIONS  IN 
THE  UNITED  STATES 

Part  4 


TUESDAY,  FEBRUARY  8,  1%6 

United  States  House  of  Kepresentatives, 

Subcommittee  of  the  Committee 

ON  Un-American  Activities, 

Washington,  B.C. 

PUBLIC    hearings 

The  subcommittee  of  the  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities,  as 
reconstituted  for  the  Februaiy  8  hearings,  met,  pursuant  to  recess,  at 
10 :15  a.m.,  in  the  Caucus  Room,  Cannon  House  Office  Building,  Wash- 
ington, D.C.,  Hon.  Joe  R.  Pool  (chairman  of  the  subcommittee) 
presiding. 

(Subcommittee  members:  Representatives  Joe  R.  Pool,  of  Texas, 
chairman ;  John  M.  Ashbrook,  of  Ohio ;  and  John  H.  Buchanan,  Jr., 
of  Alabama.) 

Subcommittee  members  present:  Representatives  Pool,  Ashbrook, 
and  Buchanan. 

Staff  members  present:  Francis  J.  McNamara,  director;  William 
Hitz,  general  counsel;  Alfred  M.  Nittle,  counsel;  Donald  T.  Appell, 
chief  investigator;  and  Philip R.  Manuel,  investigator. 

Mr.  Pool.  The  committee  will  come  to  order. 

Chairman  Willis  has  designated  a  subcommittee  to  interrogate  the 
witnesses  this  morning,  a  subcommittee  composed  of  myself,  Joe  Pool, 
as  chairman ;  Representative  Buchanan ;  and  Representative  Ashbrook. 

(The  order  of  appointment  of  the  subcommittee  follows :) 

February  7, 1966 
To :  Mr.  Francis  J.  McNamara 
Director,  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities 

Pursuant  to  the  provisions  of  the  law  and  the  Rules  of  this  Committee,  I  hereby 
appoint  a  subcommittee  of  the  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities  consisting 
of  Honorable  Joe  R.  Pool  as  Chairman,  and  Honorable  John  M.  Ashbrook  and 
Honorable  John  Buchanan  as  associate  members,  to  conduct  hearings  in  Wash- 
ington, D.C.  on  Tuesday,  February  8,  1966,  as  contemplated  by  the  resolution 
adopted  by  the  Committee  on  the  30th  day  of  March,  1965,  authorizing  hearings 
concerning  the  activities  of  the  various  Ku  Klux  Klan  organizations  in  the 
United  States. 
Please  make  this  action  a  matter  of  Committee  record. 
If  any  member  indicates  his  inability  to  serve,  please  notify  me. 
Given  under  my  hand  this  7th  day  of  February,  1966. 

/s/     Edwin  E.  Willis 
Edwin  E.  Willis 
Chairman,  Committee  on  Un-American  Activities 

3155 


3156  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Manuel,  will  you  call  the  first  witness  ? 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  staff  would  like  to  call  at  this 
time  Mr.  William  Perkins. 

Mr.  Pool.  Do  you  solemnly  swear  the  testbnony  you  are  about  to 
give  will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth,  so 
help  you  God  ? 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  I  do. 

TESTIMONY  OF  WILLIAM  OTTO  PERKINS,  ACCOMPANIED  BY 
COUNSEL,  LESTER  V.  CHALMERS,  JR. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Perkins,  would  you  state  your  full  name  for  the 
record,  sir? 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  William  Otto  Perkins. 

Mr.  Manuel.  And  Mr.  Perkins,  are  you  represented  by  counsel  ? 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  I  am. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Will  counsel  please  identify  himself  for  the  record? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Lester  V.  Chalmers,  Jr.,  attorney  at  law,  Room  501, 
First  Federal  Building,  Raleigh,  North  Carolina. 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Chalmers,  is  it  stipulated  that  the  opening  statement 
of  the  chairman  has  been  read  by  the  witness  and  he  understands  the 
contents  thereof  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  It  has  been  explained  to  him  by  me,  and  I  so  stipu- 
late ;  yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Pool.  All  right,  thank  you. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Perkins,  when  and  where  were  you  born,  sir? 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  ques- 
tion for  the  reason  that  I  honestly  feel  that  my  answer  might  tend  to 
incriminate  me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by 
amendments  5,  1,4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of 
America. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Where  do  you  currently  reside,  Mr.  Perkins? 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  ques- 
tion for  the  reason  that  I  honestly  feel  that  my  answer  might  tend  to 
incriminate  me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by 
amendments  5,  1,4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of 
America. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Perkins,  are  you  appearing  before  the  committee 
this  morning  in  response  to  a  subpena  served  upon  you  at  7 :10  p.m.  on 
the  2d  day  of  November  1965  at  3601  16th  Street,  Northeast,  Holt, 
Alabama,  by  a  deputy  U.S.  marshal  ? 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  Yes. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Perkins,  under  the  subpena  served  to  you,  you 
were  commanded  to  bring  and  produce  certain  articles  and  documents 
in  your  possession,  custody,  or  control. 

Paragraph  1  of  that  subpena  reads : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  relating  to  the 
organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  business  and  affairs  of  the  Invisible  Empire, 
United  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America.  Inc.,  also  known  as  the 
United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  and  affiliated  or- 
ganizations, namely,  the  Alabama  Rescue  Service  and  the  Whiteman's  Defense 
Fund  and  Heritage  Enterprises,  Inc.,  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control,  or 
maintained  by  you  or  available  to  you  as  present  or  former  Imperial  Kligrapp 
(Secretary)  and  pre.sent  or  former  Klabee  (Treasurer)  of  the  Invisible  Em- 
pire, United  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also  known 
as  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  3157 

I  request  you  to  produce  in  your  representative  capacity  stated  in 
paragraph  1  the  documents  called  for  by  part  1  of  your  subpena. 
(Witness  confers  with  counsel.) 

Mr.  Chalmers.  May  I  ask,  Mr.  Manuel,  was  that  subpena  dated 
October  the  14th,  1965  ? 

Mr.  Manuel.  Yes,  it  was,  Mr.  Chalmers. 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  com- 
mittee any  and  all  documents  as  demanded  by  the  committee  in  a  sub- 
pena dated  October  14,  1965,  for  the  reason  that  I  honestly  feel  that 
to  do  so  might  tend  to  incriminate  me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as 
guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments  5,  1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of 
the  United  States  of  America. 

Mr.  Pool.  Hold  it  just  a  minute. 

Mr.  Chalmers.  He  is  not  through  with  his  answer  yet. 

Mr.  Pool.  He  isn't?     Oh,  all  right,  go  ahead. 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  com- 
mittee any  and  all  records  that  are  requested  by  this  committee  under 
subpena  dated  October  14,  1965,  for  that  information  is  not  relevant 
and  germane  to  the  subject  under  investigation  and  the  same  would 
not  aid  the  Congress  in  the  consideration  of  any  valid  remedial  leg- 
islation, nor  is  such  inquiry  within  the  scope  of  that  advised  (sic)  to  be 
investigated  by  Rule  XI  of  the  rules  adopted  by  the  89th  Congress, 
by  House  Resolution  8,  adopted  January  the  4th,  1965. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  ask  for  a  direction  that  the  witness 
be  asked  to  produce  the  documents. 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Chalmers,  what  do  you  have  to  present  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  I  think  at  this  point,  we  enter  into  stipulations  that 
we  have  entered  into  before  with  respect  to  an  order  by  you,  before 
you  order  direction, 

Mr.  Pool.  Restate  it.     I  don't  know  w^hat  you  are  talking  about. 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Well,  sir,  as  I  understand  it,  we  have  heretofore 
stipulated  that  the  witness  is  familiar  with  the  opening  statement  of 
the  committee  chairman. 

Mr.  Pool.  Yes,  we  have  got  that  in. 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir ;  secondly,  that  the  witness  is  here  and  with 
respect  to  the  capacity  named  in  the  subpena,  representative  capacity. 

Mr.  Pool.  That  is  what  we  stipulated. 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir;  aren't  those  the  two  stipulations  that  we 
have  entered  into  before  with,  all  witnesses?  And  it  is  so  stipulated 
now  with  respect  to  this  witness,  if  that  satisfies  the  chairman, 

Mr.  Pool.  That  doesn't  satisfy  the  answer  to  the  question  though. 

Mr.  Chalmers.  No,  sir;  no,  sir. 

Mr.  Pool.  We  are  just  advised. 

All  right,  it  is  so  stipulated  as  you  said, 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Pool.  All  right,  now.  Then  I  direct  the  witness  to  answer  the 
question.  The  committee  rejects  your  answer  and  orders  you  to  pro- 
duce the  material  asked  for  under  paragraph  1  of  the  subpena. 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the 
committee  the  documents  heretofore  ordered  by  the  chaimian,  based 
upon  tlie  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Pool.  All  right,  go  ahead. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Perkins,  paragraph  2  of  your  subpena  commands 
you  to  bring  forth  and  produce : 


3158  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  in  your  pos- 
session, custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  or  available  to  you,  in  your  capacity 
as  present  or  former  Imperial  Klisrapp  (Secretary)  and  present  or  former 
Klabee  (Treasurer)  of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku 
Klux  Klan,  which  tlie  "Constitution  and  Laws"  of  said  organization  authorize  and 
require  to  be  maintained  by  you  and  any  other  officer  of  said  organization,  the 
same  being  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control. 

I  request  you  to  produce  in  your  respresentative  capacity  stated  in 
paragraph  2  of  the  subpena  the  documents  called  for  in  that  paragraph. 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the 
connnittee  the  documents  heretofore  ordered,  based  upon  the  grounds 
previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  ask  that  the  witness  be  directed  to 
produce  the  documents. 

Mr.  Pool.  The  chairman  rejects  your  reasons  and  orders  you  to 
produce  the  material  asked  for  under  paragraph  2. 

Mr.  Chalmers.  And  with  respect  to  paragraph  2,  the  stipulations 
that  were  entered  into  with  respect  to  paragraph  1  are  so  stipulated, 
Mr.  Chairman. 

Mr.  Pool.  You  should  have  said  that  before  I  directed  him. 

Mr.  Chalmers.  All  right,  sir. 

Mr.  Pool.  All  right,  w4th  the  stipulations  there,  I  will  direct  you 
again,  then.  We  accept  the  stipulations.  We  reject  your  reasons 
given  for  not  answering,  and  I  direct  you  and  order  you  to  produce  the 
materials  and  records  ordered  under  paragraph  2  of  the  subpena. 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the 
committee  the  documents  heretofore  ordered  by  the  chairman,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Pool.  All  right,  go  ahead,  Mr.  Manuel. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Paragraph  3  of  your  subpena,  Mr.  Perkins,  orders 
you  to  produce: 

Copies  of  U.S.  Treasury  Department,  Internal  Revenue  Service,  Form  1120, 
"U.S.  Corporation  Income  Tax  Return,"  for  the  fiscal  years  1961  through  June  30, 
1965,  filed  by  you  as  Imperial  Kligrapp  (Secretary),  present  or  fonner,  and 
present  or  former  Klabee  (Treasurer)  of  the  Invisible  Empire,  United  Klans, 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also  known  as  the  United  Klans 
of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan. 

In  the  representative  capacity  stated  therein,  Mr.  Perkins,  I  ask  you 
to  produce  the  documents  called  for  in  paragraph  3  of  the  subpena. 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectively  decline  to  deliver  to  the 
committee  the  documents  heretofore  ordered,  based  upon  the  grounds 
previously  stated. 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Chalmers,  do  we  have  the  same  stipulations? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Pool.  All  right,  accepted,  and  I  reject  your  reasons  for  not  pro- 
ducing the  records  asked  for  in  paragraph  3. 

I  order  and  direct  you  to  produce  them  at  this  time. 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectively  decline  to  deliver  to  the 
committee  the  documents  heretofore  ordered  by  the  chainnan,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Perkins,  paragraph  4  of  your  subpena  commands 
you  to  produce: 

Copies  of  U.S.  Treasury  Department,  Internal  Revenue  Service,  Form  1040, 
"U.S.  Individual  Income  Tax  Return,"  for  the  calendar  years  1958  through  1964, 
filed  by  you  as  an  individual  taxpayer  with  the  U.S.  Treasury  Department, 
Internal  Revenue  Service. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  3159 

I  ask  you  noAv,  sir,  to  produce  the  documents  called  for  in  paragraph 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectively  decline  to  deliver  to  the 
committee  the  documents  heretofore  ordered,  based  upon  the  grounds 
previously  stated. 

Mr.  Pool.  That  includes  the  fifth  amendment? 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  Yes. 

Mr.  Pool.  All  right. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Perkins,  are  you  currently  a  member  of  the 
Realm  of  Alabama,  United  Klans  of  America? 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  ques- 
tion for  the  reason  that  I  honestly  feel  that  my  rights  might  tend  to 
incriminate — my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate  me  in  violation  of 
my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments  5,  1,  4,  and  14  of  the 
Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Have  you  ever  held  any  office  on  the  imperial  level  of 
the  United  Klans  of  America  ? 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Have  you  ever  been  elected  to  the  position  of  Imperial 
Kligrapp  ? 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectively  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Manuel,  on  the  results  of  your  investigation,  do  you 
liave  any  facts  on  that  ? 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Chairman,  in  view  of  the  witness'  claim  of  privi- 
lege and  his  consistent  refusal  to  answer  any  of  my  questions,  I  present 
to  the  committee  the  results  of  our  investigation  as  they  pertain  to 
Mr.  Perkins. 

Mr.  Perkins  was  born  on  April  23, 1930,  at  Tuscaloosa,  Alabama.  He 
currently  operates  the  Perkins  Cabinet  Shop  at  3601  16th  Street, 
Holt,  Alabama.  He  currently  resides  on  Route  1.  Northport,  Ala- 
bama, and  Mr.  Perkins  is  known  to  have  held  membership  in  the  United 
Klans  of  America,  Incorporated,  and  has  attended  United  Klan  meet- 
ings in  the  past  at  the  Tuscaloosa  Klavern  No.  5  in  Tuscaloosa,  Ala- 
bama. 

William  Otto  Perkins  is  listed  as  a  director  of  Heritage  Enterprises, 
Incorporated,  along  with  Robert  Shelton,  Donald  Luna,  Calvin  Fred 
Craig,  and  others.  Heritage  Enterprises  is  known  to  have  been  estab- 
lished by  certain  leaders  of  the  United  Klans  of  America  as  a  corpo- 
rate device  to  raise  money  through  the  sale  of  insurance,  mostly  to 
Klan  members,  and  other  legitimate  business  ventures.  In  addition  to 
being  a  director  of  the  corporation,  Perkins  was  listed  as  an  assistant 
secretary  of  that  company  ( Robert  Shelton  Exhibit  No.  12) . 

When  the  United  Klans  of  America  applied  as  a  foreign  corpora- 
tion to  do  business  in  the  State  of  North  Carolina  in  July  1965,  William 
Otto  Perkins  of  17  Lake  Sherwood,  Northport,  Alabama,  was  listed 
as  the  treasurer  of  said  corporation. 

Raymond  Mills,  w^ho  was  the  exalted  cyclops  of  a  United  Klans  of 
America  Klavern  in  New  Bern,  North  Carolina,  turned  over  to  the 
committee  the  charter  which  was  granted  to  that  Klavern  by  the 
imperial  office  of  the  United  Klans  of  America. 

Signatures  on  this  document  are  identified  as  follows:  Robert  M. 
Shelton,  Imperial  Wizard;  James  R.  Jones,  Grand  Dragon  of  the 


3160  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Kealm  of  North  Carolina ;  and  W.  O.  Perkins,  Imperial  Kligrapp  or 
secretary. 

Mr.  Pool.  Just  a  minute. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Further,  Mr.  Chairman,  investigation  by  this  com- 
mittee has  established  that  William  O.  Perkins  was  elected  to  the 
office  of  Imperial  Kligrapp,  or  secretary,  of  the  United  Klans  of 
America  on  February  9,  1964,  at  a  convention  of  that  organization  at 
the  Tutwiler  Hotel  in  Birmingham,  Alabama. 

This  information,  Mr.  Chairman,  indicates  that  he  possesses  addi- 
tional information  which  is  both  pertinent  and  relevant  to  this  inquiry 
and  would  materially  aid  the  Congress  in  enacting  remedial  legisla- 
tion. 

Mr.  Pool.  Is  that  all  of  the  statement  ? 

Mr.  Manuel.  That  is  all  of  the  statement  right  now,  Mr.  Chairman. 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Perkins,  you  have  heard  the  sworn  statement  of  the 
committee's  investigator. 

You  now  have  the  opportunity  to  reply  to  any  portion  of  that 
statement,  to  confirm,  admit,  or  deny  or  challenge  the  veracity  of  the 
information.  And  also,  you  can  use  this  time  to  explain  or  modify 
any  part  of  that  statement.  In  addition,  you  may,  if  you  desire, 
offer  any  other  matter  the  committee  may  deem  pertinent  to  this 
inquiry. 

What  is  your  pleasure?     Would  you  like  to  do  any  of  that? 

You  don't  care  to  make  any  further  statement  along  this  line. 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Let  the  record  so  show,  Mr.  Chairman. 

Mr.  Pool.  Let  the  record  so  show  what  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  That  he  does  not  desire  to  make  any  statement. 

Mr.  Pool.  He  can't  say  "no,"  even  ? 

You  are  not  going  to  allow  him  to  say  "no",  he  doesn't  care  to? 

How  about  taking  the  fifth  amendment  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  I  don't  think  he  needs  to  take  the  fiffh.  I  have 
no  objections,  but  there  was  no  question  asked. 

Mr.  Pool.  All  right,  do  you  have  a  statement  to  make  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  He  does  not. 

Mr.  Pool.  Are  you  going  to  answer  me  ? 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  I  respectively  decline  to  answer  that  ques- 
tion for  the  reason  that  I  honestly  feel  in  my  answer  might  tend  to 
incriminate  me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by 
amendments  5,  1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States 
of  America. 

Mr.  Pool.  All  right,  Mr.  Perkins,  I  must  inform  you  that,  absent 
your  rebuttal  and  other  facts  that  may  come  to  the  attention  of  the 
subcommittee,  this  committee  will  rely  upon  the  accuracy  of  this 
investigation. 

Bearing  this  in  mind,  do  you  have  anything  further  to  say  ? 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Pool.  All  right,  from  now  on,  I  ask  a  question,  you  either 
answer  it  or  take  the  fifth  amendment,  and  don't  rely  on  your  lawyer 
to  do  your  answering.  He  is  a  nice  fellow,  but  I  am  asking  you  the 
questions. 

Go  ahead,  Mr.  Manuel. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  3161 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Perkins,  I  would  like  to  show  you  a  photostatic 
copy  of  an  application  for  certificate  of  authority  of  the  foreign  cor- 
poration, in  this  case,  the  "Invisible  Empire,  United  Klans,  Knights 
Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,"  which  as  the  document  says,  was 
incorporated  under  the  laws  of  the  State  of  Georgia  for  a  period  of 
85  years  on  the  20th  of  February  1961,  listing  the  headquarters  of  the 
organization  as  Suite  401,  Alston  Building,  Tuscaloosa,  Alabama,  and 
this  particular  document  is  a  photostatic  copy  of  the  request  to  do 
business  as  a  corporation  in  the  State  of  North  Carolina. 

On  page  two  of  this  document  are  listed  the  following  individuals: 
Mr.  Robert  M.  Shelton,  Suite  401,  Alston  Building,  Tuscaloosa,  Ala- 
bama, president;  Mr.  Melvin  Sexton,  Suite  401,  Alston  Building, 
Tuscaloosa,  Alabama,  secretary ;  Mr.  Robert  Thompson,  vice  president, 
of  "Marbleton,"  Georgia ;  and  "Mr.  W.  O.  Perkin,"  treasurer,  17  Lake 
Sherwood,  Northport,  Alabama. 

Mr.  Perkins.  I  show  you  this  document,  and  ask  if  you  are  the 
"W.O.  Perkin"  so  listed? 

(Document  handed  to  witness.) 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Document  previously  marked  "Robert  Shelton  Exhibit  No.  21." 
See  pp.  1662-1664.) 

Mr.  Manuel.  Do  you  know  Robert  M.  Shelton  listed  herein  to  be 
the  president  of  the  Invisible  Empire,  United  Klans,  Knights  of  the 
Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Incorporated? 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Do  you  know  Mr.  Melvin  Sexton  to  be  the  secretary  of 
that  corporation  ? 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  To  your  knowledge,  has  Mr.  Melvin  Sexton  ever  been 
elected  to  the  position  of  secretary  of  the  United  Klans  of  America? 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Have  you  ever  been  elected  to  the  position  of  treasurer 
of  that  corporation  ? 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  sir,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or 
deny  the  fact  that  on  Februai^y  9,  1964,  at  a  convention  of  the  general 
membership  of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  you  were  elected  to  the 
position  of  Imperial  Kligrapp  or  secretary? 

Would  you  explain  to  the  committee,  in  light  of  that,  how  Mr.  Melvin 
Sexton  applies  or  signs  as  secretary  of  the  corporation  ? 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr,  Manuel.  Under  what  authority  do  you,  Mr.  Perkins,  sign  as 
treasurer  of  that  corporation  ? 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Perkins,  I  would  like  to  show  you  a  photostatic 
copy  of  a  charter  granted  by  the  Imperial  Palace  of  the  Invisible 


3162  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Empire  of  the  United  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Khix  Klan  of  Amer- 
ica, Incorporated,  to  a  Klavern  located  at  New  Bern,  North  Carolina. 

On  this  copy  of  this  charter,  you  will  see  the  signatures  of  Robert 
M.  Shelton,  signing  as  Imperial  Wizard  of  the  Invisible  Empire, 
United  Klans;  James  R.  Jones,  signing  as  Grand  Dragon  of  the 
realm;  and  a  signature  bearing  the  name  "William  O.  Perkins,  Im- 
perial Kligrapp,"  or  secretary. 

I  show  you  this  document,  Mr.  Perkins,  and  ask  you  if  that  is  your 
signature  on  that  photostatic  copy  ? 

( Document  handed  to  witness. ) 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectively  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Document  previously  marked  "James  Jones  Exhibit  No.  26."  See 
p.  1765.) 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Perkins,  I  should  like  to  show  you  a  portion  of 
that  photostatic  copy,  considerably  blown  up  by  photographic  means, 
listing  the  name  William  O.  Perkins,  the  signature  William  O.  Per- 
kins, and  under  that  signature,  there  is  printed  the  initals  "C  L." 

I  would  like  to  show  you  this,  Mr.  Perkins,  and  ask  you  if  you  can 
identify  for  the  committee  the  initials  "C  L." 

( Document  handed  to  witness. ) 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Perkins,  I  would  like  to  ask  you  at  this  time 
whether  the  initials  "C  L."  stand  for  the  name  "Carol  Long"  ? 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectively  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Do  you  know  Carol  Long  ? 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Perkins,  investigation  conducted  by  this  com- 
mittee has  established  that  one  Carol  Long  has  in  the  past  signed  the 
name  "T.  M.  Montgomery"  to  checks  of  the  Alabama  Rescue  Service, 
of  an  account  maintained  at  the  First  National  Bank  of  Tuscaloosa, 
Alabama. 

Do  you  have  any  knowledge  of  this,  sir  ? 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectively  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Chairman,  at  this  time,  I  would  like  to  read  into 
the  record  from  the  Constitution  and  Laws  of  the  United  Klans  of 
America,  Incorporated,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  (Robert  Shel- 
ton Exhibit  No.  3),  Section  4  of  Article  X  which  lists  the  duties  of 
the  imperial  officers  and  duties  of  the  Imperial  Kilgrapp : 

IMPERIAL  KLIGRAPP:  Is  the  Supreme  Secretary  and  recording  officer  of 
this  Order.  He  shall  be  the  secretary  of  the  Imperial  Klonvokation  and  shall 
act  as  secretary  of  the  Imperial  Kloncilium  and  shall  have  general  supervision 
of  all  the  clerical  work  and  workings.  He  shall  keep  an  accurate  account  of 
the  receipts  and  disbursments.  He  shall  sign  all  papers,  vouchers  and  other 
documents  requiring  his  signature  of  attestation.  He  shall  prepare  and  submit 
a  report  of  the  workings  of  his  office  to  each  session  of  the  Imperial  Klonvoka- 
tion. He  shall  furnish  the  Imperial  Kloncilium,  when  requested,  with  such  in- 
formation as  they  desire  with  reference  to  his  office.  In  the  event  additional 
clerical  help  is  needed  in  the  Imperial  office  it  may  be  secured  upon  recommen- 
dation of  the  Imperial  Wizard  and  approval  of  the  Imperial  Board. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  3163 

Mr.  Perkins,  having  been  elected  to  the  position  of  Imperial 
Kligrapp,  have  yon  performed  the  duties  for  the  Invisible  Empire, 
United  Klans  of  America,  as  outlined  in  the  Constitution  and  Laws 
of  that  organization? 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel,  Mr.  Perkms,  investigation  has  shown  that  you  were 
elected  to  the  position  of  Imperial  Kligrapp  on  February  9,  1964,  and 
that  subsequent  to  that  election — and  incidentally,  Mr.  Chairman, 
according  to  the  constitution,  the  Imperial  Kligrapp  holds  the  position 
for  2  years,  which  would  mean  that  technically,  according  to  the  con- 
stitution, Mr.  Perkins'  term  of  office  ends  tomorrow. 

Investigation  of  the  committee  has  shown  that  an  additional  klon- 
cilium  or  klonvokation  of  the  United  Klans  w^as  held  in  September,  at 
Birmingham,  Alabama. 

Did  you,  Mr.  Perkins,  as  secretary,  keep  the  records  of  that 
klonvokation  ? 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectively  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Where  are  those  records  now,  sir  ? 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectably  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Pool.  Are  you  a  candidate  for  reelection  ? 

Mr.  William  IPerkins.  Sir,  I  respectively  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  would  like  the  record  to  show  that, 
subsequent  to  the  klonvokation  held  in  September  of  1964  in  Birming- 
ham, the  rules  of  the  United  Klans  have  been  changed  and  amended 
to  include  the  term  of  office  for  the  Imperial  Kligrapp,  which  now  lasts 
for  3  years,  so  that  Mr.  Perkins  has  an  additional  year  in  his  term  of 
office. 

Mr.  Perkins,  would  you  please  inform  the  committee  of  your  knowl- 
edge of  a  corporate  institution  known  as  Heritage  Enterprises, 
Incorporated  ? 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectively  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Were  you  ever  a  director  of  that  corporation? 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectively  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  tlie  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Did  you  ever  buy  stock  or  contribute  financially  to 
that  corporation? 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectively  decline  to  answer  that 
(Question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  In  your  duty  as  assistant  secretary  of  that  corpora- 
tion, did  you  maintain  any  of  its  records? 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectively  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  tlie  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Did  you  know  Mr.  Robert  M.  Shelton,  Mr.  Donald 
E.  Luna,  and  Mr.  Calvin  Fred  Craig  to  be  also  directors  of  that 
corporation? 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectively  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 


3164  ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX    KLAN   EST    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Perkins,  did  you  ever  purchase  an  insurance  pol- 
icy from  Heritage  Enterprises,  Incorporated  ? 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Did  you,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  default  on  your  payment 
on  one  of  the  policies  written  by  Heritage  Enterprises,  Incorporated? 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectively  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  staff  has  no  further  questions  of 
this  witness. 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Buchanan  ? 

Mr.  Buchanan.  No,  Mr.  Chairman. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Just  a  moment. 

Mr.  Perkins,  do  you  maintain  a  citizens  radio  license? 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  Sir,  I  i-espectfully  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Have  you  been  granted  a  license  by  the  Federal 
Communications  Commission  to  include  10  transmitters? 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectively  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Is  your  call  sign  KDD  2533  ? 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectively  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr,  Perkins,  I  would  like  to  show  you  a  copy  of  the 
Federal  Communications  Commission  citizens  radio  license  listing 
your  own  name,  care  of  Perkins  Cabinet  Shop,  giving  the  call  letters 
that  I  have  just  mentioned,  stating  that  you  have  been  authorized  to 
maintain  citizens  band  radios  for  the  period  from  March  22,  1963,  to 
March  22,  1968,  and  listing  that  you  are  authorized  10  transmitters. 

I  hand  you  this  document,  and  ask  you  if  the  information  con- 
tained thereon  is  correct  ? 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectively  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Document  marked  "William  Perkins  Exhibit  No.  1"  appears  on 
pp.  3165, 3166.) 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Perkins,  have  you  ever  used  citizens  band  radios 
in  connection  with  any  Klan  activity  ? 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectively  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Perkins,  the  subcommittee  has  m  its  possession 
a  letter  from  the  United  States  Commission  on  Civil  Rights,  to  the 
Federal  Communications  Commission,  and  I  will  quote  a  passage  of 
that  particular  letter: 

It  has  come  to  our  attention  from  various  sources  tihat  radio-equipped  auto- 
mobiles are  being  u'^ed  by  terrorist  groups  in  various  parts  of  the  South  for  the 
purpose  of  coordinating  attacks  on  Negroes  and  civil  rights  workers. 

In  particular,  we  have  reports  that  in  Tuscaloosa,  Alabama,  a  group  has  been 
using  radio-equipped  automobiles  to  inform  one  another  of  places  of  public 
accommodations  at  which  Negroes  attempt  to  obtain  service.  Apparently,  when 
a  person  in  one  of  the  cars  observes  Negroes  going  into  a  restaurant  a  call  is 
sent  out  to  other  cars  which  converge  on  the  scene.  We  understand  that  these 
gatherings  have  resulted  in  acts  of  intimidation  and  violence. 

The  following  call  letters  are  reportedly  being  used  by  these  cars  ;  *  *  * 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  3165 

William  Perkins  Exhibit  No.  1 


CITIZENS     RADIO     LICENSE 


"WHn-jai-d.    PKBKIN8 
DBA  PEaKIil^  GABlMkT  aauP 


ROUTS  OMK 
MORHiFORT,   ALitfiAMA 


.0 — n 


Tusoal*«s« 


(■■OMMISSION  FILE  OOPV 


KD6k2533 


iic^^KnTi^^^ir 


f  Xtr: 


....,.,  '4lAfi^2   J94J 
MkR    22    19.68   „.„..k,.., 


■^2t.»c^7f  ^^^ 


,n  -oE 


t-^ 


A 


All  Km  ».n  I.   ■.  -od.  I.  *.  .»,l.ci>o.tf£<i.cl.d  ..k.k 

lODmrrTiuT  •x'l!. 

Tk.  «J.c~.  ,.  J*.  .» rf  fCtt-.  .,  ..,  1. 

TV.  •«,«  .,1!  b..»...X77,ii  „,,A^<AtK  .h.  ,pp 


,1  Co-~...«t,o,.  C» 


APPUCATWN  MUST  BE  SKNED  AND  DATED 


a— — — 
n-— - -— 

u— 0'- ™ 


3-15^63 
OViier 


3166  ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX   KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

William  Perkins  Exhibit  No.  1 — Continued 
WARNING 


(SMaMllOH  ■•.IHCI 


I.    Whn  m  cka^a  «BW  I 


(  CommlBSUHi's  Rules. 


isi-rjps:: 


^■7.r.r=:-' 


■►  H  jr^rgr^^gjjsL'Btf**'^'* 


ril5'i.yL.ui«  jUX-  sca^-^ifrw  w  T »»« — "   "^ 


1.   Yes 

owner  -  William  0.  Perkina 
Nature  of  business  activity 
Cdbinet  making  &.  Millwork 

Location  &.  Purposes: 

aas©  #1  Home 

Base  #2   Business  -^ 

1  in  Business  AutoJs,obile 

1  in  Business  Truok 

3  in  Employee's  Automobiles 

Units  to  be  used  for  business. 

Base  #1  home 

1  in  Business  ABtonkblle 

lo  be  used  for  personal  pleasure. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3167 

And  in  the  series  of  call  letters  listed,  Mr.  Perkins,  is  KDD  2533, 
which  is,  according  to  the  record  of  the  Federal  Communications 
Commission,  the  call  letters  assigned  to  you. 

I  ask  you,  Mr.  Perkins,  if  the  information  that  I  just  read  to  you 
from  this  letter  is  correct  ? 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectively  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Document  previously  marked  "Lewis  Perkins  Exhibit  No.  1." 
See  p.  3149.) 

Mr.  Manuel.  Do  you  have  knowledge  of  any  other  Klansmen  or 
any  other  person  known  to  you  to  be  a  member  of  the  United  Klans 
using  citizens  band  radios  to  promote  acts  of  intimidation  or 
violence  ? 

Mr.  William  Perkins.  Sir,  I  respectively  decline  to  answer  that 
question,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manl^el.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  staff  has  no  further  questions  of 
this  witness. 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Manuel,  I  would  like  to  put  in  the  record  here  that 
this  committee,  I  believe,  will  go  on  record  as  asking  the  Federal 
Communications  Commission  to  investigate  this  further,  and  in  view 
of  the  fact  that  this  gentleman  has  taken  the  fifth  amendment  in 
answer  to  your  questions  on  this  use  of  the  citizens  band  radio,  they 
certainly  should  look  into  it  and  see  whether  or  not  any  illegal  use 
has  been  made  of  his  license. 

Let  the  record  so  show. 

The  witness  is  excused. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Chairman,  at  this  time,  the  staif  would  like  to 
call  Mr.  Fredrick  Smith. 

Mr.  Pool.  Do  you  solemnly  swear  the  testimony  you  are  about  to 
give  will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth,  so 
help  you  God  ? 

Mr.  Smith.  I  do. 

TESTIMONY  OF  FREDRICK  GERALD  SMITH,  ACCOMPANIED  BY 
COUNSEL,  LESTER  V.  CHALMERS,  JR. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Smith,  would  you  please  state  your  full  name, 
sir? 

Mr.  Smith.  Fredrick  Gerald  Smith. 

Mr.  Manuel.  And  are  you  represented  by  counsel,  Mr.  Smith  ? 

Mr.  Smith.  I  am. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Would  counsel  please  identify  himself  for  the 
record  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Lester  V.  Chalmers,  Jr.,  attorney  at  law,  Room 
501,  First  Federal  Building,  Raleigh,  North  Carolina. 

Mr.  Pool.  Just  a  minute. 

Do  we  have  the  same  stipulations,  Mr.  Chalmers,  that  the  witness 
has  been  furnished  a  copy  of  the  chairman's  opening  statement  when 
this  hearing  started  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Pool.  And  he  is  familiar  with  the  contents  therein  and  under- 
stands them. 


59-222  O— 67— pt.  4- 


3168  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Pool.  That  is  the  stipiihitioii.    All  right. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Smith,  when  and  wliere  were  you  born? 

Mr.  Smith.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
reason  that  I  honestly  feel  that  my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate 
me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendment  5, 1, 
4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

Mr.  Pool.  Do  you  seriously  think  that  that  would  incriminate  you, 
telling  where  and  when  you  were  bom  ? 

Mr.  Smith.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated, 

Mr.  Pool.  And  you  don't  care  to  cooperate  with  the  Congress  of  the 
United  States  in  this  investigation  ? 

Mr.  Smith.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Pool.  Well,  your  answers  definitely  show  that  you  are  not  go- 
ing to  cooperate,  but  go  ahead,  Mr.  Manuel,  and  ask  further  questions. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr,  Smith,  where  do  you  currently  reside? 

Mr.  Smith.  Sir,  I  respectively  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Smith,  have  you  ever  been  a  member  of  the  United 
Klans  of  America,  Realm  of  Alabama  ? 

Mr.  Smith.  I  respectively  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
reason  that  I  honestly  feel  that  my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate 
me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments  5,  1, 
4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Smith,  are  you  appearing  before  the  committee 
this  morning  in  response  to  a  subpena  served  upon  you  at  12 :10  p.m. 
on  the  27th  day  of  October  1965  at  Route  1,  Fayette,  Alabama,  by  a 
deputy  U.S.  marshal  ? 

Mr.  Smith.  Yes. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Smith,  paragraph  1  of  your  subpena  commands 
you  to. produce: 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  relating  to  the 
organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  business  and  affairs  of  the  Invisible  Empire, 
United  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also  known  as  the 
United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  and  affiliated  orga- 
nizations, namely,  the  Alabama  Rescue  Service  and  Whiteman's  Defense  Fund, 
in  your  possession,  cu.stody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  you  or  available  to  you 
as  present  or  former  Imperial  Klabee  (Treasurer)  and  present  or  former  Im- 
perial Kligrapp  (Secretary)  of  the  Invisible  Empire,  United  Klans,  Knights  of 
the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also  known  as  the  United  Klans  of  America, 
Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan. 

Mr.  Smith,  in  the  representative  capacity  stated  in  paragraph  1  of 
that  subpena,  I  ask  you  now  to  produce  the  documents  called  for. 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Chalmers,  are  you  going  to  make  your  stipulation 
at  this  time? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir;  the  same  stipulation  with  this  witness  as 
with  respect  to  all  other  witnesses  that  the  chairman  and  myself  have 
heretofore  entered  into  are  certainly  stipulated  with  respect  to  this 
witness. 

Mr.  Pool.  All  right. 

I  direct  the  witness  to  answer  the  question  or  to  furnish  the  material 
as  called  for  in  the  subpena,  paragraph  1. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX   KLAN    IN    THE    XJ.S.  3169 

Mr.  Chalmers.  No,  sir;  I  believe  he  has  not  given  an  answer. 

He  has  not  answered  yet.    I  think  we  are  a  little  premature. 

Mr.  Pool.  All  right,  go  ahead  and  answer. 

Mr.  Smith.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any 
and  all  documents  as  demanded  by  the  committee  in  a  subpena  dated 
October  14,  1965,  for  the  reason  that  I  honestly  feel  that  to  do  so 
might  tend  to  incriminate  me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed 
to  me  by  amendments  5,  1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United 
States  of  America. 

I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any  and  all  records 
requested  by  this  committee  under  subpena  dated  October  14,  1965, 
for  that  information  is  not  relevant  and  germane  to  the  subject  under 
investigation  and  the  same  would  not  aid  the  Congress  in  the  con- 
sideration of  any  valid  remedial  legislation,  nor  is  such  inquiry  withm 
the  scope  of  that  authorized  to  be  investigated  by  Rule  XI  of  the  rules 
adopted  by  the  89th  Congress,  by  House  Resolution  8,  adopted  Janu- 
ary 4, 1965. 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  same  stipulations  that  I  have 
heretofore  entered  into  with  respect  to  the  other  Avitnesses  I  have 
represented  before  this  committee  are  also  entered  into  and  stipulated 
with  the  chairman  with  respect  to  this  witness,  with  respect  to  para- 
graph 1  of  the  subpena  duces  tecum. 

Mr.  Pool.  All  right,  now  the  committee  rejects  the  reasons  given 
and  directs  and  orders  you  to  produce  the  material  and  the  other  infor- 
mation that  was  called  for  under  paragraph  1  of  the  subpena. 

Mr.  Smith.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee 
the  documents  heretofore  ordered  by  the  chairman,  based  upon  the 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Pool.  I  wish  to  point  out  at  this  time  that  the  House  of  Rep- 
resentatives, by  an  overwhelming  vote,  a  few  days  ago — I  think  there 
were  only  28  dissenting  votes — supported  the  committee's  reasons  for 
rejecting  your  answer  and  voted  to  send  the  citation  to  the  Federal 
attorney  to  present  to  a  grand  jury  to  see  whether  or  not  seven  mem- 
bers of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  are  in  contempt  of  Congress. 

Go  ahead. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Smith,  paragraph  2  of  your  subpena  calls  for  you 
to  produce : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  in  your  posses- 
sion, custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  or  available  to  you,  in  your  capacity 
as  present  or  former  Imperial  Klabee  (Treasurer)  and  present  or  former  Im- 
perial Kligrapp  (Secretary)  of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights 
of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  which  the  "Constitution  and  Laws"  of  said  organization 
authorize  and  require  to  be  maintained  by  you  and  any  other  officer  of  said  or- 
ganization, the  same  being  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control. 

In  the  representative  capacity  stated  in  paragraph  2,  Mr.  Smith, 
I  ask  you  now  to  produce  the  documents  called  for. 

Mr.  Smith.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee 
the  documents  heretofore  ordered,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously 
stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  ask  that  the  witness  be  directed  to 
produce. 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  stipulations  with  respect  to  this 
witness  as  entered  into  and  stipulated  by  me  as  his  attorney  with 


3170  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

respect  to  paragraph  1  are  also  stipulated  and  entered  into  with 
respect  to  paragraph  2. 

Mr.  Pool.  All  right,  so  stipulated. 

I  direct  the — have  you  answered?  Have  you  given  your  answer  to 
the  interrogator? 

I  direct  you  to  furnish  the  committee  the  material  and  papers  that 
were  called  for  under  paragraph  2  of  the  subpena. 

I  direct  and  order  you  to  present  them  at  this  time. 

Mr.  Smith.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee 
the  documents  heretofore  ordered  by  the  chairman,  based  upon  the 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Pool.  Go  ahead. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Smith,  paragraph  3  of  your  subpena  calls  for  you 
to  produce : 

Copies  of  the  U.S.  Treasury  Department,  Internal  Revenue  Service.  Form  1120, 
"U.S.  Corporation  Income  Tax  Return,"  for  the  fiscal  years  1961  through  June  30, 
1965,  filed  by  you  as  present  or  former  Imperial  Klabee  (Treasurer)  and  present 
or  former  Imperial  Kligrapp  (Secretary)  of  the  Invisible  Empire,  United  Klans. 
Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also  known  as  the  United  Klans 
of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan. 

Mr.  Smith,  in  the  representative  capacity  listed  in  paragraph  3,  I 
ask  you  now  to  produce  those  documents,  sir. 

Mr.  Smith.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee 
the  documents  heretofore  ordered,  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Pool.  Do  you  have  a  stipulation  on  that  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir;  with  respect  to  paragraph  3,  the  same 
stipulation. 

Mr.  Pool.  So  stipulated. 

I  direct  you  to  present  to  the  committee  at  this  time  the  materials 
and  information  that  are  called  for  in  paragraph  3  of  the  subpena. 

I  direct  and  order  you  to  present  them  at  this  time. 

Mr.  Smith.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee 
the  documents  heretofore  ordered  by  the  chairman,  based  upon  the 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Smith,  paragraph  4  of  your  subpena  calls  upon 
you  to  produce: 

Copies  of  U.S.  Treasury  Department,  Internal  Revenue  Service,  Form  1040, 
"U.S.  Individual  Income  Tax  Return,"  for  the  calendar  years  1958  through  1964, 
filed  by  you  as  an  individual  taxpayer  with  the  U.S.  Treasury  Department,  Inter- 
nal Revenue  Service. 

I  ask  you  now  to  produce  those  documents. 

Mr.  Smith.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee 
the  documents  heretofore  ordered,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously 
stated. 

Mr.  Pool.  Including  the  fifth  amendment. 

Mr.  Smith.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Smith,  have  you  ever  held  an  office  on  the  imperial 
level  of  the  United  Klans  of  America  ? 

Mr.  Smith.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for 
the  reason  that  I  honestly  feel  that  my  answer  might  tend  to  incrimi- 
nate me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments 
5, 1, 4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX   KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3171 

Mr.  ALA.NUEL.  Mr.  Chairman,  in  view  of  the  witness'  claim  of  privi- 
lege and  his  consistent  refusal  to  answer  my  questions,  I  present  to  the 
committee  the  results  of  our  investigation  as  they  pertain  to  Mr.  Smith. 

Mr.  Smith  was  born  on  July  16,  1936,  at  Dearborn,  Michigan.  He 
currently  resides  on  Route  1,  Fayette,  Alabama,  and  is  employed  as  a 
night  inspections  and  control  foreman  at  Arvin  Industries  in  Fayette, 
Alabama. 

Smith  is  an  active  member  of  the  Tuscaloosa  Klavern  No.  5  of  the 
United  Klans  of  America. 

Committee  investigation  has  established  that  Fredrick  Smith  was 
elected  Imperial  Klabee  or  treasurer  of  the  United  Klans  of  America 
at  a  klonvokation  held  on  February  the  9th,  1964,  at  the  Tutwiler 
Hotel  in  Birmingham,  Alabama,  and  Smith  has  served  as  Imperial 
Klabee  of  United  Klans  of  America  since  the  founding  of  that  organ- 
ization in  July  1961. 

Investigation  of  this  committee  reflected  that  in  the  December  13, 
1962,  edition  of  the  weekly  newspaper  Gra'phic  of  Tuscaloosa,  Ala- 
bama, an  article  appeared  identifying  Fred  Smith  as  a  special  con- 
stable of  Justice  of  the  Peace  W.  E.  Johnston. 

Smith's  job  was  described  as  a  variety  of  duties,  and  he  was  com- 
niissioned  to  carry  a  pistol.  It  is  known  that  Fredrick  Smith  owns  a 
pistol  and  has  a  permit  to  carry  same. 

Smith  is  known  to  have  attended  meetings  of  Tuscaloosa  Klavern 
No.  5  at  the  Klan  hall  near  Cottondale,  Alabama,  on  May  22, 1963,  and 
January  30,  1963,  as  well  as  other  meetings  during  the  years  of  1964 
and  1965. 

Investigation  has  revealed  that  on  June  24,  1964,  Fred  Smith  was 
in  attendance  at  a  closed  meeting  of  the  Tuscaloosa  Klavern  No.  5, 
and  Smith  indicated  that  Imperial  Wizard  Robert  Shelton  wanted 
the  antimask  law  read  carefully  by  the  Klan  lawyer,  as  Shelton  wanted 
some  cases  brought  into  court  to  test  the  law. 

It  was  also  discussed  at  these  meetings  that  those  members  who  had 
gun  permits  were  to  wear  their  guns  at  the  forthcoming  Klan  rally 
to  be  held  at  J.C.  Park  in  Tuscaloosa,  Alabama,  on  June  27,  1964, 
which  was  to  be  an  open-air  rally,  and  the  public  was  to  be  invited. 

As  of  April  17,  1964,  it  was  known  that  Smith  had  been  traveling 
around  the  State  of  Alabama  at  that  time  endeavoring  to  solicit  new 
Klansmen  and  set  up  new  Klaverns  and  reactivate  old  Klaverns  and 
had  been  in  the  area  of  Dothan,  Alabama,  recently  in  that  regard. 
Also,  Smith  was  known  to  have  visited  the  vicinity  of  Greensboro, 
North  Carolina,  in  an  effort  to  secure  new  Klan  members  in  that  area. 

This  information,  Mr.  Chairman,  indicates  that  Mr.  Smith  possesses 
additional  information  which  is  both  pertinent  and  relevant  to  this 
inquiry  and  would  materially  aid  the  Congress  in  enacting  remedial 
legislation. 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Smith,  you  have  heard  the  sworn  statement  of  the 
committee's  investigator. 

Now  you  have  the  opportunity  to  reply  to  any  portion  of  that  state- 
ment. You  have  the  opportunity  to  confirm  or  deny  or  challenge  the 
accuracy  of  the  information  or  to  explain  it,  or  any  part  of  the 
statement. 

In  addition,  you  may,  if  you  desire,  offer  any  other  matter  the  sub- 
committee may  deem  relevant  to  this  inquiry. 


3172  ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Do  you  have  a  further  statement  ? 

Mr.  Smith.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Smith,  I  must  inform  you  that,  absent  your  rebuttal 
or  other  facts  that  may  come  to  the  attention  of  the  committee,  this 
commitee  will  rely  upon  the  accuracy  of  its  investigation. 

Bearing  this  in  mind,  do  you  have  any  further  thing  to  say? 

Mr.  Smith.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Pool.  All  right,  go  ahead,  Mr.  Manuel. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Chairman,  at  this  point,  I  should  like  to  read 
into  the  record  from  the  Constitution  and  Laws  of  the  United  Klans 
of  America,  Incorporated.  (Kobert  Shelton  Exhibit  No.  8),  the  duties 
of  the  Imperial  Klabee  as  stated  in  the  Constitution : 

IMPERIAL  KLABEE :  Is  the  Supreme  Treasurer  of  this  Order  and  is,  there- 
fore, the  custodian  of  its  funds,  and  he  shall  countersign  all  checks  with  the 
Imperial  Wizard,  and  he  shall  make  a  full  and  complete  report  of  his  oflBce  to 
the  regular  Klonvokation  each  and  every  year. 

Mr.  Smith,  I  ask  you  as  the  elected  Imperial  Klabee  of  the  United 
Klans  of  America,  have  you  performed  the  duties  outlined  in  the 
Constitution  and  Laws  of  that  organization? 

Mr.  Smith.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Where  are  the  records  which  you,  under  the  Consti- 
tution and  Laws,  are  supposed  to  keep  as  Imperial  Klabee? 

Mr.  Smith.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Smith,  the  commite  has  obtained  by  subpena 
duces  tecum  the  account  of  the  Alabama  Rescue  Service  from  The 
First  National  Bank  of  Tuscaloosa,  Alabama,  and  an  examination  of 
checks  issued  by  the  United  Klans  of  America  fails  to  reflect  the 
name  of  Fredrick  Smith. 

Could  you  explain  to  the  committee  why  this  is  ? 

Mr.  Smith.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Smith,  do  you  know  an  individual  named  Carol 
Long? 

Mr.  Smith.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Do  you  have  knowledge  that  Carol  Long  has  signed 
the  name  "T.  M.  Montgomery"  to  disbursements  made  by  the  United 
Klans  of  America? 

Mr.  Smith.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Do  you  know  James  J.  Hendrix  ? 

Mr.  Smith.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Do  you  know  that  Mrs.  Robert  Shelton  has  signed 
the  name  "James  J.  Hendrix"  to  checks  of  the  account  of  the  Ala- 
bama Rescue  Service,  that  is,  the  account  of  the  United  Klans  of 
America  ? 

Mr.  Smith.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 


ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX   KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3173 

Mr.  Manuel.  To  your  knowledge,  Mr.  Smith,  by  what  authority  are 
the  names  "T,  M.  Montgomery"  and  "James  J.  Hendrix"  affixed  to 
checks  of  the  United  Klans  of  America  ? 

Mr.  Smith.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Maxuel.  To  your  knowledge,  do  the  membership  and  officers 
of  the  United  Klans  of  America  know  that  Carol  Long  and  Mrs. 
Robert  Shelton  sign  the  names  "T.  M.  Montgomery"  and  "James  J. 
Hendrix"  to  checks  of  the  United  Klans  of  America  ? 

Mr.  Smith.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  tlie  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Smith,  I  would  like  to  hand  you  a  copy  of  a  sig- 
nature card  filed  with  The  First  National  Bank  of  Tuscaloosa,  Ala- 
bama, dated  September  24,  1961,  on  which  appears  the  names  "Fred- 
rick G.  Smith"  and  "Alvin  B.  Sisk,"  giving  the  address  401  Alston 
Building,  Tuscaloosa,  Alabama,  and  the  account  opened  is  that  of  the 
Alabama  Rescue  Service. 

I  show  you  this,  Mr.  Smith,  and  ask  if  that  is  your  signature  on  the 
document  ? 

Mr.  Smith.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Document  previously  marked  "Robert  Shelton  Exhibit  No.  6." 
See  p.  1619.) 

Mr.  Manuel.  Has  that  signature  card  ever  been  changed,  Mr. 
Smith,  to  reflect  other  names,  even  though,  according  to  the  commit- 
tee's investigation,  you  have  kept  the  office  of  Imperial  Klabee  or 
treasurer  ? 

Mr.  Smith.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  When  was  the  last  time  you  ever  signed  a  cheek  of  the 
United  Klans  of  America  as  Imperial  Klabee? 

Mr.  Smith.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Smith,  have  you  any  knowledge  of  the  bombings 
^^•hich  occurred  in  the  Birmingham,  Alabama,  area  in  September  of 
1963? 

Mr.  Smith.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Did  you  participate  in  the  bombing  of  the  16th  Street 
Baptist  Church  on  September  15, 1963? 

Mr.  Smith.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Have  you  any  knowledge  of  where  the  Klan  obtains 
dynamite? 

Mr.  Smith.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  staff  has  no  further  questions  of 
this  witness. 

Mr.  Pool.  Do  you  have  questions  ? 

Mr.  Buchanan.  This  witness  was  born  in  Michigan,  did  you  say  ? 

Mr.  Manuel.  Dearborn,  Michigan. 

Mr.  Buchanan.  Do  you  have  information  indicating  when  he  came 
to  Alabama? 


3174  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Maniiel.  Our  records  do  not  reflect  that. 

Mr.  Buchanan.  Thank  you. 

Mr.  Pool.  I  might  make  this  comment.  I  wish  we  had  kept  a  rec- 
ord of  how  many  fifth  amendments  have  been  taken  since  the  hearings 
started  in  October.     I  think  maybe  we  have  set  a  new  record  here. 

The  witness  is  excused. 

Call  your  next  witness. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Chairman,  we  would  like  to  call  Mr.  William 
Sexton.     William  Melvin  Sexton. 

Mr.  Pool.  Do  you  solemnly  swear  the  testimony  you  are  about  to 
give  will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth, 
so  help  you  God? 

Mr.  Sexton.  Yes. 

TESTIMONY  OF  WILLIAM  MELVIN  SEXTON,  ACCOMPANIED  BY 
COUNSEL,  LESTER  V.  CHALMERS,  JR. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Sexton,  would  you  please  state  your  full  name 
for  the  record  ? 

Mr.  Sexton.  William  Melvin  Sexton. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Are  you  known  mostly  by  the  name  Melvin  Sexton  ? 

Mr.  Sexton.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Are  you  represented  by  counsel,  Mr.  Sexton? 

Mr.  Sexton.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Would  counsel  please  identify  himself  for  the  record? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Lester  V.  Chalmers,  Jr.,  attorney  at  law,  501  First 
Federal  Building,  Raleigh,  North  Carolina. 

Mr.  Pool.  Just  a  minute. 

Mr.  Chalmers,  is  it  so  stipulated  that  the  witness  has  been  fur- 
nished a  copy  of  the  chairman's  opening  statement  and  he  understands 
the  contents  therein  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Pool.  All  right. 

Go  ahead. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Sexton,  when  and  where  were  you  born,  sir? 

Mr.  Sexton.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
reason  that  I  honestly  feel  that  my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate 
me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments  5, 
1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States*  of  America. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Sexton,  where  do  you  currently  reside? 

Mr.  Sexton.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Sexton,  are  you  appearing  before  the  committee 
this  morning  in  response  to  a  subpena  served  upon  you  at  11 :50  a.m. 
on  the  26th  day  of  October  1965  by  a  deputy  U.S.  marshal  at  the 
Dent  Motor  Company,  Tuscaloosa,  Alabama? 

Mr.  Sexton.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Manuel.  An  attachment  of  the  subpena,  Mr.  Sexton,  calls  upon 
you  to  produce,  and  I  will  read  to  you  paragraph  1 : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  relating  to  the 
organization  of  and  the  conduct  of  business  and  affairs  of  the  Invisible  Empire, 
United  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also  known  as 
the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  and  affiliated 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX   KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3175 

organizations,  namely,  the  Alabama  Rescue  Service  and  Whiteman's  Defense 
Fund,  in  your  possession,  custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  you  or  available 
to  you  as  present  or  former  Imperial  Kligrapp  (Secretary)  of  the  Invisible 
Empire,  United  Klans.  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc.,  also 
known  as  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc..  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan. 

Mr.  Sexton,  in  the  representative  capacity  stated  in  paragraph  1, 
I  ask  you  now  to  produce  the  documents  called  for. 

Mr.  Pool.  Just  a  minute.     Let  me  see  that  subpena. 

Now  where  were  you  ? 

Mr.  Manuel.  I  just  asked  Mr.  Sexton,  I  believe,  to  produce  the 
documents  in  the  paragraph  1. 

Mr.  Pool.  Do  you  wish  to  enter  into  a  stipulation  at  this  time? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  I  will  do  it  either  way,  at  the  end  of  his  answer, 
or  either  way  the  chairman  suggests. 

Mr.  Pool.  All  right,  let's  do  it  at  the  end  of  his  answer. 

Mr.  Chalmers.  All  right,  sir. 

Mr.  Sexton.  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any 
and  all  documents  demanded  by  the  committee  in  a  subpena  dated 
October  the  14th,  1965,  for  the  reason  that  I  honestly  feel  that  to  do 
so  might  tend  to  incriminate  me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed 
to  me  by  amendments  5, 1,  4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United 
States  of  America. 

I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee  any  and  all  records 
as  requested  by  this  committee  under  subpena  dated  October  the  14th, 
1965,  for  the  information  is  not  relevant  and  gennane  to  the  subject 
under  investigation  and  the  same  would  not  aid  the  Congress  in  the 
consideration  of  any  valid  remedial  legislation,  nor  is  such  inquiry 
within  the  scope  of  that  authorized  to  be  investigated  by  Kule  XI  of 
the  rules  adopted  by  the  89th  Congress  by  House  Eesolution  8,  adopted 
January  the  4th,  1965. 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Chalmers,  state  your  stipulation  again;  will  you? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Yes,  sir;  it  is  stipulated,  if  the  chairman  pleases, 
that  the  witness  has  been  furnished  a  copy  of  the  opening  statement  of 
the  chairman ;  it  is  also  stipulated  that  with  respect  to  the  representa- 
tive capacity  listed  in  the  subpena,  that  he  is  here  in  accordance  with 
what  is  stated  in  a  representative  capacity  as  to  paragraph  1  of  the 
subpena. 

Mr.  Pool.  All  right.     So  stipulated. 

That  is  the  same  stipulation  you  have  entered  into  previously  on 
other  witnesses. 

Mr.  Chalmers.  With  respect  to  every  witness  that  I  have  appeared 
with  here  in  the  hearings,  Mr.  Chairman. 

Mr.  Pool.  Thank  you.     Thank  you,  sir.     Let  the  record  so  show. 

The  committee  rejects  your  reasons  and  orders  you  to  produce  the 
material  and  records  called  for  in  paragraph  1  of  the  subpena. 

Mr.  Sexton.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee 
the  documents  heretofore  ordered  by  the  chairman,  based  upon  the 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  ]VL\nuel.  Mr.  Sexton,  paragraph  2  of  your  subpena  calls  upon 
you  to  produce : 

All  books,  records,  documents,  correspondence,  and  memoranda  in  your  pos- 
session, custody  or  control,  or  maintained  by  or  available  to  you,  in  your  capacity 
as  present  or  former  Imperial  Kligrapp    (Secretary)    of  the  United  Klans  of 


3176  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan,  which  the  "Constitution  and  Laws" 
of  said  organization  authorize  and  require  to  be  maintained  by  you  and  any  other 
oflScer  of  said  organization,  the  same  being  in  your  possession,  custody  or 
control. 

In  the  representative  capacity  outlined  in  paragraph  2,  I  request 
you  now  to  produce  tliose  documents. 

Mr.  Sexton.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee 
the  documents  heretofore  ordered,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously 
stated. 

Mr.  Chalmers.  With  respect  to  paragraph  2 

Mr.  Pool.  Same  stipulation  ? 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Same  stipulation  as  to  paragraph  1,  Mr.  Chairman. 

Mr.  Pool.  All  right,  the  committee  rejects  your  reasons  and  orders 
and  directs  you  to  produce  the  material  and  records  called  for  in  para- 
graph 2  of  the  subpena. 

Mr.  Sexton.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee 
the  documents  heretofore  ordered  by  the  chairman,  based  upon  the 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Pool.  Go  ahead,  Mr.  Manuel. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Sexton,  paragraph  3  of  your  subpena  calls  upon 
you  to  produce : 

Copies  of  U.S.  Treasury  Department,  Internal  Revenue  Service,  Form  1120, 
"U.S.  Corporation  Income  Tax  Return,"  for  the  fiscal  years  11»61  through  June  30, 
1965,  filed  by  you  as  present  or  former  Imperial  Kligrapp  (Secretary)  of  the 
Invisible  Empire,  United  Klans,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  of  America,  Inc., 
also  known  as  the  United  Klans  of  America,  Inc.,  Knights  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan. 

In  the  representative  capacity  stated  in  paragraph  3, 1  ask  you  now 
to  produce  those  documents. 

Mr.  Sexton.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee 
the  documents  heretofore  ordered,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously 
stated. 

Mr.  Chalmers.  Same  stipulation  with  respect  to  paragraph  3  as  with 
respect  to  paragraphs  2  and  1. 

Mr.  Pool.  All  right,  so  stipulated. 

The  Chair  now  rejects  the  reasons  given  and  orders  and  directs  you 
to  produce  the  material  and  records  called  for  in  paragraph  3. 

Mr.  Sexton,  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee 
the  documents  heretofore  ordered  by  the  chairman,  based  upon  the 
grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Sexton,  paragraph  4  of  your  subpena  calls  upon 
you  to  produce : 

Copies  of  U.S.  Treasury  Department,  Internal  Revenue  Service,  Form  1040, 
"U.S.  Individual  Income  Tax  Returns,"  for  the  calendar  years  1958  through  1964, 
filed  by  you  as  an  individual  taxpayer  with  the  U.S.  Treasury  Department,  In- 
ternal Revenue  Service. 

Mr.  Sexton.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  deliver  to  the  committee 
the  documents  heretofore  ordered,  based  upon  the  grounds  previously 
stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Sexton,  have  you  ever  been  elected  by  the  mem- 
bership of  the  United  Klans  of  America  to  any  position  in  that  order? 

Mr.  Sexton.  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question  for  the 
reason  that  I  honestly  feel  that  my  answer  might  tend  to  incriminate 
me  in  violation  of  my  rights  as  guaranteed  to  me  by  amendments  5,  1, 
4,  and  14  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  of  America. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN    THE    U.S.  3177 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Sexton,  have  you  ever  signed  in  an  official  capacity 
as  tlie  secretary  of  the  United  Klans  of  America  ? 

Mr.  Sexton.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  tlie  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Chairman,  in  view  of  the  witness'  claim  of  privi- 
lege and  his  consistent  refusal  to  answer  any  of  my  questions,  I  present 
to  the  committee  the  results  of  our  investigation  as  they  pertain  to  Mr. 
Sexton. 

Mr.  Sexton  is  known  to  be  a  member  of  the  United  Klans  of  America 
and  he  attends  meetings  at  the  Klavern  No.  5  at  Tuscaloosa,  Alabama. 

Mr.  Sexton  is  not  known  by  this  committee  to  have  been  elected  to 
any  position  on  the  imperial  level  by  the  membership.  Mr.  Sexton's 
name  appears  on  several  bank  accounts  of  the  United  Klans  of  America, 
namely,  the  United  Klans  of  America  Defense  Fund,  held  at  The  First 
National  Bank  of  Tuscaloosa,  Alabama. 

Mr.  Sexton  is  also  known  to  have  signed  as  secretary  on  the  in- 
come tax  returns  filed  by  the  United  Klans  of  America  in  the  year 
1964. 

This  information,  Mr.  Chairman,  indicates  that  he  possesses  addi- 
tional information  which  is  both  pertinent  and  relevant  to  this  in- 
quiry and  would  materially  aid  the  Congress  in  enacting  remedial 
legislation. 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Sexton,  you  heard  the  sworn  statement  of  the  com- 
mittee's investigator. 

You  now  have  an  opportunity  to  reply  to  any  portion  of  that  state- 
ment and  confirm  or  cliallenge  the  accuracy  of  this  information,  or  to 
explain  any  part  of  that  statement.  In  addition,  you  may,  if  you  de- 
sire, offer  any  otlier  matter  that  the  committee  may  deem  pertinent 
to  the  inquiry.    Do  you  have  a  statement? 

Mr.  Sexton.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Sexton,  I  must  inform  you  that,  absent  your  rebuttal 
or  other  facts  which  may  come  to  the  attention  of  the  committee,  this 
committee  will  rely  upon  the  accuracy  of  its  investigation. 

Bearing  this  in  mind,  do  you  have  anything  further  to  say? 

Mr.  Sexton.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Pool.  Go  ahead,  Mr.  Manuel. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Sexton,  I  would  like  to  show  you  a  copy  of  an 
application  for  certificate  of  authority  of  a  foreign  corporation, 
namely,  the  "Invisible  Empire,  United  Klans,  Knights  Ku  Klux  Klan 
of  America,  Inc.,"  which  was  incorporated  under  the  laws  of  the  State 
of  Georgia  on  the  20tli  day  of  February  1961,  the  headquarters  listed 
at  Suite  401,  Alston  Building,  Tuscaloosa,  Alabama. 

This  photostatic  copy  of  an  application  is  for  the  United  Klans  of 
America  to  do  business  in  the  State  of  North  Carolina. 

On  the  second  page  of  this  document,  Mr.  Sexton,  I  point  your  atten- 
tion to  the  signature  of  Melvin  Sexton,  using  the  title  of  secretary  of 
the  corporation.     I  show  you  this,  Mr.  Sexton,  and  ask  if  you  did,  m 
fact,  sign  this  particular  document? 
(Document  handed  to  witness.) 

Mr.  Manuel.  The  original  of  that  document. 


3178  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Sexton.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Document  previously  marked  "Robert  Sheltoii  Exhibit  No.  21." 
See  pp.  1662-1664.) 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Sexton,  by  what  authority  within  the  United 
Klans  of  America  do  you  sign  your  name  as  secretary  of  the  corpora- 
tion? 

Mr.  Sexton.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or  deny 
the  fact,  that  on  February  9,  1964,  Mr.  W.  O.  Perkins  was  elected  to 
the  position  of  Imperial  Secretary  by  the  general  membership  of  the 
United  Klans  of  America  ? 

Mr.  Sexton.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Pool.  Counsel,  what  did  he  sign?     What  was  the  document? 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Chairman,  he  signed  an  application  for  certificate 
of  authority  of  a  foreign  corporation  to  do  business  in  the  State  of 
North  Carolina. 

This  document  was  filed  in  the  State  of  North  Carolina  in  July  1965 
and  bears  the  signatures  of  the  principal  officers,  namely,  Robert  M. 
Shelton  as  president  and  Melvin  Sexton  as  secretary. 

The  committee 

Mr.  Pool.  You  have  no  information,  though,  that  he  actually  was 
secretary ;  do  you  ? 

Mr.  Manuel.  We  have  no  information,  Mr.  Chairman,  that  Mr. 
Sexton  was  ever  elected  secretary  by  the  general  membei*ship  of  the 
United  Klans  of  America,  and  my  question  to  Mr.  Sexton  was  by  what 
authority  does  he  sign  his  name  as  secretary  of  the  corporation,  when 
committee  investigation  has  revealed  that  in  the  year  1964  Mr.  W.  O. 
Perkins,  a  previous  witness  before  the  committee,  was  elected  to  that 
position  for  a  period  of  2  years,  which  was  amended  to  include  an 
additional  year. 

Mr.  Pool.  Was  that  signed  under  oath  ? 

Mr.  Manuel.  It  is  certified  by  a  notary  public  in  the  State  of 
Alabama. 

Mr,  Pool.  Let's  see  the  certification. 

Let  the  record  show  that  this  notarization  certificate  of  the  notary 
public  says : 

Robert  M.  SheHton  and  Melvin  Sexton,  eadi  being  duly  sworn,  deposes  and  says 
that  he  signed  the  foregoing  "Application  for  Certificate  of  Authority"  in  the 
capacity  indicated,  and  that  the  statements  therein  contained  are  true  and 
correct. 

So  with  this  document  in  the  record,  I  think  that  we  certainly  should 
notify  the  State  of  North  Carolina  of  a  discrepancy  there  in  the  fact 
that  we  have  evidence  that  one  man  is  supposed  to  be  the  secretary,  and 
yet  he  signed  this  as  secretary  on  this  application. 

I  think,  certainly,  that  should  be  brought  to  their  attention. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Sexton,  on  the  same  document,  "Mr.  W.  O.  Per- 
kin"  ^  of  17  Lake  Sherwood,  Northport,  Alabama,  is  listed  as  the 
treasurer  of  the  Invisible  Empire. 

1  Correct  name  "W.  O.  Perkins." 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX   KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3179 

Is  that  certification  of  Mr.  Perkins  as  treasurer,  to  your  knowledge, 
truthful? 

Mr.  Sexton,  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Sexton,  to  your  knowledge,  is  Mr.  Fredrick 
Smith  the  treasurer  or  Imperial  Klabee  of  the  United  Klans  of 
America  ? 

Mr.  Sexton.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr,  Pool.  You  have  had  evidence  to  that  effect,  that  he  is  treasurer? 

Mr.  Manuel.  Committee  investigation,  Mr.  Chairman,  has  show^n 
that  Mr.  Smith  was  elected  to  the  position  of  treasurer  on  the  same 
date  and  at  the  same  convention  or  klonvokation  that  Mr.  W.  O. 
Perkins  was  elected  secretary. 

The  committee  has  no  information  that  these  men  have  not  been — 
have  not.  held  that  office  continuously  from  that  time  on. 

Mr.  Sexton,  the  committee  has  obtained  by  subpena  duces  tecum 
from  The  First  National  Bank  of  Tuscaloosa,  Alabama,  an  account 
of  the  "U.K.A.  Defence  Fund,"  and  on  this  signature  card  is  listed 
the  signature  of  Melvin  Sexton,  care  of  17  Lake  Sherwood,  Northport, 
Alabama. 

I  show  you  this,  Mr.  Sexton,  .and  ask  if  you  are  the  Melvin  Sexton 
listed  on  that  account? 

(Document  handed  to  witness.) 

Mr.  Sexton.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Document  marked  "William  Sexton  Exhibit  No.  1"  follows:) 

William  Sexton  Exhibit  No.  1 


FIRST   NATIONAL   BANK,  TUSKALOOSA,  ALABAMA 

Thf  hank  li  hereby  tuthorlzed  lo  rffcinlie  the  iljnature  ticruifd  hfrewlth   In  payment  of  fundi  or  trtnmnion  of  «ny  oi 

•  !iumei  no   rejpnngllilllly   beyond   the   eierrlio  of   due   cire.    All    Itemi    arc   rredllrd    nuhjec  t    lo    final    payment    In   rnjh   or    i 
yenl  rrcdll.  This  bank  will  not   he  liable  for  defaull   or   nenllgenre  of   In  duly   lelr.  led  rnrreapondenn  nor  for   Inmei    In   tra 
It.  and  each  rorreipondent  in  aelected  ihttl   not  be   liable  except   for   Its  own  ne«ll(ienre.    This   bank   or   Us   rorrr«ponflentB    n 
send  Items,  directly  or  Indirectly,  to  any  binlt  Including  the  payor,   and  accept   Its  draft  or  credit  ai  conditional   payment   In 
lieu  of  cash:  It  may  charge  back  any  liem  ai   any  time  before  final   payment,   whether   returned  or   not.   also  anv   Hem   drawn 
on   this   bank   not   jood   at   close  of   buslneni   on   day   deposited     Serrice   charjei   will    be   made    In   accordance   with   rulei    and 
regulatloni.  effectlTe  ai  of  data  of  thli  deposit 


OR  autiNtit  IT/T 


OCCUrATION   OR   autiNtit 


^^.-^    ^-^;>A....'^.A    ^.C:-7/y.V.Z?'°^-Y<^ 


RItlOINCI    ADORItS 


jtoy/6 


10  CONNICTION      ACCOUNT  ACCIPTtO  BY       ^^  - 


U-K  A  Defence  Fund 


3180  ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX   KLAN    IN   THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Sexton,  what  is  the  address  17  Lake  Sherwood, 
Northport,  Alabama  ? 

Mr.  Sexton.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Can  you  explain  to  the  committee  how  you  are  listed 
at  17  Lake  Sherwood,  Northport,  Alabama,  and  at  the  same  time,  in 
the  document  which  we  just  went  over,  the  application  for  a  foreign 
corporation,  Mr.  W.  O.  Perkins  was  listed  at  that  same  address,  17 
Lake  Sherwood,  Northport,  Alabama  ? 

Mr.  Sexton.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  groimds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Is  that  particular  address  in  the  proximity  of  Mr. 
Kobert  Shelton's  address? 

Mr.  Sexton.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Would  you  please  explain  to  the  committee,  Mr. 
Sexton,  what  the  U.K. A.  Defense  Fund  is? 

Mr.  Sexton.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Were  moneys  used  by  the  U.K.A.  Defense  Fund  in 
any  way  for  the  defense  of  Collie  Leroy  Wilkins,  W.  O.  Eaton,  and 
Eugene  Thomas,  persons  indicted  in  the  murder  of  Mrs.  Viola  Liuzzo  ? 

Mr.  Sexton.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Sexton,  investigation  conducted  by  the  commit- 
tee in  this  regard  has  revealed  that,  in  this  particular  account,  the 
total  deposits  from  the  30th  day  of  August  1965  until  the  10th  day 
of  December  1965,  totaled  $5,164.06.  Could  you  please  explain  to  the 
committee  where  that  money  came  from  ? 

Mr.  Sexton.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Ledger  sheets  marked  "William  Sexton  Exhibit  No.  2"  and  re- 
tained in  committee  files.) 

Mr.  Manuel.  What  has  become  of  that  money,  that  $5,000,  since 
December  of  1965  ? 

Mr.  Sexton.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Sexton,  I  would  like  to  show  you  a  series  of  de- 
posit items  which  were  made  out  either  to  the  name  of  Melvin  Sexton 
or  to  the  name  of  the  U.K.A.  Defense  Fund,  and  ask  if  these  items  were 
deposited  by  you  or  any  other  person  known  by  you  to  be  a  member 
of  the  United  Klans  of  America  in  the  account  of  the  U.K.A.  Defense 
Fund? 

(Documents  handed  to  witness.) 

Mr.  Sexton.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Documents  marked  "William  Sexton  Exhibit  No.  3."  The  checks 
and  money  orders  included  in  this  exhibit  follow;  balance  of  docu- 
ments retained  in  committee  files.) 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3181 

William  Sexton  Exhibit  No.  3 


UNITEO  KLANS  OF  AMERICA 


'        \^    Jl  J         ^      n  "NITEO  KLANS  OF  ■ 


|V1  n  U  UT  D  N .  A  I 


JOLOLtAKS; 


J,    Casftier'g  C!;etk 


i:)qoE.i'"0  3  2  7i: 


Ripley,  Miss.    .M< /^T  O-J^   x^/eA. 

The  Peoples  Bank 

0/7    Je  rt/ice    ynsiilution  ^ 


8S-i<5 


ORDER  of/     .-(^    X-C-x  %h 


a  -- 


:/y'^y  i^-p  ^-j; 


g-f-/;^^  -r^-  ^PiilJjij)^. /..-... 


For 

i:oai,E'>fosi,5i 


3182  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S. 

William  Sexton  Exhibit  No.  3 — Continued 


Pay  TO  TiiL-      /-''  .-'^    ,,     / 

OHDEK  OF     ^  ^-■^-■^"/-^/'^^ 


Ripley,  M \^%..^.-y^.<...^^jLSL^ \^ii6 

The  Peoples  Bank 

^/   Service    JnsiUuiion  .^ 

siLS:!^ 


For '' 


'"ixz"^" 


^^p(f:.jc^.a-..^-..-. 


.-V 


i:oauE"'0  5usi: 


III    The  Sweet'"  yter  State  Bank 


SwKFT Water.  Al.a.  0^  '^^ 


PAYTOTHE  7'/"  7  T-  .,:  !,-<'  ,  /y^  ^' 

ORDER  or    rV/^-.     U^-'.-yyx/         ^/V.'-^     <^r7       U^^i^  ^  ■>  ^.^ 


9'^ 


Q^()_,^>j>^o->  /i^-^  /:t-c^<L^ 


Demopous.  Ala..    //  -^^ 1  9  6_5"      NO.    1^ 

ROBERTSON  BANKING  COMPANY  -^ 


^       ORDER  OP    7/7^/{/ryuJ     _j,^Zi^/Oi^ 


^CC 


For  //  gV^.^^    M<.^...JL^ 


-Dollars 


i:oE,  2 1"'0  lUi: 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    TJ..S.  3183 

William  Sexton  Exhibit  N'o.  3 — Continued 


o 

U.  S.  Postal  Money  Order  |S 


MAXIMUM  V/j 


f-      NflT   VALID    _  -,  ^  ,,^. 
g?:'  fd.M.OR.  THAN    i^li^L 


DOLLARS 


DOLLARS 


PURCHASER-FILL   IN    INFORMATION    BELOW 


if: 


PAY  TO 


Fi^OM 


7^ -/(■:(? 


i*:  8  6130 

DOLL  A  «3  J  CENTS 


5,925,202,580 

.5-..9     WARNING 

ooo  " 

DO  NOT 

CASH  IF 

~~"  ALTERED  ^ 


^  ^<'^^^^'^'-^ 


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INTil 


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I  DO  NOT  fOlD,  STAPH*  SPINDLE  OR  MUTILATE  **tJl^oi\r'*°l- 


O;  .,  ]      /,    /  5,926,112,029 

TL  S.  Postal  Money  Order  rKofel  j^j^:  warning! 
ILARSv 


b  ^XJMUII  VALUE  ONE  HUNDRED  DOU-ARS 

NOT  V  A  L  t, 

ro.t  MOR-  r.^_ 

"PU«CHASCR-FIUL  IVl   tUfCM MATIONJBELO W 


PAVtoF^^£^ 


DO  NOT 
CASH  IF 
ALTERED 


I- 


-^•*APl9J^I/9i?;.^T^JIii&'^fr!,5^^^ 


59-222  O — 67 — pt.  4 19 


3184  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Manuel.  I  put  it  to  you  as  a  fact,  sir,  and  ask  you  to  affirm  or 
deny  the  fact,  that  these  deposits  represent  donations  or  contributions 
from  Klaverns  of  the  United  Klans  of  America. 

Mr.  Sexton.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  tlie  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Further,  that  these  deposits  were  made  for  the  de- 
fense of  Collie  Leroy  Wilkins,  W.  O.  Eaton,  and  Eugene  Thomas  in 
their  trial  recently  in  Alabama. 

Mr.  Sexton.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Sexton,  were  proceeds  from  this  account  used  to 
pay  the  bail  or  to  post  bond  of  the  defendants  in  the  case,  that  is,  Wil- 
kins, Eaton,  and  Thomas  ? 

Mr.  Sexton.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  I  should  like  to  show  you  a  copy  of  a  canceled  check 
made  payable  to  James  Esdale,  in  the  amount  of  $1,000  and  checks, 
numbering  five,  payable  to  James  Esdale  and  Art  Hanes,  in  the  total 
amount  of— one  for  $1,000,  one  for  $2,000,  one  for  $500,  $250,  and  $500, 
and  the  notation  on  the  back  of  the  check  indicates  that  Mr.  Esdale 
has  a  bail  bonding  company,  and  ask  you  if  these  checks  w^ere  written 
for  the  bail  of  Wilkins,  Eaton,  and  Thomas? 

(Documents  handed  to  witness.) 

Mr.  Sexton.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Checks  marked  "William  Sexton  Exhibit  No.  4"  and  retained  in 
committee  files.) 

Mr.  Manuel.  I  should  like  to  state  for  the  record  also,  Mr.  Chair- 
man, that  the  name  signed  on  the  checks  is  that  of  Melvin  Sexton, 

Mr.  Sexton,  are  you  one  of  two  current  authorized  signatures  on  an 
account,  another  account  of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  which  is 
maintained  at  the  Birmingham  Tnist  National  Bank  in  Birmingham, 
Alabama,  the  two  signatures  being  that  of  yourself  and  that  of  Robert 
M.  Creel  ?  (See  James  Whitefield  Exhibit  No.  3-B,  p.  3113.) 

Mr.  Sexton.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Is  that  particular  account  which  is  maintained  at  the 
Birmingliam  Trust  National  Bank  the  account  of  the  Alabama  Realm 
of  the  United  Klans  of  America  ? 

Mr.  Sexton.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Sexton,  I  would  like  to  show  you  a  series  of  four 
checks,  made  payable  to  Robert  M.  or  Bob  Creel,  totaling  $655,  and 
each  one  signed  w-ith  the  name  "Melvin  Sexton." 

I  ask  you  to  examine  these  checks,  and  I  ask  you  for  what  purpose 
were  they  drawn  and  paid  to  Mr.  Creel  ? 
(Documents  handed  to  witness.) 

Mr.  Sexton.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question,  based 
upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Checks  marked  "William  Sexton  Exhibit  No.  5"  and  retained  in 
committee  files.) 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  would  like  to  note  that  these  checks 
w^ere  drawn  from  the  period  of  the  23d  of  January  1965  to  the  10th 
day  of  November  1965. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX   KLAN   IN    THE    U.S. 


3185 


I  show  you  another  check,  Mr.  Sexton,  made  payable  to  "Leroy  Col- 
lie Wilkins,'-  in  the  amount  of  $158.50,  signed  by  Melvin  Sexton,  and 
ask  you  for  what  purpose  this  check  to  "Leroy  Collie  Wilkins"  was 
made  ? 

(Document  handed  to  witness.) 

Mr.  Sexton.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Check  marked  "William  Sexton  Exhibit  No.  6"  follows:) 

William  Sexton  Exhibit  No.  6 


^  .f' 


-^ 


3186  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Manuel.  For  the  record,  Mr.  Chairman,  this  check  was  dated 
April  the  12th,  1965,  and  is  endoi-sed  on  the  reverse  side  by  the  name 
"Leroy  Collie  Wilkins,"  also  endorsed  by  the  name  "Collie  Leroy 
Wilkins." 

Mr.  Sexton,  on  the  8th  day  of  March  1965,  you  issued  a  check  from 
this  account  to  Mr.  E.  L.  McDaniel,  whom  the  committee  has  iden- 
tified as  the  Grand  Dragon  of  the  State  of  Mississippi.  This  check 
was  drawn  in  the  amount  of  $125. 

Would  you  please  examine  the  check  and  advise  the  committee  for 
what  purpose  that  check  was  drawn  ? 

(Document  handed  to  witness.) 

Mr.  Sexton.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

(Check  marked  "William  Sexton  Exhibit  No.  7"  follows:) 

William  Sexton  Exhibit  No.  7 


V 

A 

BlRJ« 

•fll.XGtlAM  ThrST  NaTIOSIAL  RANPf     Ko 

^k. 

-  n<>i.tju,i. 

AKS    •»     AMCKICA 

i:o&20-nnr)Ai:        &>i  i^iasa**           /aaDoo&2&oo/ 

Mr.  Manuel.  Was  this  check  to  Mr.  McDaniel,  Mr.  Sexton,  in  the 
amount  of  $125,  a  contribution  from  the  Realm  of  Alabama  or  any 
Klansmen  in  Alabama  for  the  defense  of  Mississippi  Klansmen  accused 
of  any  violation  of  law? 

Mr.  Sexton.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Do  you  know  Robert  M.  Creel,  whose  signature  ap- 
pears with  yours  on  the  account  of  the  UKA  maintained  at  the  Birm- 
ingham Trust  National  Bank,  to  be  Grand  Dragon  of  the  State  of 
Alabama?    For  the  United  Klans  of  America? 

Mr.  Sexton.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Have  you  as  an  individual  ever  received  any  pay- 
ment or  remuneration  for  your  services  from  the  United  Klans  of 
America  ? 

Mr.  Sexton.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Did  you  sign  your  name  as  secretary  to  the  income 
tax  return  filed  by  the  United  Klans  of  America  for  the  fiscal  year 
1964? 

Mr.  Sexton.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX   KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3187 

Mr.  Manitel.  To  your  knowledge,  Mr.  Sexton,  did  the  income  tax 
return  filed  by  the  United  Klans  for  the  fiscal  year  1964  reflect  truly 
and  accurately  the  amount  of  money  taken  in  and  disbursed  by  that 
organization? 

Mr.  Sextox.  Sir,  I  respectfully  decline  to  answer  that  question, 
based  upon  the  grounds  previously  stated. 

Mr.  Manuel.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  stafi'  has  no  further  questions  of 
this  witness. 

Mr.  Pool.  Any  questions? 

Mr.  Buchanan.  No  questions. 

Mr.  Pool.  The  witness  is  excused. 

The  committee  will  stand  in  recess  for  3  minutes. 

(Whereupon,  a  brief  recess  was  taken.  Subcommittee  members 
present  at  the  time  of  recess  and  when  hearings  resumed :  Representa- 
tives Pool  and  Buchanan.) 

Mr.  Pool.  The  committee  will  come  to  order.    Call  the  next  witness. 

Mr.  Appell.  Ralph  Roton. 

Mr.  Pool.  Do  you  solemnly  swear  the  testimony  you  are  about  to 
give  will  be  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth,  so 
help  you  God  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Yes,  sir. 

TESTIMONY  OF  RALPH  RAY  ROTON 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  you  state  your  full  name  for  the  record,  Mr. 
Roton? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Ralph  Ray  Roton. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Roton,  are  you  appearing  here  today  in  accordance 
with  a  subpena  served  upon  you  on  November  3,  1965,  at  1424  Carol 
Circle,  Fairfield,  Alabama  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Roton,  I  note  that  you  are  not  represented  by 
counsel. 

Mr.  RoTON.  That  is  correct,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Do  you  desire  counsel  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Not  at  this  time,  sir,  but  we  may  have  to  stop  and  get 
one. 

Mr.  Appell.  Do  you  desire  to  have  counsel  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Not  at  this  time,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Have  you  been  advised  of  your  constitutional  rights 
and  that  under  the  Constitution  you  may  at  any  time  invoke  constitu- 
tional privileges,  the  right  against  self-incrimination,  the  fifth  amend- 
ment? 

Mr.  Roton.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Have  you  received  a  copy  of  the  opening  statement  of 
the  chairman  and  are  you  familiar  with  the  contents  of  it? 

Mr.  Roton.  Is  this  the  opening  statement,  sir,  dated  March  30, 1965  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  No,  it  was  October. 

Mr.  Pool.  No,  let  me  see  that. 

This  is  the  one  he  wants  to  see.     Ask  him  if  he  has  seen  that. 

Mr.  Appell.  This  statement  here. 


3188  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S. 

(Document  handed  to  witness.) 

Mr.  RoTON.  No,  sir ;  this  is  the  first  time  I  have  seen  this. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  suggest  tliat  we  stand  in  recess  for  5 
minutes  to  permit  Mr.  Roton  an  opportunity  to  review  that  statement 
and  become  familiar  with  its  contents. 

Mr.  Pool.  All  right. 

The  committee  will  stand  in  recess  for  5  minutes  to  allow  the  wit- 
ness to  examine  the  opening  statement. 

(Whereupon,  a  brief  recess  was  taken.  Subcommittee  members 
present  time  of  recess  and  when  hearings  resumed :  Representatives 
Pool  and  Buchanan.) 

Mr.  Pool.  The  committee  will  be  in  order. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  now,  Mr.  Roton,  familiar  with  the  chairman's 
opening  statement  of  October  1965  ? 

Mr,  RoTON.  I  have  read  it  briefly.    I  haven't  studied  it,  sir. 

Mr.  Pool.  Do  you  care  for  more  time  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Not  at  this  time,  sir. 

Mr.  Pool,  Do  you  understand  what  it  says  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr,  Pool.  And  you  don't  care  for  additional  time  to  study  it? 

Mr.  Roton.  Not  at  this  time. 

Mr,  Pool.  I  am  asking  now,  do  you  care  for  additional  time? 

Mr.  Roton.  No,  sir;  not  at  this  time. 

Mr,  Pool.  All  right. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Roton,  when  and  where  were  you  born? 

Mr.  Roton.  November  10,  1930,  Montgomery,  Alabama. 

Mr.  Appell.  Give  the  committee  a  brief  resume  of  your  educational 
background. 

Mr.  RoTON.  Sir,  I  don't  think  the  educational  background  has  any 
pertinency,  but  I  will  be  more  than  happy  to. 

Mr.  Appell.  Well,  it  is  identifying  information  and  is  perfectly 
proper,  so  if  you  will  please  give  it  to  us,  we  will  appreciate  it. 

Mr.  RoTON.  I  have  a  lOth-grade  education,  sir,  and  I  passed  the 
high  school  equivalent  test,  giving  me  a  high  school  equivalency. 

Mr,  Appell.  When  did  you  complete  your  formal  education  anu 
when  did  you  obtain  your  high  school  equivalent? 

Mr.  Roton.  I  dont'  remember  the  date,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell,  Well,  the  year, 

Mr,  Roton.  In  1958,  to  the  best  of  my  knowledge. 

Mr,  Appell,  And  when  did  you  get  your  high  school  equivalent  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  That  was  in  the  same  year,  sir.  That  was  the  high 
school  equivalent. 

Mr,  Appell.  When  did  you  stop  your  formal  education?  When 
did  you  complete  your  lOth-grade  formal  education? 

Mr.  Roton.  In  1946,  if  I  am  not  mistaken,  sir. 

Mr,  Appell,  1946  ? 

Mr,  Roton,  If  I  am  not  mistaken,  sir, 

Mr,  Appell,  Did  you  perform  service  in  any  of  the  military  estab- 
lishments of  the  United  States  ? 

Mr,  Roton.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  And  what  was  your  branch  of  service  and  what  was 
your  period  of  service  ? 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX   KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3189 

Mr.  RoTON.  December  1945,  until — I  have  the  discharges  here  some- 
where. 

January  '47  to  November  '47,  in  the  United  States  Navy,  April  the 
8th  of  '48  to  February  the  8th  of  '50. 

Mr.  Appell.  That  latter  period  of  service,  also  the  U.S.  Navy? 

Mr.  RoTON.  No,  sir;  that  was  United  States  Army.  And  from  April 
the  8th  of  '50, 1  believe,  until  March  tlie  8th  of  1952,  the  United  States 
Air  Force. 

Mr.  Appell.  Since  1960,  would  you  give  the  committee  a  brief  resume 
of  your  employment  background  ? 

Mr.RoTON.    Since  1960? 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  RoTON.  I  was  employed  by  the  International  Brotherhood  of 
Electrical  Workers  in  1960.  In  early  1961, 1  went  to  work  with  a  large 
corporation,  sir.  If  it  is  pertinent,  I  will  bring  it  out,  but  my  associa- 
tion with  the  United  Klans  of  America  may  have  some  bearing  on  their 
future 

Mr.  Appell.  Well,  you  are  no  longer  associated  with  that  company ; 
are  you  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  Pool.  Well,  let's  let  that  pass  for  the  time  being  as  to  identifying 
the  company.    We  might  ask  it  at  a  later  time. 

Go  ahead. 

Mr.  Appell.  Now  as  an  employee  of  the  IBEW,  you  held  a  card  in 
that  local  and  you  were  employed  by  various  contractors  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  So  that  your  employment  was  not  by  the  IBEW,  but 
by  independent  contractors,  hiring  union  labor  members  of  the  IBEW? 

Mr.  RoTON.  I  was  referred  to  different  contractors  by  the  IBEW; 
that  is  correct,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  And  you  maintained  your  membership  in  the  IBEW 
until  1961  and  received  assignments  from  them  w^hen  you  work  for  an- 
other, a  large  corporation  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  How  long  did  you  remain  employed  by  this  corpora- 
tion? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Approximately  3  years. 

Mr.  Appell.  And  what  was  the  period  of  time  when  your  employ- 
ment with  them  terminated  ? 

Mr.RoTON.  August  of  1963. 

Mr.  Appell.  And  what  was  the  purpose  for  which  the  employment 
was  terminated,  to  seek  other  employment  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Yes,  sir ;  to  go  to  work  for  someone  else. 

Mr.  Appell.  And  who  was  your  next  employer? 

Mr.  RoTON.  I  might  call  that  self-employed,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Could  you  explain  to  the  committee  what  you  mean  by 
self-employed  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Yes,  sir ;  T  resigned  from  the  corporation  to  come  to  the 
Washington  march  to  take  pictures,  make  tape  recordings,  and  iden- 
tifying as  many  known  Communists  as  I  could  for  a  committee  such 


3190  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    IJ.S. 

as  this  in  the  State  of  Alabama,  known  as  the  Commission  To  Preserve 
The  Peace.^ 

Mr.  Appell.  This  was  a  State  legislative  committee? 

Mr.  RoTON,  Yes,  sir. 

May  I  say  this  and  clarify  this?  The  State  of  Alabama  had  no 
recollection  or  had  no  knowledge  that  I  was  a  member  of  the  United 
Klans  of  America. 

Mr.  Buchanan.  Mr.  Appell,  may  I  interject  at  that  point?  I  can 
confirm  from  this  commission  that  Avhat  he  lias  just  said  is  true.  They 
had  no  knowledge  of  any  connection  of  Mr.  Roton  with  the  Klan 
organization  at  this  time,  during  the  entire  period  of  his  employment. 

Mr.  Appei.l.  With  respect  to  the  coverage  that  you  made  of  the 
march  on  Washington,  did  you  do  this  under  instruction,  or  did  you 
do  this  on  your  own? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Under  instruction. 

Mr.  Appell.  Can  you  tell  the  committee  who  specifically  instructed 
you  to  do  this? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Representative  John  H.  Hawkins,  Jr.,  of  Birmingham, 
Alabama. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  an  interview  with  Mr.  Hawkins.  Mr.  Hawkins  ad- 
vised me  that  he  did  not  know  of  your  coverage  of  that  march  until 
after  your  return  and  your  submitting  the  bill  for  expenses  incurred. 

Mr.  RoTON.  Mr.  Hawkins  did  send  me  to  Washington,  sir.  And  it 
was  by  his  request  that  I  did  go  to  Washington. 

Mr.  Appell.  How  did  you  become  employed  by  this  committee? 

Mr.  RoTON.  By  doing  investigation  of  the  racial  trouble  in  Bir- 
mingham and  talking  with  Mr.  Hawkins  in  the  past  and,  also,  pre- 
senting him  with  evidence  of  what  was  going  on,  for  prior  to  this 
time,  the  commission  had  no  fund  in  which  to  pay  anyone  with,  and 
which  he  told  me  specifically  to  go  ahead  and  let's  gather  this  informa- 
tion, and  we  will  present  it  and  form  a  committee  such  as  this  com- 
mittee, the  House  TJn-American  Activities  Committee  in  Washington. 

Also,  to  curb  the  Communist  activities  in  the  State  of  Alabama. 

Mr.  Appell.  Now  you  say  that  you  were  hired  by  them  because  of 
the  investigative  experience  that  you  had  had  in  making  these 
investigations? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Were  these  investigations  conducted  by  you  as  a  mem- 
ber of  the  United  Klans  of  America? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Yes,  sir.    As  an  undercover  member;  yes. 

Mr.  Appell.  As  an  undercover  member? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  And  for  what  organization  were  you  operating  as  an 
undercover? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Different — not  an  organization,  sir.  I  carried  a  press 
card. 

Mr.  Appell.  Wliat  do — you  said  that  you  joined  the  United  Klans 
of  America  and  did  this  as  an  undercover  operative. 

Now  I  ask  you  for  wliom  you  were  working  as  an  undercover 
operative  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Now  what  do  you  mean,  sir  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  Well 


Full  name  "Alabama  Legislative  Commission  To  Preserve  The  Peace." 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3191 

Mr.  RoTON.  Do  you  think  that  I  was  trying  to  subvert  the  State  of 
Alabama,  or 

Mr.  ArPELL.  No,  sir;  I  am  only  asking  for  clarification  of  a  state- 
ment that  you  made. 

Mr.  EoTON.  Well,  sir,  I  was  in  the  United  Klans  of  America  prior 
to  my  employment  with  the  Commission  To  Preserve  The  Peace. 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  sir;  I  understood  that,  and  you  said  that  the  in- 
vestigation that  you  had  conducted,  the  investigations  that  you  had 
conducted  which'  qualified  you  for  employment  with  the  legislative 
committee,  had  been  investigations  which  you  had  conducted  as  a 
member  of  the  United  Klans  of  America. 

Mr.  RoTON.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  And  then  you  said  that  you  had  been  conducting  these 
investigations  in  an  operative  capacity. 

Mr.  RoTON.  Well,  I  will  say  this :  I  was  a  member  of  the  United 
Klans  of  America. 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  sir.     Now  what  I  want  to  know  is 

Mr.  RoTON.  And  under  the  direct  supervision  of  Mr.  Robert  M. 
Shelton,  I  infiltrated  different  groups  . 

Mr.  Appell.  So  that  you  wei-e  an  operative  of  the  United  Klans  of 
America  within  organizations  which  the  United  Klans  of  America  had 
an  interest  in.  You  were  not  operating  within  the  United  Klans  of 
America  for  any  individual. 

IVIr.  RoTON.  I  attended  meetings  very  seldom  in  the  United  Klans 
of  America.  All  of  my  work  was  done  on  the  outside,  investigating 
different  groups. 

Mr.  Appell.  Now  when  did  you  join  the  United  Klans  of  America? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Approximately  7  years,  61/2,  7  years  ago,  sir.  I  don't 
remember  the  name — I  mean  the  date. 

Mr.  Appell.  iVnd  to  what  Klan  were  you  affiliated  at  the  time  you 
joined? 

Mr.  RoTON.  To  the  best  of  my  knowledge,  it  was  the  Alabama  Klan, 
sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  The  Alabama  Klan  was  formed  in  1960,  was  it  not? 
Wasn't  it  prior  thereto 

Mr.  RoTON.  Sir,  I  don't  remember  on  the  exact  date. 

Mr.  Appell.  But  your  best  recollection  is  that  it  was  during  the 
period  of  time  of  the  incorporation  of  the  Alabama  Knights  of  the  Ku 
Klux  Klan  with  Mr.  Robert  M.  Shelton  as  the  Imperial  Wizard? 

Mr.  RoTON.  I  am  now  a  member  of  the  United  Klans  of  America. 
Mr.  Shelton  was  previous  Grand  Dragon  of  the  State  of  Alabama. 
To  the  best  of  my  knowledge,  whatever  Klan  it  was,  I  was  a  member 
then  of  the  U.S.  Klan  or  of  the  Alabama  Klan,  and  I  feel  sure  that  it 
was  the  Alabama  Klan  at  that  time. 

Mr.  Appell.  To  what  Klavern  were  you  affiliated  as  a  member  of 
tlie  United  Klans  of  America  ? 

Mr.  Roton.  Confederate  Lodge  #11  in  Montgomery. 

Mr.  Appell.  Is  that  Confederate  Lodge  #  11  or  Confederate  Den 
No.  11  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Confederate  Den,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  And  at  the  time  you  became  a  member  of  the  United 
Klans  of  America,  did  you  subscribe  to  a  series  of  oaths  which  are 


3192  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

similar  to  a  series  of  oaths  that  I  hand  you  reproduced  in  this  docu- 
ment ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  I  could  not  swear  to  it,  sir  ?  To  the  best  of  my  knowl- 
edge, it  is  similar. 

(Document  previously  marked  "Robert  Shelton  Exhibit  No.  4.") 

Mr.  Appell.  Can  you  explain  to  the  committee  that  portion  of  the 
oath  which  is  under  the  series  on  Klanishness,  which  requires  a  mem- 
ber of  a  Klan  to  swear  that  he  will  keep  secret  to  himself  a  secret  of  a 
Klansman,  when  same  is  committed  to  him  in  the  sacred  bond  of 
Klansmanship,  the  only  exception  being  treason  against  the  United 
States  of  America,  rape,  and  malicious  murder  alone  excepted? 

Mr.  RoTON.  No,  sir;  I  couldn't  explain  it  to  you.  I  don't  know  the 
answer. 

Mr.  Appell.  Was  an  explanation  given  to  you  as  a  member  of  the 
Klan  as  to  what  this  meant  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  If  that  was  in  the  oath,  sir,  7  years  ago,  I  don't  know. 

I  couldn't  give  you  an  honest  answer. 

Mr.  Appell.  Now  who  were  the  officers  of  the  Confederate  Den  No. 

II  at  the  time  you  joined  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  I  don't  remember,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Who  recruited  you  into  the  United  Klans  of  America  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  That,  I  do  not  remember,  either,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  How  long  did  you  maintain  a  membership  in  the  Con- 
federate Den  No.  11  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Oh,  I  guess  approximately  6  years,  5  years,  something 
like  that. 

Mr.  Appell.  Approximately  when  did  you  cease  being  a  member  of 
Confederate  Den  No.  11  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  To  the  best  of  my  knowledge,  sir,  Confederate  Den  No. 
11  is  not  in  operation  at  this  time. 

Mr.  Appell.  When  did  you  cease  being  a  member  of  Confederate 
Den  No.  11  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  I  guess  when  it  closed,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Well,  w^hen  did  it  close  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  I  don't  remember,  sir.  I  have  been  in  and  out  of  Mont- 
gomery and  I  do  not  know. 

Mr.  Appell.  Well,  who  were  the  officers  of  the  Confederate  Den  No. 
11,  the  most  recent  date  that  you  can  remember  as  to  the  operation  of 
thoDen? 

Mr.  RoTON.  I  don't  remember,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  You  don't  remember. 

Mr.  RoTON.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  Pool.  Do  you  remember  any  members  of  the  Den,  Confederate 
Den? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Not  to  give  an  honest  answer,  sir,  I  could  not  swear. 

Mr.  Pool.  You  don't  recall  anybody  that  belonged  to  this  Confed- 
erate Den  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Not  to  my  knowledge,  sir ;  no,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Can  you  explain  how  you  held  membership  in  it  for 
so  many  years  and  not  know  the  identity  of  a  single  member  of  that 
Den? 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  3193 

Mr.  RoTON.  I  just  don't  remember,  sir,  and  to  identify  a  person  or  to 
call  a  name  as  being  a  member  may  not  do  justice  to  him.  There  is  no 
certain  way  you  can  identify  a  member,  and  my  work  was  done  on  the 
outside  of  the  Dens  and  the  Klaverns,  and  I  told  this  committee  that 
I  have,  seldom  have  attended  meetings. 

Mr.  Pool.  Well,  that  may  be  right,  and  you  may  be  correct  in  saying 
what  you  did.  I  just  want  to  caution  you,  though,  that  if  you  say  you 
don't  remember  and  other  testimony  proves  that  you  do  remember  or 
that  you  do  have  an  acquaintanceship,  then  you  would  be  in  serious 
trouble. 

Mr.  RoTON.  Well,  Mr.  Chairman,  may  I  say  this,  in  all  respect 

Mr.  Pool.  I  am  telling  you  that  for  your  own  benefit.  You  prob- 
ably are  telling  me  the  truth,  or  tilling  the  committee  the  truth,  but  I 
am  trying  to  explain  to  you  that  just  saying  you  don't  remember  is 
not  an  excuse  for  somebody  that  proves  that  you  do  have  acquaintance- 
ships there,  and  you  should  remember. 

That's  all  I  am  trying  to  tell  you. 

Mr.  RoTON.  Well,  sir,  I  know  many  different  people  by  name,  but 
to  say  that  they  are  members  of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  it  would 
be  an  impossibility  for  me  to  tell  this  committee  the  truth. 

Mr.  Pool.  Well,  can  you  name  some  members  or  can  you  name  some 
people  who  attended  meetings  with  you,  then  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  And  to  identify  them  as  Klansmen  ? 

Mr.  Pool.  No,  I  said  to  identify  people  who  attended  meetings  with 
you. 

I  am  not  asking  you  to  state  that  they  were  Klansmen,  because,  in 
fact,  you  may  not  know  for  sure  that  they  are,  but  can  you  name  the 
names  of  people  who  attended  meetings  with  you  of  the  Klan? 

Mr.  RoTON.  I  can  name  Robert.  Creel,  Robert  Shelton,  Robert 
Thomas,  and  to  go  beyond  that,  to  be  beyond  a  reasonable  doubt  and 
a  moral  certainty,  sir,  I  could  not. 

Mr.  Pool.  All  right,  go  ahead,  Mr.  Appell. 

Mr.  Appell.  May  I  ask  you,  Mr.  Roton,  you  said  that  you  had  on 
instructions  of  Imperial  Wizard  Shelton  infiltrated  certain  organiza- 
tions for  the  purpose  of  identifying  Communists. 

Mr.  RoTON.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Were  you  ever  a  member  of  the  Communist  Party  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  I  have  been  associated  with  the  Communists,  many 
known  Communists ;  yes,  sir.  But  I  have  never  been  a  member  of  a 
Commimist  Party.  Very  detrimental  (sic)  to  the  Communist  Party, 
because  it  is  atheistic  and  against  this  form  of  government. 

Mr.  Appell.  How  do  you  identify  Communists,  not  being  a  member, 
and  not  being  able  to  identify  Klansmen  when  you  were  a  member? 

Mr.  RoTON.  That  could  be  answered  in  many  diflferent  ways,  sir. 
Communists  don't  carry  cards,  neither  do  Klansmen,  that  I  know  of. 

Mr.  Appell.  How  do  you  identify  them  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  By  their  actions,  I  guess,  by  their  self-admissions  of  it. 

Mr.  Appell.  But  you  attended  meetings  with  Klasmen,  in  closed 
meetings  of  Klansmen,  and  known  Klansmen  were  present. 

Now  I  want  to  know  the  identity  of  these  Klansmen  that  you  at- 
tended meetings  with,  closed  meetings,  only  people  that  are  Klansmen. 

Mr.  RoTON.  Sir,  it  would  be  an  impossibility  for  me  to  tell  you  the 
truth  as  to  identify  a  man  as  being  a  Klansman. 


3194  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appeul.  For  what  reason  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  For  no  reason.  I  do  not  know  beyond  a  reasonable 
doubt  and  a  moral  certainty,  and  to  tell  you  that  a  man  was  a  Klans- 
man  wouldn't  be  doing  justice  to  him,  myself,  or  this  committee. 

Mr.  Appell.  Well,  we  don't  want  testimony  other  than  what  you 
know,  but  you  attended  closed  Klavern  meetings;  did  you  not? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  At  which  the  only  people  present  were  Klansmen. 

Mr.  RoTON.  Not  to  my  knowledge. 

Mr.  Appell.  Well,  now,  let's  take  the  organization  of  a  Klavern. 
Who  is  eligible  for  admission  into  a  Klavern  under  the  rules  and  pro- 
cedures of  the  United  Klans  of  America  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Being  familiar  with  Klankraft,  veiy  vaguely,  and  what 
the  Klans  stand  for,  I  can  tell  you  that.  That's  what  I  know  about  it, 
sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  am  asking  you  about  the  operation  of  a  Klavern,  sir. 
People  coming  into  a  Klavern  meeting.  I  want  to  know  whether  or 
not  people  who  are  non-Klansmen  are  permitted  into  a  Klavern 
meeting. 

Mr.  RoTON.  There  is  a  possibility  that  they  could  be. 

Mr.  Appell.  Well,  will  you  explain  to  the  committee  the  possibil- 
ities under  which  this  might  happen  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Well,  it  has  been  stated  many  times  by  the  press  over 
here  that  the  FBI  has  the  Klan  so  infiltrated  you  couldn't — I  mean 
you  can  go  in  and  out  at  your  own  discretion. 

Mr.  Appell.  Are  you  talking  about  ideological  Klansmen? 

I  am  talking  about  people  who  hold  a  membership  card  in  the  United 
Klans  of  America. 

Mr.  RoTON.  Well,  to  identify  a  person  as  being  a  card-carrying 
member  of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  sir,  I  couldn't  do  it.  I  have 
associated  with  people  all  over  the  State  of  Alabama  and  all  over  the 
United  States,  but  I  can't  tell  you  beyond  a  reasonable  doubt,  imless 
a  Klansman  identifies  himself  to  me  personally,  sir,  I  can't. 

Mr.  Appell.  How  were  you  known  within  Den  No.  11  as  a  member? 

Mr.  RoTON.  By  Ralph  Roton,  I  assume. 

Mr.  Appell.  Was  membership  within  your  Klavern  kept  by  name, 
or  was  it  kept  by  number  ? 

Mr.  Roton.  It  was  kept  by  number,  to  the  best  of  my  knowledge, 
sir. 

Mr,  Appell.  What  was  your  nmnber  within  the  Klavern  ? 

Mr.  Roton,  1638, 1  believe, 

Mr,  Appell,  1638. 

Mr.  Roton.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  In  the  operation  of  the  Klan,  was  the  fact  that  you 
were  a  Klansman  and  assigned  to  Confederate  Den  No.  11,  or  the  fact 
that  any  other  member  was  a  member  of  a  Klan,  reported  to  a  higher 
authority  as  far  as  identification  of  a  member  is  concerned  ? 

Mr.  Roton.  To  my  knowledge,  no,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Could  anyone  get  into  a  Klavern  meeting  without  pass- 
ing the  security  personnel  of  that  Klavern  in  order  to  attend  the 
meeting  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Sir,  I  have  done  it. 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  3195 

Mr.  Appell.  You  have  done  what,  sir  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  I  have  come  into  a  meeting  without  passing  the  security. 

Mr.  Appell.  How?  Will  you  explain  that?  You  were  a  member, 
and  are  a  member. 

Mr.  RoTON.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  How  do  you  violate  security  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Just  being  known,  I  guess,  by  other  people. 

Mr.  Pool.  Here  referring  to  your  Klavem,  or  just  any  Klavem? 
Have  you  been  to  other  Klaverns  and  got  in  without  identifying 
yourself  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Not  to  my  knowledge ;  no,  sir. 

Mr.  Pool.  Your  own  Klavern  is  the  only  one  that  you  have  been  to 
without  identifying  yourself? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Pool.  They  all  knew  who  you  were  and  you  didn't  have  to 
identify  yourself.    Is  that  right  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Yes;  it  was  a  small  group. 

Mr.  Appell.  Now,  Mr.  Roton,  when  did  you  receive  a  commission 
or  appointment  from  the  Imperial  AYizard  so  that  you  conducted 
assignments  under  his  direction  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  In  early  1961,  I  talked  to  Mr.  Shelton  and  I  told  him 
in  the  capacity  that  I  was  serving  with,  in  a  separate  capacity,  that 
I  had  the  opportunity  to  possibly  go  in  and  infiltrate  other  groups, 
and  it  might  be  interesting  to  find  out  what  some  things  are  going 
on  in  these  other  groups,  and  bring  back  the  knowledge  to  the  United 
Klans  of  America.  I  was  told  by  Mr.  Shelton  to  keep  him  posted. 
I  have  been  operating  in  that  capacity  ever  since,  since  1961. 

Mr.  Appell.  Now  you  mean  to  tell  the  committee  that  your  em- 
ployment with  the  Jim  Walter  Corporation  was  such  that  you  had 
time  to  be  on  their  payroll  and  carry  out  investigative  activities  in 
behalf  of  the  United  Klans  of  America  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  I  didn't  work  for  Jim  Walter  Corporation  24  hours  a 
day,  sir.  I  did  this  on  my  own  time,  and  since  that  is  out,  I  guess  it 
is  all  right  to  refer  to  them  as  such. 

Mr.  Appell.  Where  was  your  employment  with  the  Jim  Walter 
Corporation? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Troy,  Alabama ;  Florence,  Alabama. 

Mr.  Appell.  Well,  let's  stick  in  the  year  1961. 

Mr.  RoTON.  In  Troy,  Alabama. 

Mr.  Appell.  And  what  was  the  nature  of  assignments  which  you 
received  from  Mr.  Robert  Shelton  in  1961  and  when  did  this  start  in 
1961? 

Mr.  RoTON.  It  was  in  the  latter  part  of  1961,  sir.  Let  me  correct 
myself.  I  transferred  twice.  When  I  moved  from  Montgomery  to 
Troy,  and  I  was  transferred  by  the  Jim  Walter  Corporation  to 
Florence,  Aalabama,  for  a  period  of  3  months,  and  then  I  was  trans- 
ferred back  into  Binningham  office,  in  the  regional  office,  and  it  was 
in  the  latter  part  of  1961,  I  believe,  that  I  had  that  conversation  with 
Mr.  Shelton. 

Mr.  Appell.  Now  will  you  tell  the  committee  the  details  of  this 
conversation  that  you  had  with  Mr.  Shelton?  You  have  told  us  what 
you  have  said  to  him.  Now  I  would  like  to  know  what  his  part  of  the 
conversation  was. 


3196  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S. 

Mr.  RoTON.  His  answer  was,  "Go  ahead  and  keep  me  informed." 

Mr.  Appell.  Was  there  a  discussion  as  to  the  type  of  organizations 
that  you  were  going  to  infiltrate  and  the  type  of  knowledge  you  hoped 
to  learn  for  the  United  Klans  of  America  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Yes,  sir ;  the  Southern  Conference  on  Human  Welfare — 
Southern  Christian  Leadership  Conference,  CORE,  and  a  few  other 
organizations  I  do  not  remember  the  names  of. 

Mr.  Appell.  Now  which  of  these  organizations  did  you,  in  fact, 
infiltrate  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Both  and  all. 

Mr.  Appell.  Well,  please  name  them.  A,  B,  C,  D. 

Mr.  RoTON.  Southern  Christian  Leadership  Conference,  I  have  been 
associated  with  them,  in  and  out  of  their  meetings,  for  the  past — since 
1961. 

Mr.  Appell.  Will  you  explain  the  association  with  them  in  and  out 
of  their  meetings  ?     Were  you  a  member  of  the  organization  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Making  tape  recordings  and  taking  pictures  of  indi- 
viduals and  known  people  that  come  in  and  try  to  cause  racial  and 
civil  disturbance. 

Mr.  Appell.  Were  you  a  member  of  the  organization  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  I  paid  dues,  donations  on  different  occasions. 

Mr,  Appell.  Were  you  a  member  of  the  organization  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  To  say  I  am  a  member,  I  don't  know  whether  I  could 
say  or  not,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  file  an  application  for  membership?  Did 
you  pay  yearly  dues?     Did  you  meet  the  requirements  of  a  member? 

Mr.  RoTON.  No,  sir.  I  didn't,  I  filled  out  an  application  at  one 
time,  in  August  of  1965,  the  Birmingham  convention  of  the  Southern 
Conference,  Southern  Christian  Leadership, 

Mr.  Appell.  This  was  the  convention  that  they  had  there,  where 
you  entered  with  press  credentials  and  took  photographs  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell,  Whose  press  credentials  did  you  use  ? 

Mr,  RoTON,  Sir,  do  I  have  to  bring  this  out  ? 

Mr,  Appell,  Yes,  sir.     You  certainly  do,  sir. 

Mr.  RoTON.  Is  it  pertinent  to  this  investigation  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  It  sure  is,  sir.  You  were  operating  for  the  United 
Klans  of  America.     It  is  pertinent. 

I  am  waiting  for  an  answer,  sir, 

Mr,  RoTON,  I  mean  could  any  legislation  be  pending  on  that  one  par- 
ticular answer,  Mr,  Chairman  ? 

Mr,  Appell.  It  might  well  be. 

Mr,  RoTON,  Well,  sir,  it  is — there  is  a  lot  of  people,  innocent  peo- 
ple, and  I  will  say  this:  The  United  Klans  of  America  is  not  all  what 
it  has  been  portrayed  to  be.  I  have  been  associated  with  many,  many 
people,  and  to  bring  innocent  names  in  front  of  the  press,  and  being 
recorded  here,  and  will  be  in  a  printed  form  for  people  to  read,  I  just 
don't  think  it  is  to  the  best  interest, 

Mr.  Appell.  We  wnsh  to  determine  w^hether  or  not  these  organiza- 
tions that  you  infiltrated  or  the  press  media  that  you  obtained  press 
credentials  from  and  whose  name  was  used,  not  as  a  member  of  the 
press,  but  as  an  agent  of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  to  infiltrate 


ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  3197 

other  organizations — these  people  who  are  innocent  might  well  also 
not  possess  knowledge  that  you,  at  the  time,  were  working  for  the 
United  Klans  of  America. 

Mr.  RoTON.  And  it  could  be,  sir,  but  to  clarify  that  statement,  to 
the  best  of  my  knowledge  Birmingham  Independent,  in  Birmingham, 
had  no  knowledge  that  I  was  a  member  of  the  United  Klans  of 
America. 

Mr.  Appell.  How  did  you  obtain 

Mr.  RoTON.  To  the  best 

Mr.  Appell.  How  did  you  obtain  the  press  credentials  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Through  the  editor, 

Mr.  Appell.  Through  the  editor? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Were  you  volunteering  services  for  him  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  I  did,  I  do  some  free-lance  photography  work,  sir,  and 
I  have  sold  pictures  to  many  different  people. 

Mr.  Appell.  Now 

Mr.  Pool.  If  he  had  known  that  you  were  working  as  a  member 
of  the  United  Klans  of  America,  would  he  have  given  you  this  press 
pass  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  I  couldn't  answer  that  question,  sir.    I  do  not  Imow. 

Mr.  Pool.  But  you  didn't  tell  him  that  you  were  working  for  the 
United  Klans  or  were  a  member  of  the  United  Klans  of  America? 

Mr.  RoTON.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Why  did  you  withhold  this  information  from  him? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Well,  being  associated  with  the  United  Klans  of  Amer- 
ica, I  have  always  worked  under  cover,  and  to  be  exposed  and  sitting 
in  with  the  groups  of  Southern  Christian  Leadership  Conference 
and  CORE  and  the  different  people  like  that,  it  would  jeopardize 
me  to  a  certain  extent,  and  which  I  have  been  called  and  threatened, 
and  by  people  that  I  do  not  know  who  they  are,  but  they  call  me  and 
have  called  me  regularly. 

Mr.  Appell.  Let's  return  to  your  employment  with  the  legislative 
committee. 

Mr.  Pool.  Just  a  moment.  He  said  the  editor,  didn't  he,  of  the 
Birmingham  paper? 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  sir. 

Give  the  committee  the  full  details  and  knowledge  of  how  you  be- 
came employed  by  them. 

Mr.  RoTON.  Mr.  Chairman,  that  again  is  guilt  by  association,  and 
the  members  of  this  press  here  are  sitting  here,  and  I  have  worked 
with  them;  I  see  a  couple  I  have  worked  with  down  there  in  Selma. 
They  know  the  situation  and  what  is  going  on  here  between  the  United 
Klans  of  America,  the  names  listed  in  your  report,  and  the  Southern 
Christian  leadership  Conference  of  Black  Muslims,  in  which  I  have 
been  associated  with  them  and  all,  and  so  have  they,  and  guilt  by 
association  will  injure  some  people. 

1  have  been  associated  with  some  very  influential  people  in  this 
country  and  I  just  do  not  think  it  is  pertinent  and  I  will  ask  your 
permission  to  give  me  permission  not  to  answer  that.    Because  if  I 

start  calling  names,  there  is  a  lot  of  people  going 

Mr.  Pool.  Repeat  the  question. 


3198  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  asked  the  witness  to  give  us  the  details  of  how  he 
became  associated  wnth  the  commission. 

Mr.  RoTON.  You  are  speaking  about  my  association  with  the  United 
Klans  of  America? 

Mr.  Appell.  No,  sir;  I  am  talking  about  the  legislative  committee 
for  which  you  were  an  emplovee. 

Mr.  RoTON.  I  worked  with  the  United  Klans  of  America  as  an 
undercover  investigator,  appointed  by,  directed  by  Mr.  Robert  M. 
Shelton. 

Mr.  Appell.  Well,  were  you  directed  to  infiltrate  the  legislative  com- 
mittee ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  No,  sir,  I  was  not. 

Mr.  Appell.  Well,  then,  explain  to  the  committee  how  you  became 
affiliated  with  it. 

Mr,  RoTON.  The  times  and  the  experiences  that  I  have  used,  of 
using  camera  and  recorder,  and 

Mr.  Appell.  I  want  to  know  the  details  of  how  you  became  em- 
ployed. 

Mr.  Pool.  Whom  did  you  approach  about  a  job  with  the  legislative 
committee? 

Mr.  RoTON.  I  had  talked  on  several  different  occasions  with  Mr. 
John  Hawkins,  and 

Mr.  Pool.  What  is  his  position  in  the  committee  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  He  is  chairman  of  the  committee,  sir. 

Mr.  Pool.  Chairman  of  the  committee. 

Mr.  RoTON.  And  I  have  information  that  I  passed  on  to  Mr. 
Hawkins  and  which  was  very  pertinent  to  some  of  his  reports,  I 
undertand. 

Mr.  Pool.  Now  when  and  where  and  why  did  he  have  you  investi- 
gating for  the  committee  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  In  early,  if  I  am  not  mistaken,  and  to  the  best  of 
my  knowledge,  sir,  in  early  August  we  discussed  employment  with  the 
committee,  as  they  needed  an  investigator,  according  to  the  terms 
and  conditions  of  the  legislation  that  was  passed  by  the  State  of 
Alabama,  allowed  them  to  hire  outside  investigators. 

Mr.  Appell.  Who  sent  you  to  Mr.  Hawkins  for  employment? 
Who  recommended  you  to  him  for  employment  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Mr.  Chairman,  do  I  have  to  answer  that  question  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  ask  that  the  witness  be  directed  to 
answer  the  question. 

Mr.  Pool.  State  the  question  again. 

Mr.  Appell.  I  asked  him  who  recommended  him  for  employment 
with  the  commission. 

Mr.  Pool.  I  think  I  will  restate  it.  Did  anyone  recommend  you, 
recommend  to  you  to  go  to  Mr.  Hawkins  and  ask  for  a  job  with 
the  commission  ?    Yes  or  no. 

That  is  a  fair  question,  isn't  it,  as  restated,  to  make  it  easy  for 
you? 

Mr.  RoTON.  But  back  to  the  same  thing  I  said,  Mr.  Cliairman,  would 
it  be  fair  to  implicate  people  that  might  hold  a  high  position  ?  Would 
it  be  fair? 

Mr.  Pool.  I  think  this  committee  has  a  right  to  know  the  circum- 
stances surrounding  your  activities,  so  I 


ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S.  3199 

Mr.  Buchanan.  Mr.  Chairman. 

Mr.  Pool.  Go  ahead. 

Mr.  Buchanan.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  would  request  that  the  chairman 
of  this  committee,  Mr,  Hawkins — and  may  I  tighten  up  my  previous 
statement,  to  the  best  of  my  knowledge  and  belief,  the  testimony  of  the 
witness  is  correct  in  saying  that  the  legislative  committee  in  hiring 
liim  had  no  knowledge  of  his  affiliation,  past  or  present,  with  any 
Klan  organization.  And  this  is  my  belief,  based  upon  the  testi- 
mony of  Representative  John  Hawkins  which  I  have  on  this  ques- 
tion. 

Now  I  would  request  of  the  Chair  that  Mr.  Hawkins  be  permitted  to 
answer  it  in  writing,  or  some  way,  since  a  committee  of  the  State  of 
Alabama  Legislature  is  being  questioned.  May  I  say  there  were  two 
Republicans  in  that  legislature. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  ask  that  the  witness  be  directed  to 
answer  the  question  as  to  who  recommended  him  for  employment  with 
the  committee. 

Mr.  Pool.  I  want  to  tell  the  witness  this,  that  I  don't  know  whether 
this  is  going  to  hurt  anybody  or  not,  but  it  is  pertinent  to  the  inquiry, 
and  there  is  no  other  way  to  do  it  except  for  you  to  go  ahead  and  make 
answer  to  his  question.  It  is  very  pertinent  to  this  inquiry,  so  I  direct 
you  and  order  you  to  answer  the  question. 

Mr.  RoTON.  Sir,  could  we  call  a  5-minute  recess  and  let  me  make  a 
telephone  call  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  request  that  the  witness  be  directed 
to  answer  the  question. 

Mr.  Buchanan.  Mr.  Chairman 

Mr.  Pool.  Just  a  minute.  I  think  that,  in  view  of  the  fact  that  he 
does  not  have  a  lawyer  here,  I  am  going  to  grant  you  the  5-minute 
recess  to  make  a  telephone  call.  Talk  to  your  lawyer,  or  whoever  you 
want  to.  That  is  the  reason  we  are  giving  you  the  5-minute  recess,  if 
you  would  prefer  legal  counsel. 

Mr.  Roton.  All  right,  sir, 

Mr.  Pool.  There  will  be  a  5-minute  recess. 

("Whereupon  a  brief  recess  was  taken.  Subcommittee  members  pres- 
ent at  time  of  recess  and  when  hearings  resumed :  Representatives  Pool 
and  Buchanan.) 

Mr.  Pool.  The  committee  will  come  to  order. 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Roton,  what  position  did  you  hold  within  the 
United  Klans  at  the  time  you  were  recommended  for  employment  by 
the  legislative  committee  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  None  that  I  remember,  sir.  I  have  held  the  position  as 
public  relations  director,  and  that's  an  appointed  position.  That's  of 
the  State  of  Alabama. 

Mr.  Appell.  What  position  were  you  holding  at  the  time  you  were 
receiving  assignments  from  Mr.  Shelton  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  There  was  no  official  title  to  it.   The 

Mr.  Appell.  Were  you  part  of  the  KBI? 

Mr.  Roton.  I  guess  you  might  say  I  was  an  investigator ;  yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  You  were  an  investigator  for  the  KBI?  Were  you 
part  of  the  klokann  committee  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  No,  sir ;  I  never  have  been. 


59-222  O— 67— pt.  4- 


3200  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN   THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Appell.  Now  at  the  time  that  you  were  recommended  for  ap- 
pointment to  the  legislative  committee,  had  you  at  that  time  received 
the  appomtment  of  public  relations  director  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  No,  sir ;  I  hadn't. 

Mr.  Appell.  You  hadn't.  All  right,  now,  sir,  who  recommended 
you  to  the  legislative  committee  for  employment? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Gentlemen,  if  I  go  in  and  keep  this  in  context,  I  cer- 
tainly would  appreciate  it.  I  talked  with  Governor  Wallace — he  had 
no  idea  that  I  was  ever  associated  with  the  United  Klans  of  America, 
to  my  knowledge — and  told  him  that  I  did  investigative  work;  for 
whom,  I  did  not  say,  and  I  understood  that  there  would  be  a  position 
open  with  this  committee  and  I  would  appreciate  anything  he  could 
,  do  to  help  me.  Now,  whether  Governor  Wallace  did  or  not,  I  do  not 
know.    I  only  worked  for  the  committee,  as  you  know,  a  short  time. 

Mr.  Appell.  How  were  you  thereafter  notified  that  you  received 
an  employment  by  the  committee  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Would  you  restate  that  question,  sir  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  I  say,  How  were  you  notified  that  you  were  to  be  ap- 
pointed as  an  employee  of  the  committee  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  As  under  the  direction  of  ]Mr.  Hawkins,  I  went  ahead. 
The  funds  were  not  approved  for  the  committee  as  yet,  and  they 
wouldn't  have  been  until,  I  think,  November  15th  of  1963,  if  I  am  not 
mistaken.  I  went  ahead  at  my  own  expense  and  did  this  work  for 
Mr.  Hawkins  and  the  committee  and  turned  the  evidence  over  to  him, 
and  I  received  two  checks  from  the  State  of  Alabama.  One  in  De- 
cember, if  I  am  not  mistaken,  and  one  in  January  of  1964,  I  believe. 

Mr.  Appell.  Who  suggested  that  you  make  contact  with  Governor 
Wallace  and  seek  employment  with  this  commission  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  No  one,  to  my  knowledge,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  No  one  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  It  was  my  own  idea. 

Mr.  Pool.  Did  Governor  Wallace  know  that  you  were  working  for 
the  committee  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  That,  I  don't  know.  I  didn't  talk  to  Governor  Wal- 
lace any  more. 

Mr.  Pool.  That  is  the  only  time  you  talked  to  him  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Well,  I  have  talked  to  my  Governor,  yes,  and  there  is 
many  people  that  talk  to  him. 

Mr.  Pool.  About  what  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Sir,  that  has  no  legislative  purpose. 

Mr.  Pool.  What  is  that  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  About  what  I  talked  to  Governor  Wallace  about.  On 
that  specific  occasion,  I  talked  to  him  and,  as  I  have  stated  here  before, 
that  he  had  no  knowledge  of  my  being  associated  with  the 

Mr.  Pool.  Did  Governor  Wallace  talk  to  you  about  your  investiga- 
tive work  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Yes,  sir ;  we  talked  that  one  time. 

Mr.  Pool.  Would  you  care  to  relate  the  circumstances  of  the  things 
he  told  you,  or  the  things  you  told  him,  and  tell  the  committee  what 
happened  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  It  was  just  a  brief  conversation,  and  I  stated  that  ear- 
lier, sir,  that 


ACTIVITIES    OF   KU    KLUX    KLAN   IN   THE    U.S.  3201 

Mr.  Pool.  After  you  went  to  work  for  the  committee,  you  talked 
to  Governor  Wallace? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Yes,  sir;  I  have  talked  to  him. 

Mr.  Pool.  Wliat  did  you  talk  about  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  To  the  best  of  my  knowledge,  I  don't  think  I  saw  the 
Governor  for  4  or  5  or  6  months. 

Mr.  Pool.  Did  you  tell  him  about  the  results  of  your  investigation  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Yes,  sir.    I  had  knowledge  of  that. 

Mr.  Pool.  Did  he  have  any  suggestions? 

Mr.  RoTON.  I  don't  remember,  sir. 

Mr.  Pool.  Well,  what  did  the  Governor  say  to  you  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  On  what  time?    At  what  time,  sir? 

Mr.  Pool.  Well,  you  said  that  you  talked  to  the  Governor  several 
times.    What  was  the  conversation  about? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Well,  sir,  I  don't  think  you  could — a  constituent 

Mr.  Pool.  Well,  I  asked  you  a  while  ago  if  he  talked  to  you  about 
the  investigation,  and  you  said  he  did.  Now  I  am  asking  what  did 
he  say  in  regard  to  the  investigation. 

Mr.  RoTON.  Well,  it  was  just  a  brief  convei^ation.  To  the  best  of 
my  knowledge,  I  didn't  give  him  any  lengthy  reports  or  anything  like 
that. 

Mr.  Pool.  Did  he  tell  you  how  to  go  about  investigating  or  what  to 
look  into,  or  an}i:hing  like  that? 

Mr.  RoTON.  No,  sir;  made  no  suggestions  at  all. 

Mr.  Pool.  Go  ahead. 

Mr.  Buchanan.  Perhaps  you  can  tell  the  committee  the  kind  of 
investigation  you  conducted  for  the  State  committee  as  disassociated 
with  whatever  you  were  doing  unknown  to  them  for  the  Klan.  Sim- 
ply what  was  this  investigation  you  did  for  them  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  For  the  committee? 

Mr.  Buchanan.  Yes. 

Mr.  RoTON.  For  the  committee  was  checking  on  the  different  civil 
rights  groups  in  the  Birmingham  area  during  the  1963  demonstrations, 
make  tape  recordings  and  photographs  of  it,  and  turning  them  over  to 
the  committee. 

Mr.  Appell.  What  year  did  you  say,  1964  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  1963,  sir. 

Mr.  Pool.  Did  Robert  Shelton  ever  talk  to  Governor  Wallace  about 
you  working  for  this  committee? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Not  to  my  knowledge,  sir. 

Mr.  Pool.  Did  any  other  of  the  officials  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan  talk 
to  Governor  Wallace  in  regard  to  your  working  for  this  committee? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Not  to  my  knowledge,  sir. 

Mr.  Pool.  Did  you  ask  any  of  the  Klan  officials  to  talk  to  Governor 
Wallace? 

Mr.  RoTON.  No,  sir,  not  to  the  best  of  my  recollection,  I  never  have. 

Mr.  Pool.  Did  you  ask  any  of  the  officials  of  the  Ku  Klux  Klan 
to  talk  to  any  of  the  committee  members  about  hiring  you? 

Mr.  RoTON.  To  the  best  of  my  knowledge,  I  don't  remember. 

Mr.  Pool.  Go  ahead,  Mr.  Appell. 

Mr.  Appell.  Now  what  specifically  did  you  do  in  1963  for  the 
committee  ? 


3202  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  EoTON.  Made  tape  recordings  and  took  pictures  of  the  demon- 
strations. 

Mr.  Appell.  Well,  let's  be  a  little  specific.  As  to  pictures  that  you 
took:  where,  what  affair  was  going  on,  and  what  did  you  do?  Not 
just  generalities.     Tell  me  specifically. 

Mr.  RoTON.  I  attended  the  demonstrations  and  made  pictures  of 
the  marchers,  individuals  in  the  marches,  and  I  identified  them  when 
we  could,  and 

Mr.  Appell.  What  type  of  identification  ? 

Mr.  EoTON.  By  naming  the  person  and  finding  out  what  he  is 
from. 

Mr.  Appell.  What  else  did  you  do  for  the  committee  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  What  do  you  mean,  sir  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  What  other  investigative  work  did  you  do  for  the 
committee?     What  other  functions  did  you  perform  for  them? 

Mr.  RoTON.  That's  just  about  it,  sir. 

Mr.  Pool.  Mr.  Appell. 

Mr.  Appell.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Pool.  The  committee  will  stand  in  recess  until  two  o'clock. 

( Subcommittee  members  present  at  time  of  recess :  Representatives 
Pool  and  Buchanan.) 

(Whereupon,  at  1  p.m.,  Tuesday,  February  8, 1966,  the  subcommittee 
recessed,  to  reconvene  at  2  p.m.  the  same  day. ) 

AFTERNOON  SESSION— TUESDAY,  FEBRUARY  8,  1966 

(The  subcommittee  reconvened  at  2 :15  p.m.,  Hon.  Joe  R.  Pool,  chair- 
man of  the  subcommittee,  presiding.) 

( Subcommittee  members  present :  Representatives  Pool  and  Buchan- 
an.) 

Mr.  Pool.  The  committee  will  come  to  order. 

The  Chair  recognizes  Mr.  Buchanan. 

Mr.  Buchanan.  Mr.  Chairman,  during  the  luncheon  recess  I  talked 
to  State  Representative  John  Hawkins  from  Birmingham,  and  he  is 
chairman  of  the  Alabama  Legislative  Commission  To  Preserve  The 
Peace. 

I  myself  was  confused  on  this  point.  This  is  a  commission  of  the 
legislature  and  this  is  the  outfit  by  which  this  witness  was  briefly 
employed  when  the  commission  was  formed,  and  it  is  the  only  one 
there  is.  I  thought  there  was  a  legislative  committee  and  a  commis- 
sion which  was  separate,  but  it  is  all  the  Alabama  Legislative  Com- 
mission To  Preserve  The  Peace,  which  is  a  legislative  conmiission 
chaired  by  Representative  John  Hawkins  of  Birmingham. 

When  the  commission  was  formed,  they  needed  a  good  photographer. 
Mr.  Roton  was  recommended  to  Mr.  Hawkins  by  friends  in  Mont- 
gomery who  knew  of  his  work  with  Jim  Walter,  and  Mr.  Hawkins 
thought  this  was  his  only  employment  or  connection,  had  no  knowl- 
edge of  any  Klan  affiliation,  and  had  he  known  it,  Mr.  Hawkins  states, 
they  never  would  have  hired  Mr.  Roton.  He  was  hired  temporarily. 
He  worked  on  a  particular  assignment  for  some  6  months  or  so  for  the 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3203 

Alabama  Legislative  Commission  To  Preserve  The  Peace.  At  no 
time  did  they  have  any  know]edg:e  of  his  Klan  affiliation.  Mr.  Haw- 
kins has  requested,  Mr.  Chairman,  and  I  would  like  to  request,  that 
he  write  us  to  this  effect  and  that  that  be  included  in  the  record  of 
the  proceedings. 

Mr.  Pool.  If  there  is  no  objection,  it  will  be  printed  in  the  record 
at  this  point. 

(Mr.  Hawkins'  letter  dated  February  9,  1966,  marked  "Ralph 
Roton  Exhibit  No.  1."   The  letter  follows :) 

Ralph  Roton  Exhibit  No.  1 


Alabama  Legislative  Commission  To  Preserve  The  Peace 

ROOM    332   STATE   CAPITOL 
MONTGOMERY,   ALABAMA 


rrtr-rrEiotiM  iMi  ivt  jui-irN  1-1.   i-i«yYiMiN3  ^  i  ^^  ^  EDWI N  STRICKLAND 

CHAIRMAN  February   9>    1966  staff  director 

SENATOR  JAMES  S.  CLARK  MRS.  MAVIS  HICKS 

SENATOR  E.  O.  EDDINS 
REPRESENTATIVE  ALTON  TURNER 
REPRESENTATIVE  HUGH  A.  LOCKE 

Hon.  John  Buchanan >  R-.41a. 
U  .  S.  House  of  hepres?ntatives 
House  Office  Building 
Washington!  D.  C. 

Dear  Congressman  "^uch-^nan: 

In  accordance  v;ith  our  convars&tion,  I  w  nt  to  clarify  th-i 
matter  of  tastirnony  of  ivilph  "-oton,  v.'ho  h  £  bj^n  a  vltness  before 
your  co.iTiiittes. 

i'lr.  AOton,  a  free-lsnce  photographer,  was  e.Tiplo:  ed  by  the  'com- 
mission in  fiay,  1963  >  and  his  employment  was  terminated  in  October, 
1963o  i'lnal  payment  for  his  services  and  for  equipment  he  had  pur- 
chased, was  made  in  January,  I964. 

During  his  services,  i-lr.  Roton  did  not  do  any  investigative  work 
other  than  making  some  tape  recordings  and  photographs.  He  at  no 
time  has  had  any  access  to  confidential  files  of  the  Coramiscion. 
vv  e  did  not  know  at  any  time  during  his  rervice  that  he  had  any  con- 
nection vd.th  the  KKK.  Had  we  Known  of  such  connection,  his  services 
would  not  have  been  used. 

Sincerely 


John  K.  Hawkins,  Jr; 
Chairman 


3204  ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S. 

Mr.  Pool.  All  right,  Mr.  Appell,  proceed. 

TESTIMONY  OF  RALPH  RAY  ROTON— Resumed 

Mr.  Appell.  Mr.  Roton,  how  long,  in  fact,  were  you  employed  by 
the  Commission  To  Preserve  The  Peace  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  It  was  approximately  6  months'  total.  I  would  say,  sir, 
there  was  quite  a  few  times  that  it  was  2  or  3  days  at  a  time  gathering 
information. 

Mr.  Appell.  Well,  will  you  explain  to  us  the  conditions  of  your 
employment?  You  say  2  or  3  days  at  a  time  gathering  information. 
Were  you  on  a  free-lance  assignment  to  gather  information  as  you 
came  upon  it  and  then  turn  it  over  to  the  commission,  or  were  you 
employed — what  were  the  conditions  of  your  employment? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Sir,  I  guess  you  could  say  it  was  more  or  less  a  con- 
tractual agreement.  There  was  nothing  ever  in  writing  and  I  did 
specific  work  for  Mr.  Hawkins  under  his  direct  supervision.  Of  course, 
being  in  the  business  yourself,  things  come  up  from  time  to  time  that 
you  will  get  an  assignment,  short  coverage,  and  go  perform  the  assign- 
ment and  bring  the  information  back. 

Mr.  Appell.  Wliat  was  your  rate  of  compensation  as  an  employee  of 
the  commission  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  That  never  did  come  to  pass,  sir,  as  to  where  I  was  ever 
paid  any  salary.  I  furnished  expenses  and  came  to  an  agreement  at 
the  end  that  I  never  did  quite  receive  all  my  expenses  that  I  paid  while 
doing  this  work  from  the  State  of  Alabama.  You  couldn't  classify 
as  salary. 

Mr.  Appell.  Well,  did  you  have  a  contract  that  you  were  going  to 
be  reimbursed  at  a  certain  rate  of  pay  per  day,  upon  a  per  diem  basis, 
or  under  any  kind  of  agreement  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  have  any  source  of  income  other  than  what  in- 
come you  received  from  the  commission  at  that  time? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Some  of  this  w^ork  w^as  done  while  I  was  still  employed 
with  this  company,  sir,  and  for  approximately  21/2  months  there  I 
didn't  have  any  other,  just  money  from  this  commission  here.  How- 
ever, it  was  held  up  until  the  funds  were  appropriated. 

Mr.  Appell.  Can  you  explain  to  the  committee  how  you  could  be 
employed  by  Jim  Walter  Corporation  and  carry  on  investigative  func- 
tions for  the  legislative  commission  both  at  the  same  time  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Sir,  when  I  went  full  time  with  them  was  in  August 
'63,  after  I  resigned  from  the  corporation  which  we  specified  before 
and,  as  I  told  you  before,  I  was  only  required  to  work  a  number  of 
hours  a  day  with  this  company. 

Mr.  Pool.  Talk  a  little  louder. 

Mr.  RoTON.  And  after  the  normal  duty  hours,  I  did  perform  these 
extra  duties  for  Mr.  Hawkins. 

Mr.  Appell.  You  resigned  from  Jim  Walter  Corporation  in  August 
of  1963?  f  & 

Mr.  Roton.  Correct, sir? 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  have  any  source  of  income  between  August  of 
1963  and  January  1,  1964,  other  than  income  you  received  from  the 
commission  ? 


ACTIVITIES    OF    KU    KLUX    KLAN    IN    THE    U.S.  3205 

Mr.  RoTON.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  None  whatsoever  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  You  testified  this  morning  that  you  incurred  expenses 
out  of  your  own  pocket  for  which  you  waited  for  reimbursement. 

Mr.  RoTON.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  Would  you  enumerate  to  the  committee  some  of  the 
out-of-pocket  expense  that  you  incurred  and  the  amount  of  this  out- 
of-pocket  expense  that  you  incurred  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Do  you  mean  the  trips  ? 

Mr.  Appell.  Well,  trips,  purchase  of  equipment,  film,  cameras,  or 
anything  else. 

Mr.  RoTON.  Well,  sir,  I  did  buy  some  equipment  for  the  commission 
and  equipment  that  would  be  needed  to  perform  those  duties. 

Mr.  Appell.  Did  you  make  this  determination  of  the  equipment 
needed,  or  did  someone  on  the  commission  make  the  determination? 

Mr.  RoTON.  They  furnished  a  part  of  the  equipment,  and  I  pur- 
chased more  and  it  was  between 

Mr.  Appell.  What  did  they  furnish  and  what  did  you  purchase? 

Mr.  RoTON.  I  think  I  purchased  two  or  three  cameras. 

Mr.  Appell.  This  is  what  you  purchased  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  All  right,  sir. 

Mr.  RoTON.  Two  tape  recorders. 

Mr.  Appell.  Two  of  them  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Yes,  sir ;  an  FM  radio.  This  was  of  the  low  frequency 
band  for  police  and  radio  calls. 

Mr.  Appell.  Why  did  you  need  that  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  To  monitor  calls,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  To  monitor  police  calls  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Appell.  How  did  that  assist  you  in  your  investigative  function 
in  behalf  of  the  commission  ? 

Mr.  RoTON.  To  answer  certain  calls.  It  might  be  a  civil  disturbance, 
as  well  as  to  take  pictures  of  it  and  turn  them  over  to  the  commission. 

Mr.  Appell.  You  were  on  a  24-hour  assignment  for  the  commission  ? 
I  thought  you  just  worked  a  couple  days  here  and  a  couple  days  there. 

Mr.  RoTON.  Well, 

Mr.  Appell.  When  did  you  go  full  time  \ 

Mr.  RoTON.  In  August. 

Mr.  Appell.  And  in  August  of  1963  you  went  full  time  with  them, 
but  you  had  no  agreement  with  respect  to  salary? 

Mr.  RoTON.  That  was  to  be  worked  out  as  soon  as  the  first  commit- 
tee meeting  was  to  be  held.  It  was  a  new  committee,  sir,  and  the  funds 
were  not  appropriated.    However,  as  you  remember 

Mr.  Appell.  Wliat  was  eventually  worked  out? 

Mr.  RoTON.  That  I  just  received  the  expenses  that  I  had  incurred 
so  far. 

Mr.  Appell.  Were  you  directed  to  purchase  a  low  frequency  FM 
transmitter  or  radio  for  the  purpose  of  monitoring  police  calls? 

Mr.  RoTON.  I  was  not  required  to,  sir,  but  Mr.  Hawkins  had  one  in 
his  car  and  he  told  me  that  it  would  be  good  if  I  had  one,  and  I  pur- 
chased one  to